Cardinal electors for the 2005 papal conclave

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Photograph of Pope Benedict XVI
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope Benedict XVI by the papal conclave on 19 April 2005.

The papal conclave of 2005 was convened to elect a pope, the head of the Catholic Church, to succeed Pope John Paul II following his death on 2 April 2005. According to the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, which governed the vacancy of the Holy See, only cardinals who had not passed their 80th birthday on the day on which the Holy See fell vacant (i.e. cardinals who were born on or after 2 April 1925) were eligible to participate in the papal conclave.[1] Although not a formal requirement, the cardinal electors invariably elect the pope from among their number. The election is carried out by secret ballot (Latin: per scrutinium).[1]

Of the 183 members of the College of Cardinals at the time of the vacancy of the Holy See, there were 117 cardinal electors who were eligible to participate in the subsequent conclave.[2] Two cardinal electors did not participate, decreasing the number in attendance to 115 (98.3 per cent of all cardinal electors, 62.8 per cent of all cardinals).[3][4] The number of votes required to be elected pope with a two-thirds supermajority or with a one-half simple majority (only in the event of a protracted deadlock) were 77 or 58, respectively.[1]

Of the 115 attending cardinal electors, 5 were cardinal bishops, 93 were cardinal priests and 17 were cardinal deacons; 2 were created cardinals by Pope Paul VI and 113 were created cardinals by Pope John Paul II; 86 were in charge of pastoral duties outside of Rome, while 29 worked in the service of the Holy See, such as in the Roman Curia. The oldest cardinal elector in the conclave was Marco Cé, at the age of 79,[5] while the youngest cardinal elector was Péter Erdő, at the age of 52.[6] Another 66 cardinals were ineligible to participate in the conclave, for reasons of age.[2]

The cardinal electors entered the Sistine Chapel to begin the conclave on 18 April 2005.[7] On 19 April 2005, after four ballots over two days, they elected Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, who took the papal name Benedict XVI.[8]

Cardinal electors[edit]

The College of Cardinals is divided into three orders: cardinal bishops (CB), cardinal priests (CP) and cardinal deacons (CD), with precedence in that sequence. This is the order in which the cardinal electors process into the conclave, take the oath and cast their ballots, generally reflecting seniority and honour.[1] For cardinal bishops, except for those who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, the Dean is first in precedence, followed by the Vice-Dean and then by the rest in order of appointment as cardinal bishops. For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory in which they were created cardinals and then by the order in which they appeared in the official announcement or bulletin.[4]

Three of the cardinal electors were from the Eastern Catholic Churches: Ignace Moussa I Daoud (Syriac), Varkey Vithayathil (Syro-Malabar) and Lubomyr Husar (Ukrainian). In addition, the senior cardinal bishop, the senior cardinal priest, the senior cardinal deacon and the junior cardinal deacon were assigned specific roles in the conclave, such as presiding over the conclave itself (the senior cardinal bishop) or announcing the election of the pope (the senior cardinal deacon).[1] These were, respectively, Joseph Ratzinger, William Wakefield Baum, Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez and Attilio Nicora.[4] The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, who was in charge of administering the Holy See during its vacancy, was Eduardo Martínez Somalo.[1][9]

The data in the table are as of 2 April 2005, the date on which the Holy See fell vacant. By default, the cardinals are sorted by precedence within each table, as denoted by the No. column. All cardinals are of the Latin Church unless otherwise stated. Cardinals belonging to institutes of consecrated life or to societies of apostolic life are indicated by the respective post-nominal letters.

