Raymond Leo Burke

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His Eminence
Raymond Leo Burke
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,
Archbishop Emeritus of St. Louis
Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke.jpg
Appointed November 8, 2014
Predecessor Paolo Sardi
Other posts Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata de' Goti
Ordination June 29, 1975
by Pope Paul VI
Consecration January 6, 1995
by Pope John Paul II, Giovanni Battista Re, and Jorge María Mejía
Created Cardinal November 20, 2010
by Pope Benedict XVI
Rank Cardinal-Deacon
Personal details
Born (1948-06-30) June 30, 1948 (age 68)
Richland Center, Wisconsin
Nationality American
Denomination Catholic Church
Residence Rome, Italy
Parents Thomas and Marie Burke
Previous post
Alma mater Holy Cross Seminary
The Catholic University of America
North American College
Gregorian University
Motto Secundum cor tuum
(English: "After your own heart")
Styles of
Raymond Leo Burke
Coat of arms of Raymond Leo Burke.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See St. Louis (Emeritus)
Sant'Agata dei Goti (titular)

Raymond Leo Burke (born June 30, 1948) is an American cardinal prelate of the Catholic Church and a leader of its conservative wing.[1][2] He is an archbishop and the patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. He served as the archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, Missouri from 2003 to 2008, and previously as the bishop of the Diocese of La Crosse, Wisconsin from 1995 to 2003.

Burke's previous position was Cardinal Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, which he held until November 2014.[3]

As a prominent canon lawyer,[4] Burke is often perceived as a voice of traditionalism[5][6] and orthodoxy[7] among prelates of the Catholic Church. In recent years he has publicly clashed with Pope Francis, stating the possible need to "formally correct" the Pope in relation to Amoris Laetitia. On September 26, 2015, the Vatican announced that Burke had been reappointed to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, from which he had been removed in December 2013, but not to his more influential positions on the Congregation for Bishops and the Apostolic Signatura.[8] In 2016, he was not reappointed as a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship.[9]

Burke was sidelined in February 6, 2017, as the Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta when Pope Francis appointed Archbishop Giovanni Angelo Becciu as his special delegate to the Order with exclusive responsibility for the duties normally exercised by the Patron.[10] On February 21, Albrecht von Boeselager, the Order's Grand Chancellor, announced that Burke was officially suspended from the Patronage.[11][12]

In February 2017, The Guardian alleged that Burke had aligned himself with political right wing nationalism in America and Italy as part of his "bitter feud with Pope Francis".[13]


Burke was born on June 30, 1948, in Richland Center, Wisconsin,[14] the youngest of the six children of Thomas F. and Marie B. Burke[15] Burke attended St. Mary's Parish School in Richland Center from 1954 to 1959. In 2012, an addition to the school was named the Raymond Cardinal Burke Annex in his honor.[16][17] The family later moved to Stratford, Wisconsin. From 1962 to 1968, he attended Holy Cross Seminary in La Crosse, Wisconsin. From 1968 to 1971, he studied at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. as a Basselin scholar, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970 and a Master of Arts degree in 1971, both in philosophy. He completed studies for the priesthood at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome between 1971 and 1975, receiving a Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree and a Master of Arts degree.[14] Pope Paul VI ordained Burke to the priesthood on June 29, 1975, at Saint Peter's Basilica.[14]

Priestly ministry[edit]

After his ordination to the priesthood, Burke was assigned as assistant rector of the Cathedral of St. Joseph the Workman in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He also taught religion at Aquinas High School in La Crosse (where the new addition the Bishop Burke Hall was named in his honor in 1997 and then in 2011 was renamed the Cardinal Burke Hall).[18][19][20] From 1980 to 1984, Burke studied canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, where he received a licentiate in canon law in 1982 and a doctorate in canon law in 1984.[14] He then returned to La Crosse where he was named the Moderator of the Curia and Vice Chancellor of the La Crosse diocese. In 1989, Pope John Paul II named Burke the first American Defender of the Bond of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest ecclesiastical court in the Catholic Church.[14]

Episcopal ministry[edit]

Bishop of La Crosse[edit]

Burke as Bishop of La Crosse

On December 10, 1994, Pope John Paul II named Burke Bishop of La Crosse, consecrating him to the episcopate on January 6, 1995, in St. Peter's Basilica.[21] Burke took possession of the See of La Crosse on February 22, 1995.[21]

In 2000 Burke convened the fifth diocesan synod for the Diocese of La Crosse, which resulted in the publication of Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000 in 2003.[22] He was also named a Knight Commander with Star of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in 1997 and received the Canon Law Society of America's Role of Law award in 2000.[14] In 2002, he was influential in founding the Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem, an order of Augustinian canons dedicated to the traditional form of the liturgy.[23]

During his tenure as Bishop of La Crosse, Burke constructed a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of the Americas.[24][25][26][27] He also installed a shrine to the Sacred Heart in the diocesan cathedral, reflecting his desire to encourage spiritual devotions.[28]

Some priests in the Diocese of La Crosse have claimed that Burke's leadership there was divisive. The construction of the shrine, the diocese's withdrawal from Church World Service's annual Crop Walk, and his welcoming of traditional religious orders allegedly alienated some.[29]

