Carbonite (online backup)
Carbonite (NASDAQ: CARB) is an online backup service, available to Windows and macOS users, that backs up documents, e-mails, music, photos, and settings. It is named after carbonite, the fictional substance used to freeze Han Solo in Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. It was the first such service to offer unlimited backup space for a fixed price. Previously, all online backup services were priced by the gigabyte; many other vendors[which?] have since changed to an unlimited model.
Carbonite offers two separate lines of products: Carbonite Home and Home Office for individuals, families, and one- or two-person businesses; and Carbonite Small Business for businesses with three or more computers.
Carbonite was named "Best Windows Backup Tool" by Lifehacker, "Labs Winner" by PC Pro, "Editor's Choice" by NextAdvisor, Hottest Boston Company by Lead411, but received only "two mice" in a MacWorld review putting it second to last.
Carbonite Online Backup installs a client software program (Windows and Mac operating systems only, Linux-based systems are not supported) on the user’s computer that operates continuously in the background. This client software automatically seeks out new and changed files on the user’s computer and backs them up using incremental backup. Each file is compressed and encrypted using a 128-bit Blowfish encryption before it is sent to remote servers at the company's data centers via the Internet. (This of course requires that the user's computer be continually connected to the internet, and the speed of the internet connection will impact system performance.) Data is transmitted to the servers using a secure SSL link. The encrypted files are stored on 15-drive RAID 6 storage arrays. The client software also provides de-duplication at the bit level only. Thus files moved to a new drive will be backed up twice.
The program is designed to automatically back up user-generated content including text documents, spreadsheets, financial documents, photos, music, etc. The 2017 PC Magazine review found that a few audio files and photos were omitted from the backup without obvious reason. Videos and files larger than 4 gb require manual backup in the base-priced version. The Terms allow Carbonite to release information to law enforcement upon demand or if Carbonite suspects illegal use. This would help law enforcement if Carbonite can give them the encryption key, which they can for all Mac and most Windows users. Windows users can manage their own key by selecting "Advanced" during installation. Users cannot make the key private later if they initially let Carbonite manage it. If Carbonite manages the key, users can download files to any computer. If the user manages the key, user can only access files from the backed up computer (File Explorer/This PC/Carbonite Drive), and if that computer is inaccessible, the user must upload and let Carbonite manage the key before accessing the backed up files from another computer.
The Terms let Carbonite delete files with or without notice, but normally they keep the three most recent versions, and one version per day for the past week, one per week for 3 weeks before that, and 1 per month for 2 and 3 months ago. They also delete files which were deleted by the user more than 30 days before, or when payment ends. Carbonite offers telephone support to recover from ransomware viruses. Terms also disclaim any warranties and damages, require arbitration in Boston, and disallow class action suits. Terms require users to pay (indemnify) Carbonite's losses if they relate to improper actions by the user.
On a Windows PC, Carbonite backs up everything in the Documents and Settings folder, including the desktop, favorites, and all other files except for temporary, log and video files. Any file or folder can be added to the default backup if it is on a local (internal) drive formatted with the FAT32 or NTFS file systems. (According to the Carbonite website, the Home version will only backup internal drives whereas the HomePlus and HomePremium versions will also backup external drives.) The backup software integrates with Windows Explorer, adding green dots to the file icons of any backed up file. Adding or removing files from the backup is done using the right mouse button and the Windows context menus. The Windows version of Carbonite will keep multiple versions of backed up files.
For Intel-based Macs running Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger) or 10.5 (Leopard), Carbonite is controlled through System Preferences and using the contextual menu. File systems supported 'by default' on Mac OS X are supported by the Mac client with the exception of FAT. Note that Carbonite is not fully compatible with Lion, consuming around 100% CPU during backup.
CEO David Friend and CTO Jeff Flowers founded Carbonite in 2005, the fifth joint venture for the pair who also together founded Computer Pictures, Pilot Software, FaxNet and Sonexis. Friend had also been an executive at ARP Instruments, Inc., a pioneering electronic music synthesizer manufacturer, in the 1970s.
Since its launch in 2006, Carbonite has backed up more than 100 billion files and has restored more than 7 billion lost files for its customers.
Carbonite introduced their Macintosh version for Intel-based Macs with OS 10.4 or 10.5 in March 2009.
In 2017, Carbonite acquired Mozy, a cloud based backup solution from Dell Technologies for $145.8 million.
The product debuted at Staples in 2006 when it focused on photo backup and offered a free six-month subscription with all camera purchases. It partnered with Microsoft in 2006 to include the program with purchase of Microsoft Money 2007. and renewed the following year for the 2008
In 2007 it was named ‘Top Private Company’ by AlwaysOn in 2007.