* Elected pope
No. Name Country Born
Age
Order Consistory
Pope
Office Ref.
1 Joseph Ratzinger*  Germany 16 April 1927
(age 77)
CB 27 June 1977
Paul VI
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Dean) [10]
2 Angelo Sodano  Italy 23 November 1927
(age 77)
CB 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Secretary of State (Vice-Dean) [11]
3 Alfonso López Trujillo  Colombia 8 November 1935
(age 69)
CB 2 February 1983
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for the Family [12]
4 Giovanni Battista Re  Italy 30 January 1934
(age 71)
CB 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops [13]
5 Ignace Moussa I Daoud  Syria 18 September 1930
(age 74)
CB 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
(Syriac Catholic Church)
[14]
6 William Wakefield Baum  United States 21 November 1926
(age 78)
CP 24 May 1976
Paul VI
Major Penitentiary emeritus [15]
7 Marco Cé  Italy 8 July 1925
(age 79)
CP 30 June 1979
John Paul II
Patriarch emeritus of Venice [5]
8 Franciszek Macharski  Poland 20 May 1927
(age 77)
CP 30 June 1979
John Paul II
Archbishop of Kraków [16]
9 Michael Michai Kitbunchu  Thailand 25 January 1929
(age 76)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop of Bangkok [17]
10 Godfried Danneels  Belgium 4 June 1933
(age 71)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels [18]
11 Thomas Stafford Williams  New Zealand 20 March 1930
(age 75)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Wellington [19]
12 Carlo Maria Martini SJ  Italy 15 February 1927
(age 78)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Milan [20]
13 Jean-Marie Lustiger  France 17 September 1926
(age 78)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Paris [21]
14 Józef Glemp  Poland 18 December 1929
(age 75)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop of Warsaw [22]
15 Joachim Meisner  Germany 25 December 1933
(age 71)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop of Cologne [23]
16 Francis Arinze  Nigeria 1 November 1932
(age 72)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [24]
17 Miguel Obando Bravo SDB  Nicaragua 2 February 1926
(age 79)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Managua [25]
18 Ricardo Jamin Vidal  Philippines 6 February 1931
(age 74)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop of Cebu [26]
19 Paul Poupard  France 30 August 1930
(age 74)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for Culture [27]
20 Friedrich Wetter  Germany 20 February 1928
(age 77)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop of Munich and Freising [28]
21 Adrianus Johannes Simonis  Netherlands 26 November 1931
(age 73)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop of Utrecht [29]
22 Bernard Francis Law  United States 4 November 1931
(age 73)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major [30]
23 Giacomo Biffi  Italy 13 June 1928
(age 76)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Bologna [31]
24 Eduardo Martínez Somalo  Spain 31 March 1927
(age 78)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church [9]
25 José Freire Falcão  Brazil 23 October 1925
(age 79)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Brasília [32]
26 Michele Giordano  Italy 22 September 1930
(age 74)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Archbishop of Naples [33]
27 Edmund Casimir Szoka  United States 14 September 1927
(age 77)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [34]
28 László Paskai OFM  Hungary 8 May 1927
(age 77)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Esztergom-Budapest [35]
29 Christian Wiyghan Tumi  Cameroon 15 October 1930
(age 74)
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Archbishop of Douala [36]
30 Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi CICM  Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 December 1930
(age 74)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop of Kinshasa [37]
31 Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936
(age 68)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop of Santo Domingo [38]
32 Roger Michael Mahony  United States 27 February 1936
(age 69)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop of Los Angeles [39]
33 Camillo Ruini  Italy 19 February 1931
(age 74)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Vicar General for Rome and Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint John Lateran [40]
34 Henri Schwery   Switzerland 14 June 1932
(age 72)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Bishop emeritus of Sion [41]
35 Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky  Germany 9 February 1936
(age 69)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop of Berlin [42]
36 Miloslav Vlk  Czech Republic 17 May 1932
(age 72)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Prague [43]
37 Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi  Japan 17 June 1928
(age 76)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Tokyo [44]
38 Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja SJ  Indonesia 20 December 1934
(age 70)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Jakarta [45]
39 Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino  Cuba 18 October 1936
(age 68)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana [46]
40 Emmanuel Wamala  Uganda 15 December 1926
(age 78)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Kampala [47]
41 William Henry Keeler  United States 4 March 1931
(age 74)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Baltimore [48]
42 Jean-Claude Turcotte  Canada 26 June 1936
(age 68)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Montreal [49]
43 Ricardo María Carles Gordó  Spain 24 September 1926
(age 78)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona [50]
44 Adam Joseph Maida  United States 18 March 1930
(age 75)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Detroit [51]
45 Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945
(age 59)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Vrhbosna [52]
46 Armand Gaetan Razafindratandra  Madagascar 7 August 1925
(age 79)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Antananarivo [53]
47 Juan Sandoval Íñiguez  Mexico 28 March 1933
(age 72)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop of Guadalajara [54]
48 Salvatore De Giorgi  Italy 6 September 1930
(age 74)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Palermo [55]
49 Antonio María Rouco Varela  Spain 20 August 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Madrid [56]
50 Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic  Canada 27 January 1930
(age 75)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Toronto [57]
51 Dionigi Tettamanzi  Italy 14 March 1934
(age 71)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Milan [58]
52 Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944
(age 60)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam [59]
53 Christoph Schönborn OP  Austria 22 January 1945
(age 60)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Vienna [60]
54 Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942
(age 62)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Mexico [61]
55 Francis Eugene George OMI  United States 16 January 1937
(age 68)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Chicago [62]
56 Marian Jaworski  Poland[a] 21 August 1926
(age 78)
CP 21 February 1998[b]
John Paul II
Archbishop of Lviv [63]
57 Jānis Pujats  Latvia 14 November 1930
(age 74)
CP 21 February 1998[b]
John Paul II
Archbishop of Riga [64]
