Carbonic anhydrase VI

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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases CA6, CA-VI, GUSTIN, carbonic anhydrase 6
External IDs MGI: 1333786 HomoloGene: 20324 GeneCards: CA6
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 1 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 1 (human)[1]
Chromosome 1 (human)
Genomic location for CA6
Genomic location for CA6
Band 1p36.23 Start 8,945,867 bp[1]
End 8,975,092 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CA6 206873 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 1: 8.95 – 8.98 Mb Chr 1: 150.19 – 150.2 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Carbonic anhydrase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA6 gene.[5][6] It is also called 'gustin' because of its presence in saliva, and lower-than-normal levels of salivary zinc in individuals with hypogeusia.[7][8]


The protein encoded by this gene is one of several isozymes of carbonic anhydrase. This protein is abundantly found in salivary glands and saliva and protein may play a role in the reversible hydratation of carbon dioxide, though its function in saliva is unknown.[6]

It has been suggested that CA VI participates in the maintenance of appropriate pH homeostasis on tooth surfaces as well as in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal canal.


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000131686 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028972 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ White PS, Jensen SJ, Rajalingam V, Stairs D, Sulman EP, Maris JM, Biegel JA, Wooster R, Brodeur GM (Oct 1998). "Physical mapping of the CA6, ENO1, and SLC2A5 (GLUT5) genes and reassignment of SLC2A5 to 1p36.2". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 81 (1): 60–4. doi:10.1159/000014989. PMID 9691177. 
  6. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CA6 carbonic anhydrase VI". 
  7. ^ Henkin RI, Mueller CW, Wolf RO (July 1975). "Estimation of zinc concentration of parotid saliva by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in normal subjects and in patients with idiopathic hypogeusia". The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 86 (1): 175–80. PMID 1151138. 
  8. ^ Henkin RI, Lippoldt RE, Bilstad J, Edelhoch H (February 1975). "A zinc protein isolated from human parotid saliva". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 72 (2): 488–92. PMC 432337Freely accessible. PMID 1054831. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Nishimori I, FujikawaAdachi K, Onishi S, Hollingsworth MA (June 1999). "Carbonic anhydrase in human pancreas: hypotheses for the pathophysiological roles of CA isozymes". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 880: 5–16. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09505.x. PMID 10415846. 
  • Kivela J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Leinonen J, Rajaniemi H (October 1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI". The Journal of Physiology. 520 Pt 2: 315–20. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.t01-1-00315.x. PMC 2269599Freely accessible. PMID 10523402. 
  • Nishimori I, Onishi S (2001). "Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas". Digestive and Liver Disease. 33 (1): 68–74. doi:10.1016/s1590-8658(01)80138-9. PMID 11303978. 
  • Breton S (July 2001). "The cellular physiology of carbonic anhydrases". Jop. 2 (4 Suppl): 159–64. PMID 11875253. 
  • Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow JD, Wright RD, Coghlan JP, Fernley RT (January 1991). "Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry". Biochemistry. 30 (2): 569–75. doi:10.1021/bi00216a035. PMID 1899030. 
  • Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Rajaniemi L, Kumpulainen T, Jokinen K, Rajaniemi H (July 1990). "Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes VI, II, and I in human parotid and submandibular glands". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 38 (7): 941–7. doi:10.1177/38.7.2113069. PMID 2113069. 
  • Murakami H, Sly WS (January 1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (3): 1382–8. PMID 2433278. 
  • Sutherland GR, Baker E, Fernandez KE, Callen DF, Aldred P, Coghlan JP, Wright RD, Fernley RT (1989). "The gene for human carbonic anhydrase VI(CA6) is on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 50 (2-3): 149–50. doi:10.1159/000132746. PMID 2505973. 
  • Ogawa Y, Hong SS, Toyosawa S, Kuwahara H, Shimazaki M, Yagi T (March 1993). "Immunoelectron microscopy of carbonic anhydrase isozyme VI in human submandibular gland: comparison with isozymes I and II". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 41 (3): 343–51. doi:10.1177/41.3.8429198. PMID 8429198. 
  • Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila AK, Sly WS, Rajaniemi H (December 1997). "Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA VI) in human serum". Clinical Chemistry. 43 (12): 2318–22. PMID 9439449. 
  • Thatcher BJ, Doherty AE, Orvisky E, Martin BM, Henkin RI (September 1998). "Gustin from human parotid saliva is carbonic anhydrase VI". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 250 (3): 635–41. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9356. PMID 9784398. 
  • Leinonen J, Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Rajaniemi H (1999). "Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI is located in the human enamel pellicle". Caries Research. 33 (3): 185–90. doi:10.1159/000016515. PMID 10207193. 
  • Redman RS, Peagler FD, Johansson I (March 2000). "Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrases I, II, and VI in the developing rat sublingual and submandibular glands". The Anatomical Record. 258 (3): 269–76. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(20000301)258:3<269::AID-AR6>3.0.CO;2-Y. PMID 10705347. 
  • Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Koivunen P, Rajaniemi H (May 2001). "Secretion of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) from human and rat lingual serous von Ebner's glands". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 49 (5): 657–62. doi:10.1177/002215540104900513. PMID 11304804. 
  • Karhumaa P, Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Tapanainen J, Rajaniemi H (September 2001). "The identification of secreted carbonic anhydrase VI as a constitutive glycoprotein of human and rat milk". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (20): 11604–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.121172598. PMC 58776Freely accessible. PMID 11553764.