It has partnered with several other backup, storage, and file transfer companies: with Ipswitch,Inc. in 2007 to provide the service to purchasers of their FTP client, OLBEX in 2007 to offer the service to U.S. cable companies, Sonic Solutions in 2008 to provide core technologies for their digital media storage solution, and with TDS Telecom in 2008 to provide core technologies for their online backup service, and with LaCie in 2008,to power their online backup. It partnered with Lifeboat Distribution in 2008, to enhance distribution coverage within North America.
It partnered with Packard Bell in 2008, the first partnership between an independent online backup company and major PC manufacturer, providing all purchasers of their desktop and notepad computers in Europe a free four-month subscription. It subsequently partnered also with Lenovo in 2008, to have the service pre-loaded on their PCs, and with Acer to have their online backup service pre-installed on select PCs. Acer  signed on for a similar arrangement in 2009.
In 2009, it admitted loss of backups of "over 7,500 customers" in a lawsuit filed against Promise Technology, a hardware provider.
On June 6, 2011, Carbonite acquired Phanfare. Carbonite declined to honor Phanfare lifetime memberships, instead granting lifetime members $299 in Phanfare credit which would expire after three years if unused. Two days later, Phanfare founder and CEO, Andrew Erlichson notified lifetime subscribers that customers requesting a refund will be paid not by Carbonite, but what remains of Phanfare, Inc.
In 2006, it secured $2.5 million in series A financing from 3i, Keiretsu Forum and CommonAngels; in 2007 it completed $15 million series B financing led by Menlo Ventures. in 2008 it secured additional $5 million in series B-2 funding and completed C round financing with approximately $20 million of new capital, led by Performance Equity of Stamford, Connecticut; in 2010 it closed a mezzanine round of funding with the total financing raised to $67 million. Carbonite made its IPO in August 2011, raising $62.5 million in its offering. On 4 Feb 2013, Carbonite announced that its net loss for the full year 2012 was ($18.9) million, compared to ($23.5) million in 2011. Since its inception in 2005, NASDAQ:CARB has lost in excess of ($120,000,000) of public and private investment. The company's SEC financial reports state: "We expect to continue to incur GAAP operating losses on an annual basis for the foreseeable future"
Amazon review controversy
Carbonite reviews on Amazon were a subject of controversy in early 2009. Apparently, employees of the company posted favorable testimonial-style ads on Amazon in 2006, including those by senior members of the management team. Additionally, the New York Times reported that the CEO was made aware of the situation in September 2008 but did nothing to remove the false postings until the NY Times blog appeared in January 2009.
Misleading advertising controversy
The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in the United Kingdom ruled on August 1, 2012, that Carbonite had misled consumers by describing its online backup as unlimited. Following a complaint, the ASA investigated and found that due to bandwidth restrictions for uploading data, which limit upload to 2 Mbit/s for the first 200 GB but then to only 100 kbit/s once 200 GB had been exceeded, the backup was not unlimited. Therefore, the advert was "likely to mislead consumers".
Carbonite states they have eliminated bandwidth throttling for all of their customers.
- version 1.4 (late 2005) of Carbonite Photo Backup
- version 2.0 (May 2006) Carbonite Unlimited Backup 
- version 2.1 (February 2007) with added support for Windows Vista
- version 2.3 (June 2007) with added block-level incremental backup
- Launch (2007) of Online Backup Service in French and German
- version 3.0 (August 2007) with added online backup simplification processes
- version 3.5 (January 2008) with enhanced user controls and saving up to three months of previous file versions
- Launches (2008) Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and Japanese versions
- version 3.6 (June 2008) with improved backup speed for large files and other performance enhancements
- version 3.7 (March 2009) with user-requested enhancements
- Adds remote file access (2009) 
- Launches (2009) Carbonite Online Backup for Intel-based Macs with OS 10.4 or 10.5 in March 2009
- version 4.0 ( September 2010)
- Releases iPad app and updates for iPhone and BlackBerry apps
- Launches (2011) Carbonite Small Business offering
- "Carbonite – Boston MA – Inc 500 Fastest Growing Companies 2011". Inc. 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
- Muchmore, Michael (2008-04-04). "Carbonite Online PCBackup". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Review". Revuezzle. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- "Home & Home Office or Small Business: Which is right for you?". Carbonite. 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Pash, Adam (2008-09-21). "Best of the Best: The Hive Five Winners". Lifehacker. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Online Backup Service Reviews". NextAdvisor.com. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Lead411 "Hottest Boston Companies" awards". Lead411.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-04. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
- Fleishman, Glenn (2009-09-07). "Online backup services". Macworld. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
- "It's time to move from a disk-to-tape to a disk-to-cloud backup strategy". ITCloudWorks. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- "Carbonite Online backup". PC Authority. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Storage Tip: A simple backup for single drives". IT World. 2007-05-25. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Muchmore, Michael, and Ben Moore (2017-11-13). "Carbonite, Editors' Rating: 3.50 GOOD". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- Fisher, Tim (2018-01-03). "A Full Review of Carbonite, an Cloud Backup Service". Lifewire. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "Product Terms of Service". www.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "DATA SECURITY AND ENCRYPTION". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "Managing Your Private Encryption Key for Carbonite Safe". support.carbonite.com. "To manage your encryption key, select the Advanced Settings ... during the initial installation". Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- "Anytime Anywhere Access for Carbonite Safe". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "Accessing the Carbonite Backup Drive through File/Windows Explorer". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- "Encryption Keys and Carbonite Features for Carbonite Safe". support.carbonite.com. "access your files remotely from any computer with internet access. Carbonite needs to be managing your encryption key to be able to use this feature". Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- "Restoring Previous File Versions". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "CryptoLocker / Crypto Virus & Other Ransomware". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- "Carbonite 3.5 online backup review". PC Advisor. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Test and Review of Carbonite Online Backup". PC Backup Review. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Restoring Previous File Versions". Carbonite. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