58 Ivan Dias  India 14 April 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Bombay [65]
59 Geraldo Majella Agnelo  Brazil 19 October 1933
(age 71)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia [66]
60 Pedro Rubiano Sáenz  Colombia 13 September 1932
(age 72)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Bogotá [67]
61 Theodore Edgar McCarrick  United States 7 July 1930
(age 74)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Washington [68]
62 Desmond Connell  Ireland 24 March 1926
(age 79)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Dublin [69]
63 Audrys Juozas Bačkis  Lithuania 1 February 1937
(age 68)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Vilnius [70]
64 Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa ISch  Chile 5 September 1933
(age 71)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Santiago de Chile [71]
65 Julio Terrazas Sandoval CSsR  Bolivia 7 March 1936
(age 69)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra [72]
66 Wilfrid Fox Napier OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941
(age 64)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Durban [73]
67 Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942
(age 62)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Tegucigalpa [74]
68 Bernard Agré  Ivory Coast 2 March 1926
(age 79)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Abidjan [75]
69 Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943
(age 61)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Lima [76]
70 Francisco Álvarez Martínez  Spain 14 July 1925
(age 79)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Toledo [77]
71 Cláudio Hummes OFM  Brazil 8 August 1934
(age 70)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of São Paulo [78]
72 Varkey Vithayathil CSsR  India 29 May 1927
(age 77)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly
(Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
[79]
73 Jorge Mario Bergoglio SJ  Argentina 17 December 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Buenos Aires [80]
74 José da Cruz Policarpo  Portugal 26 February 1936
(age 69)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Patriarch of Lisbon [81]
75 Severino Poletto  Italy 18 March 1933
(age 72)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Turin [82]
76 Cormac Murphy-O'Connor  United Kingdom 24 August 1932
(age 72)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of Westminster [83]
77 Edward Michael Egan  United States 2 April 1932
(age 73)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop of New York [84]
78 Lubomyr Husar MSU  Ukraine 26 February 1933
(age 72)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Major Archbishop of Kiev-Galicia
(Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church)
[85]
79 Karl Lehmann  Germany 16 May 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Bishop of Mainz [86]
80 Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941
(age 63)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Patriarch of Venice [87]
81 Anthony Olubunmi Okogie  Nigeria 16 June 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Lagos [88]
82 Bernard Panafieu  France 26 January 1931
(age 74)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Marseille [89]
83 Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1941
(age 64)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Khartoum [90]
84 Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM  Spain 23 August 1934
(age 70)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Seville [91]
85 Justin Francis Rigali  United States 19 April 1935
(age 69)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Philadelphia [92]
86 Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien  United Kingdom 17 March 1938
(age 67)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh [93]
87 Eusébio Oscar Scheid SCI  Brazil 8 December 1932
(age 72)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro [94]
88 Ennio Antonelli  Italy 18 November 1936
(age 68)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Florence [95]
89 Tarcisio Bertone SDB  Italy 2 December 1934
(age 70)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Genoa [96]
90 Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948
(age 56)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Cape Coast [97]
91 Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 15 October 1939
(age 65)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Ranchi [98]
92 George Pell  Australia 8 June 1941
(age 63)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Sydney [99]
93 Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949
(age 56)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Zagreb [100]
94 Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn  Vietnam 5 March 1934
(age 71)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City [101]
95 Rodolfo Quezada Toruño  Guatemala 8 March 1932
(age 73)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Guatemala [102]
96 Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950
(age 54)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Lyon [103]
97 Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952
(age 52)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest [6]
98 Marc Ouellet PSS  Canada 8 June 1944
(age 60)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Quebec [104]
99 Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez  Chile 23 December 1926
(age 78)
CD 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Protodeacon) [105]
100 Darío Castrillón Hoyos  Colombia 4 July 1929
(age 75)
CD 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei [106]
101 James Francis Stafford  United States 26 July 1932
(age 72)
CD 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Major Penitentiary [107]
102 Agostino Cacciavillan  Italy 14 August 1926
(age 78)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [108]
103 Sergio Sebastiani  Italy 11 April 1931
(age 73)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See [109]
104 Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939
(age 65)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education [110]
105 José Saraiva Martins CMF  Portugal 6 January 1932
(age 73)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [111]
106 Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943
(age 61)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples [112]
107 Mario Francesco Pompedda  Italy 18 April 1929
(age 75)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura [113]
108 Walter Kasper  Germany 5 March 1933
(age 72)
CD 21 February 2001
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [114]
109 Jean-Louis Tauran  France 5 April 1943
(age 61)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church [115]
110 Renato Raffaele Martino  Italy 23 November 1932
(age 72)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace [116]
111 Francesco Marchisano  Italy 25 June 1929
(age 75)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter and President of the Labour Office of the Apostolic See [117]
112 Julián Herranz Casado  Spain 31 March 1930
(age 75)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [118]
113 Javier Lozano Barragán  Mexico 26 January 1933
(age 72)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers [119]
114 Stephen Fumio Hamao  Japan 9 March 1930
(age 75)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People [120]
115 Attilio Nicora  Italy 16 March 1937
(age 68)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [121]

