Carbohydrate chemistry

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Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.

Monosaccharides[edit]

Individual saccharide residues are termed monosaccharides.

Carbohydrate synthesis[edit]

Glycosidic bond formation[edit]

Protecting groups[edit]

Oligosaccharides[edit]

Reactions of carbohydrates[edit]

Carbohydrates are reactants in many organic reactions. For example:

Functions of carbohydrates[edit]

Carbohydrates have five major functions within the body:

  1. Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucose
  2. Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energy
  3. Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acids
  4. Cellular and recognition
  5. Dietary fiber

Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucose[edit]

Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energy[edit]

Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acids[edit]

Cellular and protein recognition[edit]

Glycoprotein hormones may be removed by the liver from the bloodstream when the passage of time causes the breaking-off of carbohydrates from the glycoproteins.[citation needed]

Dietary fiber[edit]

See also[edit]

Carbohydrate Structure[edit]

Carbohydrate function & Biology[edit]

References[edit]