Archbishop of St. Louis[edit]

Coat of arms of Card. Raymond Leo Burke as Archbishop of Saint Louis

On December 2, 2003, Burke was named Archbishop of St. Louis, succeeding Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali (who had been appointed Archbishop of Philadelphia).[30][31][32][33] He was installed on January 26, 2004 and was presented with the pallium on June 29, 2004 by Pope John Paul II. In St. Louis, Burke emphasized the promotion of vocations to the priesthood. He also published a column in the archdiocesan weekly newspaper, the Saint Louis Review. In both La Crosse and St. Louis, Burke established oratories for those desiring to worship according to the Tridentine Rite. He invited the traditional Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest into his dioceses and ordained priests for the group both in the U.S. and abroad. His ordination of two traditionalist priests on June 15, 2007, in the Solemn Pontifical High Mass was the first time in 40 years that the Tridentine rite of ordination had been used in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis.[34] In July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke to the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest court in the Catholic Church. When an amendment to the Missouri Constitution that allows embryonic stem cell research was passed, he issued a statement opposing it.[citation needed]

During his tenure in Saint Louis, Burke was awarded two honorary doctorates in humane letters, one from Ave Maria University in 2005[35] and the other from Christendom College in 2007.[36] During his tenure, Burke was also involved in the beginning of a contest over the attempted closing of a church in the diocese, St. Stanislaus Kostka Church. After the Rev. Marek Bozek, then 37, led a Christmas Eve Mass in 2005, Burke "declare[d] that the church was in 'schism', a designation that led to the excommunication of Mr. Bozek and the church's lay board". In 2012, however, a state court agreed with the congregation, now an independent Catholic church, over the diocese on ownership of the parish's assets.[37]

On May 6, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI named Burke to two Vatican offices.[38] He was named a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets canon law, and also became a member of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons.

Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura[edit]

On June 27, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura.[39] The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura exercises final appellate jurisdiction for conflicts between two or more Vatican congregations and appeals concerning administrative decisions by diocesan bishops and Vatican congregations. Burke was the first non-European named to head the tribunal and became the second-highest ranking American prelate at the Vatican after Cardinal William Levada, the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Burke's farewell Mass in the Archdiocese of St. Louis, held in the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis on August 17, 2008, was concelebrated by bishops George Joseph Lucas, Robert Joseph Hermann, John Joseph Leibrecht, John R. Gaydos, Robert W. Finn, Raymond James Boland, and Kevin William Vann.[40]

On May 6, 2008, Burke was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets canon law, and of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons; on October 17, 2009, of the Congregation for Bishops, the influential curial body that oversees the appointment of most Latin Church bishops outside mission territories;[41][42] on July 6, 2010, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments;[43] on July 24, 2010, of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints;[44] and on January 29, 2011, of the Council of Cardinals and Bishops of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State.[45] On October 7, 2008, Burke was appointed President of the Commission for Advocates, which is responsible for admitting the world's qualified canon lawyers to a registry of those who may practice in the Vatican's courts, a sort of bar association.[46]

On March 11, 2010, in the wake of the sexual abuse scandal that had come to light in Europe, Burke said that the Vatican needed to design a set of guidelines based in canon law that would guide bishops and tribunals worldwide in determining how to report the cases to the Holy See. Revisions would also be made to a policy formulated by Benedict that provided for high levels of secrecy in the process.[47]

College of Cardinals[edit]

Burke at a Mass at St. Clement Eucharistic Shrine in Boston, 2010

On November 20, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI elevated Burke to the cardinalate, as Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Agata dei Goti, making Burke the fifth Archbishop of St. Louis to become a member of the College of Cardinals. On February 5, 2011, the memorial of St. Agatha, Burke took canonical possession of his titular church in Rome, Sant'Agata dei Goti.[48]

In October 2012, Burke was appointed the President of the Commission for Controversies at the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.[49] On December 16, 2013, Burke was removed as a member of the Congregation for Bishops, the church body that selects most new bishops.[50] At the same time Pope Francis appointed U.S. Cardinal Donald Wuerl to the body, in what was widely interpreted by the mainstream press as a direct rebuke to Burke.[51]

In honor of Burke, St. Louis' archbishop, Robert James Carlson, created the Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke Chair in Canon Law at St. Louis's Kenrick-Glennon Seminary.[52] In May 2011, Burke was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Franciscan University of Steubenville in Steubenville, Ohio.[53]

He was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2013 papal conclave that elected Pope Francis.

