Cardigan (sweater)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cardigan in fashion photo from 1947
TypeKnitted garment

A cardigan is a type of knitted sweater that has an open front, and is worn like a jacket.[1]


A baggy cardigan
A tightly fitting cardigan with a blouse

Commonly cardigans are open fronted, have buttons, and are often knitted or woven: garments that are tied are instead considered a robe. Knit garments with zippers can also be referred to as a cardigan.[2] A current fashion trend has the garment with no buttons or zipper and hangs open by design.[citation needed] By contrast, a pullover (or sweater) does not open in front but must be "pulled over" the head to be worn. It may be machine- or hand-knitted. Traditionally, cardigans were made of wool but can now be made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or any combination thereof.[citation needed]


The cardigan was named after James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, a British Army major general who led the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War.[3] It is modelled after the knitted wool waistcoat that British officers supposedly wore during the war. The legend of the event and the fame that Lord Cardigan achieved after the war led to the rise of the garment's popularity – supposedly, Brudenell invented the cardigan after noticing that the tails of his coat had accidentally been burnt off in a fireplace.[4][5]

The term originally referred only to a knitted sleeveless vest, but expanded to other types of garment over time. Coco Chanel is credited with popularizing cardigans for women because "she hated how tight-necked men's sweaters messed up her hair when she pulled them over her head."[6] The garment is mostly associated with the college culture of the Roaring Twenties and early 1930s, being also popular throughout the 1950s, 1970s, 1990s, 2000s and into the early 2010s.[citation needed]


Plain cardigans are often worn over shirts and inside suit jackets as a less formal version of the waistcoat or vest that restrains the necktie when the jacket has been removed. Its versatility means it can be worn in casual or formal settings and in any season, but it is most popular during cool weather.

Monochromatic cardigans, in sleeved or vest form, may be viewed as a conservative fashion staple. As an item of formal clothing for any gender, it is worn over a button-down dress shirt. A less formal style is wearing a T-shirt underneath.

Varsity letters for college and high school sports teams have been applied to cardigans and letterman jackets.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ cardigan. Retrieved 27 May 2018. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |website= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Consumer Price Index Apparel Manual. U.S. Department of labor, Bureau of labor statistics. 1991. p. 53.
  3. ^ le Zotte, Jennifer (3 October 2017). "This Bookish Sweater Has a Violent History". Racked. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  4. ^ "What is a Cardigan? – Cardigan Sweater History". Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  5. ^ David, Saul (1997). The Homicidal Earl: The Life of Lord Cardigan. London: Little, Brown. pp. 431–436. ISBN 0316641650.
  6. ^ Geller, Allison (24 June 2016). "The Military Origins of the Cardigan". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  7. ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle F., eds. (1987). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows. Ballantine Books. pp. 1071–1072. ISBN 0-345-49773-2. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  8. ^ Denisova, Maria. "Como, Perry". Pennsylvania Center for the Book, Pennsylvania State University. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  9. ^ Philbin, Regis (18 October 1991). "DVD: The Best of Perry Como: Volume One (review)". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  10. ^ "NMAH – Mister Rogers' Sweater". National Museum of American History. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007. The red sweater, knitted by his late mother, was donated to the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History by Fred Rogers on November 20, 1984.
  11. ^ "Steve McQueen's Son Sues Tom Ford Over McQueen". The Hollywood Reporter. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  12. ^ Grossman, Samantha (5 November 2015).[ In 2019 it was re auctioned for $334,000.]"Kurt Cobain's Unplugged Sweater Sells for $137,500". Time. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  13. ^ Garcia, Patricia (9 November 2015). "Kurt Cobain’s MTV Unplugged Cardigan Sold for $137,500". Vogue. Retrieved 17 March 2016.

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