Not in attendance[edit]

No. Name Country Born
Age
Order Consistory
Pope
Office Reason for absence Ref.
1 Jaime Lachica Sin  Philippines 31 August 1928
(age 76)
CP 24 May 1976
Paul VI
Archbishop emeritus of Manila Health reasons; illness [122]
2 Adolfo Antonio Suárez Rivera  Mexico 9 January 1927
(age 78)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Monterrey Health reasons; illness [123]

Cardinal electors by continent and by country[edit]

The 115 attending cardinal electors were from 52 countries on all six inhabited continents; the countries with the greatest number of cardinal electors were Italy (twenty), the United States (eleven) and, jointly, Germany and Spain (six each).

Numbered choropleth world map showing the number of cardinal electors for the 2005 papal conclave from each country
Choropleth map indicating the number of cardinal electors in attendance from each country (unnumbered countries denote one cardinal elector)[c]
* Continent/country of elected pope
Cardinal electors by continent
Continent Number Percentage
Africa 11 9.6%
North America 22 19.1%
South America 12 10.4%
Asia 10 8.7%
Europe* 58 50.4%
Oceania 2 1.7%
Total 115 100.0%
Cardinal electors by country
Country Continent Number
 Argentina South America 1
 Australia Oceania 1
 Austria Europe 1
 Belgium Europe 1
 Bolivia South America 1
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1
 Brazil South America 4
 Cameroon Africa 1
 Canada North America 3
 Chile South America 2
 Colombia South America 3
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 1
 Croatia Europe 1
 Cuba North America 1
 Czech Republic Europe 1
 Dominican Republic North America 1
 France Europe 5
 Germany* Europe 6
 Ghana Africa 1
 Guatemala North America 1
 Honduras North America 1
 Hungary Europe 2
 India Asia 3
 Indonesia Asia 1
 Ireland Europe 1
 Italy Europe 20
 Ivory Coast Africa 1
 Japan Asia 2
 Latvia Europe 1
 Lithuania Europe 1
 Madagascar Africa 1
 Mexico North America 3
 Netherlands Europe 1
 New Zealand Oceania 1
 Nicaragua North America 1
 Nigeria Africa 2
 Peru South America 1
 Philippines Asia 1
 Poland Europe 4
 Portugal Europe 2
 South Africa Africa 1
 Spain Europe 6
 Sudan Africa 1
  Switzerland Europe 1
 Syria Asia 1
 Tanzania Africa 1
 Thailand Asia 1
 Uganda Africa 1
 Ukraine Europe 1
 United Kingdom Europe 2
 United States North America 11
 Vietnam Asia 1
Total 115

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Territory as archbishop in  Ukraine
  2. ^ a b Created in pectore; revealed on 21 February 2001
  3. ^ This map indicates three cardinal electors from Poland and two cardinal electors from Ukraine, reflecting Marian Jaworski considered as being from Ukraine, rather than from Poland (as in the table). There is also an anachronistic border between South Sudan and Sudan; the indicated area of both countries represents the former territory of Sudan before South Sudan gained independence in 2011.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Pope John Paul II (22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis" (Apostolic constitution). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018 – via the Holy See.
  2. ^ a b O'Connell, Gerard (4 April 2005). "Search for next pope begins as 183 cardinals gather in Rome". The Independent. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2005.
  3. ^ "Briefing del Direttore della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, Dr. Joaquín Navarro-Valls" [Briefing of the Director of the Holy See Press Office, Dr. Joaquín Navarro-Valls]. Sala Stampa della Santa Sede. 9 April 2005. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2005.
  4. ^ a b c "Elenco degli Em.mi Cardinali che entrano in Conclave secondo il loro rispettivo ordine di precedenza (Vescovi, Presbiteri, Diaconi)" [List of the Eminent Cardinals entering into Conclave according to their respective order of precedence (Bishops, Priests, Deacons)] (in Italian). Sala Stampa della Santa Sede. 18 April 2005. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2005.
  5. ^ a b "Cé Card. Marco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Erdő Card. Péter". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Ingresso in Conclave" [Entrance into the Conclave] (in Italian). Sala Stampa della Santa Sede. 18 April 2005. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2005.
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