Apostolic Signatura and Patronus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta[edit]

On November 8, 2014, Burke was removed as prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, the final court of appeal for any ecclesiastical judgement,[54][55] and was subsequently appointed Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, a largely ceremonial post usually given to a retired cardinal or as a secondary job to an active one.[56]

This demotion was said to be related to his criticism of Pope Francis's leadership and proposals for reform. He had complained that: "There is a strong sense that the church is like a ship without a rudder."[57][58][59][60][61][62][63]

Pope Francis denied that removing Burke as head of the Vatican’s highest court was a "punishment" for his outspoken conservative views at the 2014 Synod on the Family, saying that he wanted a "smart American" to serve as patron of the Order of Malta.[64] The pontiff said that the move was part of a broader restructuring of the Vatican bureaucracy that had been decided well before the synod, but he had waited until after the synod to make it official so Burke could still participate in the meeting as the head of a Vatican department.[64]

As Patron of the Order and Prefect Emeritus of the Apostolic Signatura, Burke remains a voting member of the World Synod of Bishops. Pope Francis also named him a voting Cardinal Member of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.[65][66]

Congregation for the Causes of Saints[edit]

The Holy See announced on September 26, 2015, that Pope Francis had assigned both Burke and Carlo Caffarra, the metropolitan Archbishop of Bologna, to membership of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints (but not as Prefect). This meant that Burke returned to the Roman Curia, from which he had been removed in December 2013, but to a role unrelated to matters of Church liturgy or discipline and with limited influence.[67]

Congregation of Divine Worship[edit]

In November 2016, Pope Francis removed Burke from the membership of the Congregation for Divine Worship. This was seen to be in response to the dubia ‘doubts’ submitted by him, together with three other cardinals, to elements of Amoris Laetitia which appear to them to be at odds with Catholic moral teaching, notably with regard to the treatment of divorced persons. Burke had indicated that in the absence of a response to the dubia a “formal correction” of Pope Francis would probably follow.[9][68]

Other assignments[edit]

In February 2017, Burke went to Guam to preside over a five-judge panel at the trial of Bishop Anthony Sablan Apuron of Agaña, Guam, on charges of sexual abuse of minors.[69]


Role of women in the Church[edit]

In June 2008, Burke applied an interdict, which excludes a person from church ministries and the sacraments, to a Sister of Charity, Louise Lears, judging her guilty of three grave canonical offenses against the Catholic Church's faith and teachings. Lears, a pastoral worker and educator, had publicly stated her belief that all of the church's ministries, including the priesthood, should be open to women.[70] Lears received the interdict after attending an ordination ceremony, which the Church considers invalid, of a woman to the priesthood at a Jewish synagogue by the WomenPriests movement.[71]

In January 2015, Burke gave an interview in which he criticized what he saw as the excessive role of "radical feminism" in the church. He specifically criticized the introduction of altar girls as an unwelcome sign of the "feminization" of the Church and a disincentive to boys to serve at the altar and start on the path to ordination.[72]

Sexual ethics[edit]

Shortly after Pope Francis did not re-appoint him to the Congregation of Bishops, Burke said, "One gets the impression, or it's interpreted this way in the media, that he thinks we're talking too much about abortion, too much about the integrity of marriage as between one man and one woman. But we can never talk enough about that."[73]

Burke has denied media perceptions that the Pope planned to change the Catholic Church's teaching on moral issues. He said that people "hardened against the truth" would claim that the Pope wants to change church teachings that today's secularized culture rejects. He also said their "false praise" mocks the fact that Pope Francis is the Successor of Peter and that the Pope "rejects the acceptance and praise of the world".[74][75]


Burke is a strong critic of moves by certain bishops to soften the Church's attitudes toward people who are gay.[76]

In a 2013 interview, Burke said that same-sex marriage "...is a work of deceit, a lie about the most fundamental aspect of our human nature, our human sexuality, which, after life itself, defines us. There is only one place these types of lies come from, namely Satan. It is a diabolical situation which is aimed at destroying individuals, families, and eventually our nation."[77]

In an interview in October 2014, Burke referred to gay relationships as "profoundly disordered and harmful",[78] also suggesting that parents should not allow their children to have contact with sexually active gay people and should discourage them from attending family gatherings such as celebrations at Christmas.[79] He has described homosexuality as an “ailment” which is not genetic but largely depended on a person’s environment.[80] In an interview with LifeSiteNews[81] that the situations of gay couples and divorced and remarried Catholics are analogous to the situation of “the person who murders someone and yet is kind to other people,” in that good acts do not mitigate the "sinfulness" of other acts.[82][83][84] This is in contrast to Reinhard Marx, Christoph Schönborn and others who see value in faithful, lasting gay relationships. David Gibson writing in the National Catholic Reporter suggested Burke's comparison is also out of step with the more pastoral approach of Pope Francis.[85]

After the May 2015 same-sex marriage referendum in Ireland, Burke, speaking in Oxford, said that he struggled to understand "any nation redefining marriage... I mean, this is a defiance of God. It’s just incredible. Pagans may have tolerated homosexual behaviours, they never dared to say this was marriage."[86] Burke's comments rejecting the referendum decision immediately received rebuke from the Archbishop of Armagh, Eamon Martin, who called them offensive. He urged individuals "to try to be respectful and inoffensive in language" wherever possible.[87]


Burke has opposed any hypothetical change of church doctrine that would permit civilly divorced Catholics who are validly married to remarry or receive the Eucharist once they have entered into a second civil marriage. In 2013, he co-authored a book with cardinals Gerhard Ludwig Müller and George Pell on the subject.[88] In a 2015 interview, responding to a hypothetical question concerning the actions of Pope Francis, Burke vowed to "resist" if the pontiff moves to allow divorced and remarried Catholics to receive Communion.[89]

Abortion and stem-cell research[edit]

