Cardinal (bird)

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Northern Cardinal Broadside.jpg
Male northern cardinal
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Cardinalidae
Ridgway, 1901


Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America. They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings. The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in another family, the Thraupidae (previously placed in the Emberizidae).


They are robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. The family ranges in size from the 12-cm (4.7-in), 11.5-g (0.40-oz) orange-breasted bunting up to the 25-cm (9.8-in), 85-g (2.99-oz) black-headed saltator. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinctive appearances. The northern cardinal type species was named by colonists for the male's red crest, reminiscent of a Catholic cardinal's biretta.[1]

The "North American buntings" are known as such to distinguish them from buntings of the Old World family Emberizidae. The name "cardinal-grosbeak" can also apply to the cardinalid family as a whole.

Most species are rated by the IUCN as being of least concern, though some are near threatened.[2]

Human benefits[edit]

A study conducted in 2016 in Atlanta, Georgia, on West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in the United States, found that unlike other species, cardinals biologically suppress the disease upon infection.[3]

Species list[edit]

1) "Masked" clade:

A female northern cardinal
Male Northern Cardinal - Manhasset, NY
A male cardinal in Texas
Newly hatched cardinals in Texas

2) "Blue" clade:

3) Ant tanager clade:

4) "Chat" clade:

5) "Pheucticus" clade:

Incertae sedis – these birds traditionally placed in the cardinal family are biochemically related to various tanager (Thraupidae) groups:


  1. ^ Duchesne, Bob (September 21, 2012). "Proliferation of cardinals a fairly recent event". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. 
  2. ^ Search "cardinalidae" at IUCN Red List Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. for more info.
  3. ^ Levine, Rebecca S.; et al. (9 June 2016). "Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 

External links[edit]