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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Temporal range: Early Eocene–recent
Crevalle jack, Caranx hippos
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Carangiformes
Family: Carangidae
Rafinesque, 1815

See text

The Carangidae are a family of ray-finned fish that includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, runners, trevallies, and scads. It is the largest of the six families included within the order Carangiformes. Some authorities classify it as the only family within that order but molecular and anatomical studies indicate that there is a close relationship between this family and the five former Perciform families which make up the Carangiformes.[1]

They are marine fishes found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Most species are fast-swimming predatory fishes that hunt in the waters above reefs and in the open sea; some dig in the sea floor for invertebrates.[2]

The largest fish in the family, the greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, grows up to 2 m in length; most fish in the family reach a maximum length of 25–100 cm.

The family contains many important commercial and game fish, notably the Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, and the other jack mackerels in the genus Trachurus.[2]

Many genera have fairly extensive fossil records, particularly Caranx and Seriola, which extend into the early Paleogene (late Thanetian), and are known from whole and incomplete specimens, skeletal fragments, and otoliths. The several extinct genera include Archaeus, Pseudovomer, and Eastmanalepes.

Subfamilies and genera[edit]

Ceratoichthys, a bizarre extinct carangid in the subfamily Vomeropsinae

The family Carangidae is subdivided into the following subfamilies and genera:[1][3]

See also[edit]

There are a great many fish called trevallies, most of which belong to the Carangidae. For articles on them, see All pages with titles containing Trevally.


  1. ^ a b J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 380–387. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6. Archived from the original on 2019-04-08. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2019). "Carangidae" in FishBase. August 2019 version.
  3. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Genera in the family Carangidae". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  4. ^ Bannikov, A. F.; Erebakan, I. G. (2023-04-01). "A New Species of Horse Mackerel Fish of the Genus Archaeus (Carangidae, Percomorpha) from the Lower Oligocene of the North Caucasus". Paleontological Journal. 57 (2): 199–205. doi:10.1134/S0031030123020041. ISSN 1555-6174.
  5. ^ Taverne, Louis; Simaeys, Stefaan van; Steurbaut, Etienne (2006). "Belgocaranx luypaertsi gen. and sp. nov., a new skeleton-based Carangid Fish from the Boom Clay (Rupelian, Early Oligocene) at Kallo (N. Belgium)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique - Bulletin van het Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen. 76: 119–130.
  6. ^ Bannikov, Alexander (2009). Fossil Vertebrates of Russia and Adjacent Countries. Fossil Acanthopterygians Fishes (Teleostei, Acanthopterygii) (in Russian). GEOS, Moscow.
  7. ^ a b c d Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1. PMID 25543675.
  8. ^ Bannikov, Alexander (1995). "A NEW MIDDLE EOCENE GENUS OF CARANGID FISHES (PERCIFORMES) FROM THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS" (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 29 (2).
  9. ^ Bannikov, Alexander F. (1984). "The New Subfamily of Carangid Fishes". Studi e ricerche sui giacimenti terziari di Bolca. IV: 319–321.