Cardinal Burke wearing the cappa magna

During the 2004 presidential election, Burke stated that he would not give the Eucharist to John Kerry or other Catholic politicians who publicly support legalized abortion.[90] He also wrote a pastoral letter saying Catholics should not vote for politicians who support abortion or other "anti-life" practices.[90] Burke later clarified his position, stating that one could vote for a pro-choice politician and not commit a mortal sin, if one believed there was a more significant moral issue than abortion at hand, but he also stated that he could not think of any sort of issue that would qualify.[91][not in citation given] In a September 2008 interview, Burke said that "the Democratic Party risks transforming itself definitively into a 'party of death', because of its choices on bioethical questions", especially elective abortion.[92]

In 2008, Burke urged Saint Louis University to take disciplinary action against its head basketball coach, Rick Majerus, after Majerus publicly supported abortion and embryonic stem cell research at a campaign event for Democratic Senator and presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.[93] Burke stated that "When you take a position in a Catholic university, you don't have to embrace everything the Catholic Church teaches. But you can't make statements which call into question the identity and mission of the Catholic Church." St. Louis University supported Majerus's right to publicly expound on his own personal views when made at an event he did not attend as a university representative.[93]

In May 2009, Burke stated, "Since President Obama clearly announced, during the election campaign, his anti-life and anti-family agenda, a Catholic who knew his agenda regarding, for example, procured abortion, embryonic-stem-cell research, and same-sex marriage, could not have voted for him with a clear conscience."[94]

In February 2013 Burke commented on the Irish abortion debate, stating that, in accordance with canon law, priests should exclude politicians who support abortion from receiving the Eucharist.[95]

When Sheryl Crow, an abortion rights advocate, was scheduled to perform at a benefit concert for the Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Burke stated that to have the hospital host Crow would give "the impression that the Church is somehow inconsistent in its teaching."[96] He asked that her invitation be privately removed, and resigned from the board on April 25, 2007, when Crow's performance was confirmed.[97]

In March 2009, Burke called on American bishops to withhold the Eucharist from Catholic politicians who support legalized abortion.[98] The bishops failure to do so, Burke said, "is weakening the faith of everyone. It's giving the impression that it must be morally correct to support procured abortion."[98] He also said that any president who promotes and implements "anti-life" legislation could be an "agent of death".[98] Burke later said that he made his remarks not as Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, head of the Vatican's highest court, but simply as an American bishop.[99]

Reaction to the 2014 Synod Relatio post disceptationem interim report[edit]

During the 2014 Synod Burke expressed disagreements with the content of this 2014 report. His concerns were shared by Voice of the Family, a coalition of 15 groups that identify as pro-life and pro-family, who called the Pirolas intervention “damaging”. “The unqualified welcome of homosexual couples into family and parish environments in fact damages everybody, by serving to normalise the disorder of homosexuality”, said Voice of the Family spokesman Maria Madise.[100]

Burke said that the interim document - which softened the Catholic Church's language on gays, contraception and divorced and civilly remarried people - showed that "a great number of the Synod Fathers found it objectionable". In an interview with Catholic World Report, Burke said the document "lacks a solid foundation in the Sacred Scriptures and the Magisterium (the teaching authority of the Catholic Church) and gives the impression of inventing a totally new, what one member of the Synod called ‘revolutionary’, teaching on marriage and the family."[101] Burke went on to say, in an interview with BuzzFeed, that if "Pope Francis had selected certain cardinals to steer the meeting so as to advance his personal views on matters like divorce and the treatment of LGBT people", he would not be observing his mandate as the leader of the Catholic Church.[102]

In an interview in the German daily Die Welt on April 24, 2015, concerning the Fourteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Burke renewed his criticism on German Cardinal Walter Kasper, whose “merciful” solution for remarried divorcees who wish to receive communion was discussed at the 2014 Extraordinary Synod. “We are bound by the Magisterium. But some Synod Fathers, above all Cardinal Kasper, want to change it. So I had to make myself very clear. Clashes at Synods, incidentally, are nothing unusual. Think of the early Councils, the Arian heresy, for instance, when Athanasius even became physically aggressive”, Burke recalled. He also recalled that Pope John Paul II had ruled out women’s ordination “once and for all”.[80]

Amoris laetitia[edit]

Burke, along with three other cardinals, has issued a request to Pope Francis, entitled "Seeking Clarity: A Plea to Untie the Knots in Amoris Laetitia", seeking clarification on various points of doctrine in the Pope's apostolic exhortation, Amoris laetitia. The first dubium is regarding reception of the sacraments by the divorced and remarried. The other four ask about fundamental issues of the Christian life, and reference Pope John Paul II's encyclical Veritatis splendor.[103]

Palliative care and euthanasia[edit]

At a July 23, 2011, conference on end-of-life care sponsored by the St. Gianna Physician's Guild, Burke said that suffering does not cause a person to have less meaning in his life, nor does it give the government the right to decide if that person should live or die: "No matter how much a life is diminished, no matter what suffering the person is undergoing, that life demands the greatest respect and care. It's never right to snuff out a life because it's in some way under heavy burden."[104]

Liturgical abuse[edit]

On March 2, 2011, Burke said that too many priests and bishops treat violations of liturgical norms as something that is unimportant, when they are actually "serious abuses" that damage the faith of Catholics. He criticized the lack of reverence, stating "If we err by thinking we are the center of the liturgy, the Mass will lead to a loss of faith."[105][106]

