Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone

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Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone
Stalevo.jpg
Combination of
CarbidopaDOPA decarboxylase inhibitor
Levodopadopamine precursor
Entacaponecatechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor
Clinical data
Trade namesStalevo, Corbilta, Carlevent
AHFS/Drugs.comProfessional Drug Facts
MedlinePlusa601068
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3[1]
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)[1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only) [2]
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
  • none
KEGG
  (verify)

Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone, sold under the brand name Stalevo among others, is a dopaminergic combination medication that contains carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[3] It is marketed by Swiss-based Novartis Pharmaceuticals and manufactured by Finnish drugmaker Orion Corporation.[3]

Medical uses[edit]

Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2003, to treat adults with Parkinson's disease of unknown cause in two scenarios. First, to substitute with equivalent strength of each of the three components for immediate-release carbidopa/levodopa and entacapone previously administered as individual products. Second, to replace immediate-release carbidopa/levodopa therapy (without entacapone) when people experience the signs and symptoms of end-of-dose "wearing-off" but only for people taking a total daily dose of levodopa of 600 mg or less and not experiencing dyskinesias.[4]

It may help decrease a change of response to Parkinson's medications.[5]

In the EU it is indicated for the treatment of adults with Parkinson's disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations not stabilized on levodopa/dopa decarboxylase (DDC) inhibitor treatment.[6]

Side effects[edit]

Sometimes a wearing off effect may occur at the end of the dosing interval, where a patient may feel Parkinson's symptoms. Urine, saliva, or sweat may be discolored (dark color such as red, brown, or black) after taking carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone.[7]

Prostate cancer[edit]

On March 31, 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated it was evaluating long-term clinical data from STRIDE-PD which found that a greater number of patients taking Stalevo had prostate cancer compared to those taking carbidopa/levodopa.[8] Other controlled clinical trials evaluating carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone or entacapone did not find an increased risk of prostate cancer. FDA is still reviewing the available information and has not concluded that carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone increases the risk of developing prostate cancer. Healthcare professionals were advised to be aware of this possible risk and follow current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. FDA recommended that healthcare professionals follow the recommendations in the drug label when prescribing carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone and Comtan. Patients were directed to not stop taking their medication unless directed to do so by their healthcare professional.[9]

Cardiovascular risks[edit]

On August 20, 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration stated meta-analysis of several studies "appeared to show an increase in the risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death for people taking the drug" but also stated "findings were not clear."[10] Heart problems are not uncommon in Parkinson's patients and the FDA will investigate the concerns.

Drug interactions[edit]

Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone is contraindicated in patients taking a class of antidepressant drugs known as non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine.[11] Combining carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone with these drugs could cause serious—possibly life-threatening—side effects. MAO inhibitors should be stopped at least two weeks before starting therapy with carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone.

Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone may be combined with the drugs rasagiline or selegiline. These drugs are a different type of MAO inhibitor known as selective MAO inhibitors that are often prescribed for Parkinson's disease.[7] Many drug interactions involving selegiline are theoretical, primarily based on interactions with non-selective MAO inhibitors; at oral doses the risk of these interactions may be very low. However, transdermal selegiline, known by its trade name Emsam, is still contraindicated.[11] Transdermal selegiline results in higher plasma levels at which it behaves like a non-selective MAO inhibitor. Concominant use of entacapone, a component of carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone, with MAO inhibitors may increase toxicity of MAO inhibitors. Levodopa, also a component of carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone, in combination with MAO inhibitors may result in hypertensive reactions.[12]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Levodopa is the immediate precursor to dopamine. Entacapone is a selective, reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor that prevents the degradation of levodopa. Entacapone does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Carbidopa is a peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitor. Carbidopa, which also does not cross the blood–brain barrier, is combined with levodopa to prevent its conversion to dopamine in the periphery.[4]

Society and culture[edit]

Extension[edit]

As of 2010, applications for extending the indication of carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone to people requiring initiation of levodopa therapy have been under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), based on the favorable results from FIRST-STEP, a study conducted in North America and Europe by Novartis from 2005, to 2007 (see below).[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Carbidopa / entacapone / levodopa Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Stalevo 100 mg/25 mg/200 mg Film-coated Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 9 September 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Stalevo- carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone tablet, film coated". DailyMed. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b Drug Reference for FDA Approved Parkinson's Disease Drugs Retrieved 2010-4-1
  5. ^ Salat D, Tolosa E (January 2013). "Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: current status and new developments". Journal of Parkinson's Disease. 3 (3): 255–69. doi:10.3233/JPD-130186. PMID 23948989.
  6. ^ "Stalevo EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  7. ^ a b Stalevo patient advice including side effects - Drugs.com Retrieved 2010-4-2
  8. ^ FDA evaluating cancer link in Parkinson's drug Retrieved 2010-3-31
  9. ^ Stalevo (entacapone/carbidopa/levodopa): Ongoing Safety Review Retrieved on 2010-4-2
  10. ^ FDA to review heart risks of Parkinson's drug Retrieved 2010-8-20
  11. ^ a b Stalevo Drug Interactions - ePocrates Online Retrieved 2010-4-2
  12. ^ Leikin JB, Paloucek FP (2007). Poisoning and toxicology handbook (4th ed.). Informa Health Care. p. 610. ISBN 978-1-4200-4479-9.
  13. ^ Orion: Primary objective of STRIDE-PD study was not achieved Retrieved 2010-3-31

External links[edit]