|Location||Archiestown, Moray, Scotland|
Cardhu is a Speyside distillery near Archiestown, Moray, Scotland, founded by the whisky smuggler John Cumming in 1824. The distillery is currently run by Diageo and the distillery's Scotch whisky makes up an important part of the famous Johnnie Walker blended whiskies. The word "Cardhu" derives from the Scots Gaelic Carn Dubh, meaning "Black Rock" 
The distillery was set up by John Cumming, who had previously been a whisky smuggler, in 1824. The distillery was sited high up on Mannoch Hill, above the River Spey due to the peat softening the water. The distillery started as farm distillery working on a seasonal basis after the harvest had been gathered. The distillery was mainly run by his wife Helen who used to sell bottles of whisky to passers-by through the window of their farmhouse.
In 1885 the distillery was rebuilt on a new piece of land but continued to stay in the hands of the Cummings, being run by Elizabeth Cumming, the daughter-in-law of Helen Cumming. The stills from the old distillery building were sold to William Grant who set up Glenfiddich distillery. The new building and stills meant that Cardhu could produce triple the amount of whisky it had previously produced. These higher production levels led to Johnnie Walker and Sons buying much of Cardhu's output to put into their increasingly popular blend.
In 1893 Elizabeth Cumming sold the distillery to Johnnie Walker and Sons on the condition that the Cumming family could continue the day-to-day running of the distillery. Cardhu distillery kept working under these conditions until the onset of the Second World War when wartime restrictions meant that it was harder to use barley for distilling purposes.
In 1960 the distillery's still-house, mash-house and tun-room were rebuilt, and in 1970 steam coils were introduced to heat the stills and the number of stills was increased to six. Spring water from Mannoch Hill started to be mixed with water from the local Lynne burn to supply the increased production of the distillery.
'Pure Malt' Controversy
In December 2003, parent company Diageo caused controversy by halting the production of Cardhu single malt and replacing it with a blended malt which they labelled a 'pure malt' using the same bottle design and label as its single malt. This was done in order to keep up with increased demand for the whisky, particularly in Spain and Portugal, as well as for use in Johnnie Walker blended whiskies. The decision by Diageo angered both consumers and other whisky producers who were worried that the single malt image would be damaged. Diageo responded to the criticism by agreeing to change the label style and colour of their pure malt in order to avoid consumer confusion. Sales of Cardhu pure malt dropped substantially due to the change.
Cardhu single malt
- Hunt, Tony. Whisky's reputation 'under threat', BBC News, November 30, 2003. Accessed May 2, 2012.
- SNP seeks whisky inquiry, BBC News, December 3, 2003. Accessed May 2, 2012.
- Whisky branding deal reached, BBC News, December 4, 2003. Accessed May 2, 2012.
- Tran, Mark (4 December 2003). "Whisky industry settles on strict malt definitions". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- Scottish Whisky: Cardhu
- Bottle label