SSPX reintegration[edit]

Burke ordaining a man as a priest

Burke has expressed confidence that, despite doctrinal obstacles, many members of the Society of Saint Pius X will reconcile themselves with the Vatican.[107]

Tridentine Mass[edit]

In a July 2007 apostolic letter, "Summorum Pontificum", Pope Benedict XVI authorized wider use of the older Tridentine Mass.[108] Restoration of some parts of the traditional Mass has been supported by Burke as part of a "reform of the reform", modifying what he sees as deficiencies of the liturgy introduced under Pope Paul VI.[108]


The 2012 Synod of Bishops meeting focused on "The New Evangelization". In written comments to the synod, Burke criticized "antinomianism"- the belief that grace exempts Christians from obedience to moral law, stating that it is "among the most serious wounds of society today," and is responsible for the legalization of "intrinsically evil" actions such as abortion, embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, and same-sex marriage.[109]

Priest shortage[edit]

Burke gave an interview to an organisation called the New Emangelization Project [sic]. The group was formed to confront what it calls a “man crisis” in the Catholic Church. In the interview, Burke is sympathetic to the group’s concerns that men are being driven from the pews because of the “feminization” of the Catholic Church. In addition to decrying “radical feminism,” Burke criticizes the recent practice of allowing girls to serve as acolytes at Mass and other church ceremonies. “The introduction of girl servers also led many boys to abandon altar service,” Burke said. “Young boys don’t want to do things with girls. It’s just natural. The girls were also very good at altar service. So many boys drifted away over time.”[110]

Burke adds that it requires a “certain manly discipline to serve as an altar boy in service at the side of a priest, and most priests have their first deep experiences of the liturgy as altar boys. If we are not training young men as altar boys, giving them an experience of serving God in the liturgy, we should not be surprised that vocations have fallen dramatically.”[110][111]

Holy League[edit]

Burke became the leader of the Holy League, officially launched on March 7, 2015, on the 444th anniversary of the Holy League called by Pope Saint Pius V against the Ottoman empire in 1571. The modern Holy League describes itself as a parish-based network of men united in devotion to the Blessed Sacrament.[112]


Cardinal Burke has said there is “no question that Islam wants to govern the world”, and that Western societies should return to their Christian roots. Cardinal Burke said that, for anyone “not at peace with the idea of being under an Islamic government”, it was reasonable to be “afraid” of such a prospect. He was speaking ahead of the publication of a new book, Hope for the World: To Unite All Things in Christ. In the book, Cardinal Burke says: “Islam is a religion that, according to its own interpretation, must also become the State. The Koran, and the authentic interpretations of it given by various experts in Koranic law, is destined to govern the world. “In reality, there is no place for other religions, even though they may be tolerated as long as Islam has not succeeded in establishing its sovereignty over the nations and over the world.”[113][114]

Archbishop Diarmuid Martin of Dublin has said that comments by Cardinal Raymond Burke on Islam's desire to govern the world are unhelpful at a time when Europe reels in the aftermath of a spate of terror attacks. Martin decried the 2016 murder of elderly French priest, Fr. Jacques Hamel, in Normandy as "something that no religion would stand over." Speaking from Poland where he is attending World Youth Day, Martin stressed that education is the basis for real tolerance, as well as knowledge and respect, for other religions.[115]

Selected works[edit]

  • Lack of discretion of judgment because of schizophrenia: doctrine and recent rotal jurisprudence, Doctoral Dissertation, (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1986). See also "Defectus discretionis iudicii propter schizophreniam: Doctrina et recens iurisprudentia," Periodica, 73 (1984): 555–570; and "Lack of Discretion of Judgment: Canonical Doctrine and Legislation," in The Jurist, 45 (1985): 171–209.
  • "Canon 1095, 1° and 2°," in Incapacity for marriage: Jurisprudence and Interpretation, Acts of the III Gregorian Collguium, Robert M. Sable, coordinator and editor (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1987).
  • "La procedura amministrativa per la dichiarazione di nullità del matrimonio," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 93–105.
  • "Il processo di dispensa dal matrimonio rato e non consummato: la grazia pontificia e la sua natura," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 135–144.
  • "The Application of Canon 1095 and sacramental-pastoral activity concerning marriage," in Ius in vita et in missione Ecclesiæ, Acta Symposii internationalis iuris canonici occurrente X anniversario promulgationis Codicis iuris canonici diebus 19–24 aprilis 1993 in Civitate Vaticana celebrati, Pontificia Concilium de legum textibus interpretandis (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1994), 1095–1102.
  • "The Distinction of Personnel in Hierarchically Related Tribunals," in Studia canonica, 28 (1994): 85–98.
  • "Canon 1421: The Nullity of a Decision by a Single Lay Judge," [1994] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 451–452.
  • "Canons 1421–1422 and 1435–1436: The Exercise of the Office of Judge or Defender of the Bond by a Priest on Leave of Absence from Priestly Ministry," [1995, co-authored with Joseph R. Punderson] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 453–454.
  • "La "confessio iudicialis" e le dichiarizioni giudiziali delle parti," in I mezzi di prova nelle cause matrimoniali secondo la giurisprudenza rotale, Studi Giuridici XXXVIII (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1995), 15–30.
  • "Commentary on the July 12, 1993, Decree of the Apostolic Signatura relating to the qualifications of advocates," in Canadian Canon Law Society Newsletter, 21 (1996): 9–13; for Spanish translation see: "Abogados, uniones matrimoniales irregulares y causas de nulidad matrimonial: Texto y comentario de una Respuesta de Tribunal Supremo de la Signatura Apostolica," in REDC, 51 (1994): 639–645.
  • "Canon Law at the Service of the New Evangelization," given on the occasion of receiving the Role of Law Award from the Canon Law Society of America, in Canon Law Society of America Proceedings, 62 (2000): 497–500; introductory remarks of gratitude, 495–496.
  • "On Our Civic Responsibility for the Common Good," (Saint Louis: Archdiocese of Saint Louis, 2004).
  • "Canon 915: The Discipline Regarding the Denial of Holy Communion to Those Obstinately Persevering in Manifest Grave Sin," in Periodica, 96 (2007): 3–58.
  • Divine Love Made Flesh: The Holy Eucharist as the Sacrament of Charity. San Diego: Catholic Action. 2012. ISBN 978-0981631424. 


