Carbadox

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Carbadox
Carbadox.svg
Names
IUPAC name
methyl (2E)-2-[(1,4-dioxidoquinoxalin-2-yl)methylene]hydrazinecarboxylate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.027.163
EC Number 229-879-0
RTECS number FE2779000
UNII
Properties
C11H10N4O4
Molar mass 262.22 g/mol
Appearance Yellow crystals
Density 1.44 g/cm3
Melting point 239.5 °C
Insoluble
Hazards
F, T
R/S statement (outdated) R: R45, R11, R22
S: S53, S45
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Carbadox is a veterinary drug that combats bacterial infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. In early 2004, it was banned by the Canadian government as a livestock feed additive and for human consumption, since it is carcinogenic and induces birth defects, as was shown in animal experiments.[1][failed verification] The European Union also forbids the use of carbadox at any level.[2] It is approved in the United States for use in swine for up to 42 days before slaughter,[3] but in 2016, the United States Food and Drug Administration moved to ban its use in pork, citing a potential cancer risk to humans.[4] However, as of August 2018, FDA had indefinitely stayed its withdrawal of approval and carbadox remains available. [5] Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing animals.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maximum Residue Limits, Health Canada, retrieved 2010-07-27
  2. ^ Ungemach, Fritz R. "WHO Food Additives Series: 51 CARBADOX (addendum)". WHO Food Additives Series. INCHEM. Retrieved 23 Mar 2015.
  3. ^ "21CFR 558.115". Code of Federal Regulations. FDA. 1 Apr 2014. Retrieved 23 Mar 2015.
  4. ^ Fox, Maggie. "FDA Moves to Ban Cancer-Causing Pork Antibiotic". NBC News. Retrieved 9 Apr 2016.
  5. ^ "10-K: PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH CORP". MarketWatch. Retrieved 3 Jul 2019.
  6. ^ Substances Not Permitted for use on Food-Producing Animals in Australia, Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, retrieved 2010-08-31