Cardinal (bird)

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Cardinals
Northern Cardinal Broadside.jpg
Male northern cardinal
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Cardinalidae
Ridgway, 1901
Genera

Piranga
Habia
Chlorothraupis
Pheucticus
Granatellus
Cardinalis
Caryothraustes
Rhodothraupis
Periporphyrus
Amaurospiza
Spiza
Cyanoloxia
Cyanocompsa
Passerina

An American male cardinal feeds on a sunflower seed.

Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America. They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings.

Cardinalis cardinalis - Northern Cardinal audio

The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in the tanager family Thraupidae. On the other hand, DNA analysis of the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia showed their closer relationship to the cardinal family.[1] They have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.[2]

Species list[edit]

(1) "Masked" clade:

Image Genus Living species
Periporphyrus erythromelas - Red-and-black Grosbeak.jpg Periporphyrus L. Reichenbach, 1850
Black-faced Grosbeak - Panama H8O0281 (23184904673).jpg Caryothraustes L. Reichenbach, 1850
Crimson-colored Grosbeak From The Crossley ID Guide Eastern Birds.jpg Rhodothraupis Ridgway, 1898
Northern Cardinal (34121550154).jpg Cardinalis Bonaparte, 1838
Piranga leucoptera - Waraira Repano National Park, Venezuela -male-8 (cropped).jpg Piranga Vieillot, 1808


(2) "Blue" clade:

Image Genus Living species
Amaurospiza moesta - Blackish-blue seedeater (male).JPG Amaurospiza Cabanis, 1861
Blue Bunting From The Crossley ID Guide Eastern Birds.jpg Cyanocompsa Cabanas, 1861
Cyanocompsa brissonii -Vale do Ribeira, Registro, Sao Paulo, Brasil -male-8.jpg Cyanoloxia Bonaparte, 1850
Passerina ciris-20090208.jpg Passerina Vieillot, 1816 North American buntings
DickcisselA.jpg Spiza Bonaparte, 1824


(3) Ant tanager clade:

Image Genus Living species
Habia rubica - Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (male).JPG Habia Blyth, 1840
Chlorothraupis carmioli -Costa Rica-8.jpg Chlorothraupis Salvin & Godman, 1883


(4) "Chat" clade:

Image Genus Living species
Red-breasted Chat - Oaxaca - Mexico S4E8587 (23040934886).jpg Granatellus Bonaparte, 1850


(5) "Pheucticus" clade:

Image Genus Living species
Yellow Grosbeak RWD.jpg PheucticusL. Reichenbach, 1850

Biology[edit]

They are robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. The family's smallest member is the 12-cm (4.7-in), 11.5-g (0.40-oz) orange-breasted bunting. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinctive appearances. The northern cardinal type species was named by colonists for the male's red crest, reminiscent of a Catholic cardinal's biretta.[3]

The "North American buntings" are known as such to distinguish them from buntings of the Old World family Emberizidae. The name "cardinal-grosbeak" can also apply to the cardinalid family as a whole.

Most species are rated by the IUCN as being of least concern, though some are near threatened.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yuri, T.; Mindell, D. P. (May 2002). "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, "New World nine-primaried oscines" (Aves: Passeriformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (2): 229–243. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00012-X. PMID 12069553.
  2. ^ "Family: Cardinalidae". American Ornithological Society. Retrieved Feb 1, 2019.
  3. ^ Duchesne, Bob (September 21, 2012). "Proliferation of cardinals a fairly recent event". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.
  4. ^ Search "cardinalidae" at IUCN Red List Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine for more info.

External links[edit]