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Inés San Martín (8 March 2017). "Pope Francis: 'I do not see Cardinal Burke as an enemy'". cruxnow.com. Retrieved 18 May 2017. Cardinal Raymond Burke, seen as the leader of the pope’s conservative opposition. 
  2. ^ Catherine Pepinster (4 March 2017). "Civil war in the Vatican as conservatives battle Francis for the soul of Catholicism". theguardian.com. Retrieved 18 May 2017. Cardinal Raymond Burke, an arch-conservative American canon lawyer. 
  3. ^ Desmond, Joan Frawley. "Daily News:Cardinal Burke Officially Transferred From Apostolic Signatura". National Catholic Register. EWTN News. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke". Archdiocese of St. Louis. Retrieved August 17, 2016. 
  5. ^ Silk, Mark (September 9, 2015). "Cardinal Burke attacks Pope Francis' Reforms". Religion News. Retrieved August 17, 2016. 
  6. ^ http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/news/2014/11/10/thousands-sign-petition-thanking-cardinal-burke/
  7. ^ http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/cardinal-burke-says-catechesis-is-key-for-the-church-today
  8. ^ Cdl. Burke Back in the Curia - Pope Francis has re-appointed Cdl. Raymond Burke to the Congregation for the Cause of Saints, Church Militant Website, 28 September 2015
  9. ^ a b http://cal-catholic.com/cardinals-burke-pell-officially-removed-from-congregation-for-divine-worship/
  10. ^ Niccolò Mazzarino e Veronica Sansonetti (February 6, 2017). "Ordine di Malta, ecco come e perché il cardinale Burke è stato esautorato". Formiche.net. Retrieved February 6, 2017. 
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  12. ^ https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/reinstated-knights-of-malta-condom-promoter-cardinal-burke-de-facto-suspend
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  14. ^ a b c d e f Archdiocese of St. Louis – Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke
  15. ^ "Bishop Raymond Burke of La Crosse, Wisconsin Appointed Archbishop of St. Louis, Vatican Announces" (PDF) (Press release). Archdiocese of St. Louis, Office of Communications. December 2, 2003. Retrieved March 9, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Cardinal Burke blesses, breaks ground for school addition in Richland Center", The Catholic Times (Diocese of La Crosse), Joseph O' Brien, August 9, 2012, p. 11.
  17. ^ St. Mary of the Assumption Catholic School
  18. ^ Mission & History-Aquinas High School
  19. ^ "Cardinal Burke at Aquinas today", La Crosse (WI), Tribune, January 5, 2011.
  20. ^ "Cardinal Burke celebrates Mass at Aquinas High School-ACS rededicates Aquinas addition as Cardinal Burke Hall", Joseph O'Brien, The Catholic Times (Diocese of La Crosse), January 13, 2011, p. 3.
  21. ^ a b Catholic Hierarchy.org. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke. Accessed February 12, 2013.[self-published source]
  22. ^ Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000. La Crosse, Wis.: Diocese of La Crosse, 2003.
  23. ^ Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem
  24. ^ Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke
  25. ^ "Return to Beauty": Shrine could bring international spotlight to La Crosse, La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007. Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ "Archbishop dedicates shrine's Rosary Walk", La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007. Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Andrew Rabel, "The Overseer of Justice", Inside the Vatican Magazine.
  28. ^ Welcome to the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Gay, Malcolm (August 25, 2004). "Bishop Takes Queen". The Riverfront Times. 
  30. ^ "Burke named archbishop of St. Louis", La Crosse Tribune. Archived December 21, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ "Bishop Burke doesn't mind ‘taking the heat'", La Crosse Tribune. Archived December 21, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ "Burke bids farewell", La Crosse Tribune. Archived August 18, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ "Activist reputation precedes Burke", La Crosse Tribune. Archived December 5, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ "First ordinations in the United States", institute-christ-king.org newsletter p. 2, July 2007.
  35. ^ "Ave Maria University confers first honorary degrees", May 11, 2005. Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "Archbishop Burke and College Founders Honored at 30th Anniversary Convocation", September 21, 2007. Archived December 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ Gay, Malcolm, "Defiant St. Louis Church Wins Archdiocese Suit", New York Times, March 17, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  38. ^ "Pope appoints Burke to two high church offices He'll help interpret church law and help regulated training of priests and deacons", Tim Townsend, St. Louis Dispatch-Post, May 7, 2008