- "CryptoLocker / Crypto Virus". Carbonite. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
- "Online Backup Providers Add Mac Support". Byte and Switch. 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Integrates Remote Access to Online Backup Solution". IT Backbones. 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "MIT World Speakers". MIT World. 2006-06-07. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- McLaughlin, Tim (2011-05-12). "Carbonite calls for backup: files $100M IPO". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
- "Online Backup Providers Add Mac Support". PC Magazine. 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Announces Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2017 Financial Results, FY 2017 Revenue Growth of 16% with Expanding Profitability, Announces Agreement to Acquire Mozy, Inc. from Dell Technologies Inc". Carbonite. 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- "Startup Gains $2.5M Backup". Red Herring. 2006-02-23. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Before You Buy Microsoft Money 2007". About.com. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Microsoft Money Plus Premium and Home & Business Features". About.com. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "AlwaysOn Announces Top 100 Private Companies in Northeast". Business Wire. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Partners with Ipswitch on Consumer Online Backup". Online Backup Reviews. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite collects $5M, eyes public offering". San Francisco Business Times. 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2009-04-23.[dead link]
- "Roxio Launches BackOnTrack Online". Reuters. 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Announces Agreement With TDSe". Byte and Switch. 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2009-04-23.[dead link]
- "LaCie and Carbonite Partner to Offer Free Online Backup". On Storage. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Top 10 Storage Startups to Watch". Byte and Switch. 2008-07-15. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Announces Virtualization Partnership Agreement with Lifeboat Distribution". Virtualization Journal. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Online Backup to be Bundled with Lenovo PCs in Australia/NZ". PC World. 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Acer Adds 30-day Trial of Carbonite Online Backup Service to Select Acer PCs Shipping to U.S..." Forbes. 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-04-23.[dead link]
- Weisman, Robert (21 March 2009). "Data backup firm sues 2 hardware suppliers". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- George, Kendall. "Newsflash: Phanfare Sucks Again". Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- George, Kendall. "Phanfare Update: Sucking Less, Again". Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- "Startup Gains $2.5M Backup". Red Herring. 2006-02-22. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Raises $15 Million for Online Backup Service". Converge!. 2007-05-07. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Announces C Round Financing". Reuters. 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite announces $20 million in new funding". Boston.com. January 8, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
- Rusli, Evelyn M. (2011-08-11). "No LinkedIn Pop, but Carbonite Still Climbs 23% in Debut". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Folger, Anthony (2017-08-07). "Carbonite, Inc.: Form 10-Q". NASDAQ. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
- "These reviews are pretty fishy..." Amazon. 2007-02-01. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Pogue, David (2009-01-29). "Carbonite Stacks the Deck on Amazon". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- "Cloud storage provider rapped by ASA for "misleading" ads". www.ITPro.co.uk. 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- "Carbonite disputes ASA censure of cloud storage ads". www.theregister.co.uk. 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- "ASA Adjudication on Carbonite Inc". www.asa.org.uk/. 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- "Bandwidth Allocation". carbonite.com. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
- "Online Digital Photo Backup from Carbonite Debuts at Staples". Digital ImageMaker. 2006-01-16. Retrieved 2009-04-23.[dead link]
- "Carbonite Online PC Backup 2.0.193". cnet. 2006-07-05. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Online PCBackup". Soft Sea. 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Upgrades Its Online Storage Service". eWeek. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "How About Online Backup?". Connected Home Media. 2007-09-19. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite 3.5 online backup review". PC Advisor. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Appoints Draque as Spanish Publisher & Releases Spanish Version of Online..." Reuters. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite Release 3.7 Features Enhancements Suggested by Carbonite User Base". PC World. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Carbonite launches remote access feature". PC Advisor. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Wilson, Jeffrey L. (2011-03-17). "Carbonite Releases iPad App, Updates iPhone and BlackBerry Apps". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- "Carbonite Introduces New Small Business Online Backup". Online Backup Deals. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2011-10-19.