  39. ^[dead link] Press Office of the Holy See
  40. ^ "Archbishop bids emotional farewell to St. Louis faithful" St. Louis Review, August 18, 2008.
  41. ^[dead link]
  42. ^ Martin, James, "Archbishop Burke Named to Congregation of Bishops" America, October 19, 2009.
  43. ^ Press Office of the Holy See Archived March 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ NOMINA DI MEMBRI DELLA CONGREGAZIONE DELLE CAUSE DEI SANTI Archived March 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ Nomina di membri del Consiglio di Cardinali e Vescovi della Sezione per i Rapporti con gli Stati della Segreteria di Stato Archived March 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  46. ^ "Archbishop Burke appointed to head Vatican’s ‘bar association’" Catholic News Agency, October 8, 2008.
  47. ^ Thavis, John, "Vatican defends efforts by pope, church to curb sex abuse by priests", Catholic News Service, March 14, 2010.
  48. ^ "Cardinals Take Possession Of Diaconate, Titular Churches", EWTN News, February 1, 2011.
  49. ^ Holy See Press Office. "XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 7-28 OCTOBER 2012".
  50. ^ "Pope Francis removes former La Crosse Bishop Raymond Burke", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, December 16, 2013.
  51. ^ https://www.washingtonian.com/2014/03/05/higher-power-cardinal-donald-wuerls-new-vatican-job/
  52. ^ Brinker, Jennifer, "Kenrick-Glennon Seminary canon law chair established in Cardinal Burke's name", St. Louis Review, November 21, 2010.
  53. ^ Franciscan University of Steubenville Office of Public Relations. "Commencement Speakers Call Graduates to Holiness", May 26, 2011.
  54. ^ Edward Pentin, "Cardinal Burke to Malta, Mamberti to Apostolic Signatura", 8 November 2014.
  55. ^ "Pope demotes outspoken American conservative cardinal"
  56. ^ Rocca, Francis Xavier (November 8, 2014). "Pope removes Cardinal Burke from Vatican post". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  57. ^ Pope Francis again demotes hard-line U.S. cardinal
  58. ^ ncronline.org
  59. ^ Yardley, Jim, "Pope Demotes U.S. Cardinal Critical of His Reform Agenda", New York Times, November 8, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  60. ^ "Pope Francis Demotes Outspoken Conservative Cardinal", 2014/11/09.
  61. ^ American Cardinal Raymond Burke demoted by Pope Francis
  62. ^ "The Pope’s Unforced Error, His demotion of Cardinal Burke, a loyal but eloquent critic, could turn out to be his greatest mistake". National Review, pp. 1-2.
  63. ^ "Pope Francis: Epic Innovator". Forbes.
  64. ^ a b O'Loughlin, Michael (December 7, 2014). "Pope Francis: Demotion of Burke not 'punishment'". Crux. Retrieved January 22, 2015. 
  65. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015. 
  66. ^ "Disclaimers and appointments, 26.09.2015", press.vatican.va via microsofttranslator.com.
  67. ^ "Cardinals Caffarra, Burke Named to Congregation for Saints’ Causes", zenit.org, September 26, 2015.
  68. ^ https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/cardinal-burkes-critics-fall-into-serious-errors-about-the-true-nature-and
  69. ^ Lamb, Christopher (16 February 2017). "Burke Pursues Justice Mission 7,000 Miles from Rome". The Tablet. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  70. ^ Fox, Thomas C., "Community supports ousted nun", National Catholic Reporter, July 2, 2008.
  71. ^ Barthel, Joan, "Involved laity and determined pastor rebuild St. Louis parish", National Catholic Reporter, February 15, 2012.
  72. ^ Christoff, Matthew James (January 5, 2015). "Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke on the Catholic "Man-crisis" and what to do about it". The New Emangelization. Retrieved January 8, 2015. 
  73. ^ Distant, Daniel, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Replaced by Pope Francis: Conservatives Out, Moderates In", The Christian Post, December 18, 2013.
  74. ^ Burke, Raymond Leo, "The Pope’s radical call to the new evangelization", L’Osservatore Romano, February 21, 2014.
  75. ^ Pentin, Edward, "Cardinal Burke Praises Pope Francis' Efforts to Re-Christianize the West", National Catholic Register, February 25, 2014.
  76. ^ "Catholic Synod: Cardinal 'demoted' by Pope Francis". BBC. Retrieved October 18, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Interview With Cardinal Burke . . . Insights On The Church And Modern Society". The Wanderer. November 10, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  78. ^ Blumberg, Antonia, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Takes Break From Vatican Synod To Say Ugly Things About Gay Relationships", huffingtonpost.com, October 10, 2014.
  79. ^ Hudson, David, "Cardinal says gay couples shouldn't be invited to family gatherings if children are present", gaystarnews.com, October 11, 2014.
  80. ^ a b Cardinal Burke renews attack on 'Pope's theologian' Kasper
  81. ^ "Exclusive interview: Burke expressed concern that confusion is spreading among Catholics ‘in an alarming way’ (full text)", lifesitenews.com, March 24, 2015.
  82. ^ Cardinal Burke: Gays, remarried Catholics, and murderers are all the same, Crux, March 27, 2015.
  83. ^ David Berger in Gaystream: Kardinal Burke: „Homosexuelle sind wie Mörder, die nett tun“
  84. ^ Burke: Gays, Remarried Catholics Are Just As Sinful As Murderers
  85. ^ Cardinal Raymond Burke: Gays, remarried Catholics, murderers are all the same
  86. ^ Ireland is worse than the pagans for legalising gay marriage, says senior cardinal
  87. ^ https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/irish-archbishop-cardinal-burkes-criticism-of-gay-marriage-vote-was-offensi
  88. ^ Blumberg, Antonia, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Takes Break From Vatican Synod To Say Ugly Things About Gay Relationships", The Huffington Post, October 14, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  89. ^ Cardinal Burke: ‘I will resist’ the Pope should he contravene doctrine
  90. ^ a b Thavis, John, "Archbishop Burke says he'll continue politics-abortion campaign", Catholic News Service, November 29, 2004.
  91. ^ "St. Louis prelate says voting for candidate who backs abortion a sin", Catholic News Service, June 4, 2004.
  92. ^ Wooden, Cindy, "CNS STORY: U.S. archbishop at Vatican says Democrats becoming 'party of death'", Catholic News Service, September 29, 2008.
  93. ^ a b "Archbishop says Majerus should be disciplined", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 22, 2008. Archived May 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  94. ^ Lopez, Kathryn Jean, "(Archbishop) Ray of Clarity", National Review, May 12, 2009.
  95. ^ Byrne, Luke, "Priests told: deny communion to TDs who support abortion", The Independent, February 6, 2013.
  96. ^ Leonard, Christopher, "Archbishop Blasts Sheryl Crow Appearance", The Washington Post, April 25, 2007.
  97. ^ Palmo, Rocco, Burke's Plea: No Crow, Whispers in the Loggia, April 25, 2007.
  98. ^ a b c Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Vatican official chides U.S. bishops on abortion". National Catholic Reporter.  (Video of the interview)
  99. ^ Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Burke apologizes for remarks critical of U.S. bishops". National Catholic Reporter. 
  100. ^ Westen, John-Henry, and Pete Baklinski, "Exclusive: Cardinal Burke responds to Australian couple’s Synod presentation on family’s gay son", lifesitenews.com, October 9, 2014.
  101. ^ "Cardinal concerned by new Church stance advanced at Synod", rte.ie, October 14, 2014.
  102. ^ Feder, J. Lester, and Ellie Hall, " Conservative Cardinal Who Clashed With Pope Francis Confirms He Has Been Ousted", buzzfeed.com, October 17, 2014.
  103. ^ http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/four-cardinals-formally-ask-pope-for-clarity-on-amoris-laetitia
  104. ^ Medlin, Marianne, "Cardinal Burke: suffering does not rid life of purpose", Catholic News Agency, July 25, 2011.
  105. ^ Wooden, Cindy, "Vatican officials say bad Masses lead to weak faith". Catholic News Service, March 3, 2011.
  106. ^ Cindy Wooden, "Cardinals: liturgical abuse weakens the faith". The Catholic Herald (UK), March 3, 2011.
  107. ^ Rocca, Francis X., "Cardinal Burke optimistic on reconciliation with SSPX", Catholic News Service, June 15, 2012.
  108. ^ a b Rocca, Francis X., "For Cardinal Burke, restoring tradition is a work in progress", Catholic News Service, July 6, 2012.
  109. ^ "Cardinal Burke: Vatican II betrayed by breakdown of church discipline", Catholic New Service, October 25, 2012.
  110. ^ a b McGough, Michael, "Opinion Cardinal Burke: Serving at Mass is a 'manly' job", LA Times, January 9, 2015.
  111. ^ margeryeagan, "The Church has a problem with women? Really?", cruxnow.com, January 8, 2015.
  112. ^ Cardinal Burke - Holy League Announcement (video), holyleague.com, March 7, 2015.
  113. ^ "Cardinal Burke: it’s reasonable to be afraid of Islam’s desire to govern the world", catholicherald.co.uk, July 22, 2016.
  114. ^ Pronechen, Joseph, "Cardinal Burke Speaks on Attendance Drops, Liturgy, Ad Orientem and Islam", ncronline.org, September 6, 2016.
  115. ^ Mac Donald, Sarah, "Dublin archbishop rebukes Cardinal Burke's comments on Islam", ncronline.org, July 28, 2016.

External links[edit]

Episcopal succession[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Paolo Sardi
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Preceded by
Tomáš Špidlík SJ
Cardinal-Deacon of Sant’Agata de’ Goti
Preceded by
Agostino Vallini
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Succeeded by
Dominique Mamberti
Preceded by
Justin Francis Rigali
Roman Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis
Succeeded by
Robert James Carlson
Preceded by
John Joseph Paul
Roman Catholic Bishop of La Crosse
Succeeded by
Jerome Edward Listecki