Cardinals created by Francis

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Pope Francis (r. 2013–present) has created cardinals at six consistories held at roughly annual intervals beginning in 2014, most recently on 5 October 2019. He has created 88 cardinals from 56 countries, 17 of which had never been represented in the College of Cardinals, and the first Scandinavian since the Reformation.[a]

Following the 2019 consistory, 67 of the cardinal electors had been appointed by Francis, 42 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 19 by Pope John Paul II.[1][b] Each set of Francis' appointments has increased the number of cardinal electors beyond the set limit of 120, as high as 125 in both 2015 and 2018 and 128 in 2019. The number exceeded 120 for ten months following the June 2018 consistory, the longest such time period during Francis' papacy.

Cardinal electors[edit]

Francis' consistories have all brought the number of cardinal electors above the maximum of 120, as did several consistories held by John Paul II and Benedict XVI.[c] The February 2014 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 122,[3] but the 80th birthday of Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn and the death of Cardinal José da Cruz Policarpo reduced the number to 120 in less than a month. The February 2015 consistory increased the number to 125,[4] but the 80th birthdays of Cardinals Antonios Naguib and Justin Francis Rigali, the announcement on 20 March that Cardinal Keith O'Brien would no longer participate in a conclave,[5] and the deaths of Cardinals Jean-Claude Turcotte and Francis George reduced the number of cardinal electors to 120 on 19 April, just two months after the consistory. The November 2016 consistory resulted in 121 electors,[6] which fell to 120 with the 80th birthday of Cardinal Théodore-Adrien Sarr at the end of the month. The June 2017 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 121,[7] and it declined to 120 when Cardinal Carlo Caffarra died ten weeks later on 6 September. In the June 2018 consistory, Francis increased the number of cardinal electors to 125,[8] which resulted in a count above 120 for ten months.[9][d] The October 2019 consistory increased the number of electors to 128, with the 80th birthdays of four electors reducing that number to 124 by mid-October.[10]

22 February 2014[edit]

On 31 October 2013, Pope Francis announced plans to name new cardinals in a consistory on 22 February 2014.[11] In December 2013, he said that rumors that he might name a woman cardinal were not to be taken seriously.[12] He announced the names of 19 new cardinals on 12 January 2014.[13] Sixteen were under the age of 80, eligible to vote in papal conclaves.[14] Observers attempting to interpret Francis' approach to naming cardinals noted the absence of certain names, including the heads of the dioceses of Venice and Turin and the Vatican Librarian and Archivist.[15] Others noted a preference for clerics with pastoral experience and only a single theologian, Müller.[16] John L. Allen said the choices made the February meeting the "Consistory of the Periphery", noting the "broad global distribution" of the new cardinals.[17] Of the nomination of the archbishop of Perugia rather than those of more prestigious dioceses like Turin and Venice, La Stampa said: "Any career planners in the Church who had the path from the seminary to the cardinalship set out very clearly in their minds will have to think again."[18]

Pope Francis sent a letter to each cardinal-designate that said:[19]

The cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration; it is simply a service that requires you to broaden your gaze and open your hearts.... Therefore I ask you, please, to receive this designation with a simple and humble heart. And, while you must do so with pleasure and joy, ensure that this sentiment is far from any expression of worldliness or from any form of celebration contrary to the evangelical spirit of austerity, sobriety and poverty.

Those made cardinal at the consistory were:[20]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Pietro Parolin (b. 1955) Secretary of State
2. Lorenzo Baldisseri (b. 1940) Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
3. Gerhard Ludwig Müller (b. 1947) Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
4. Beniamino Stella (b. 1941) Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
5. Vincent Gerard Nichols (b. 1945) Archbishop of Westminster, England, United Kingdom
6. Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano (b. 1949) Archbishop of Managua, Nicaragua
7. Gérald Cyprien Lacroix, ISPX (b. 1957) Archbishop of Quebec, Canada
8. Jean-Pierre Kutwa (b. 1945) Archbishop of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
9. Orani João Tempesta, OCist (b. 1950) Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
10. Gualtiero Bassetti (b. 1942) Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve, Italy
11. Mario Aurelio Poli (b. 1947) Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina
12. Andrew Yeom Soo-jung (b. 1943) Archbishop of Seoul, South Korea
13. Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, SDB (b. 1942) Archbishop of Santiago de Chile, Chile
14. Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo (b. 1945) Archbishop of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
15. Orlando Beltrán Quevedo, OMI (b. 1939) Archbishop of Cotabato, Philippines
16. Chibly Langlois (b. 1958) Bishop of Les Cayes, Haiti
17. Loris Francesco Capovilla (1915–2016) Prelate emeritus of Loreto, Italy
18. Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, CMF (1929–2019) Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela, Spain
19. Kelvin Edward Felix (b. 1933) Archbishop emeritus of Castries, St. Lucia

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI attended the consistory. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter's Basilica to greet him,[20][21] and took a seat in a row with several cardinals using a chair the same as theirs.[22] Loris Francesco Capovilla was granted a dispensation and did not attend the consistory.[23]

Prior to this consistory, there were 106 cardinals under the age of 80 and eligible to participate in the election of a pope, and the addition of 16 new cardinals under age 80 brought the total to 122,[3] although another 10 were due to turn 80 in the remainder of 2014. Because the maximum number of cardinals allowed to participate in a papal conclave is set at 120, the number of cardinals below 80 is usually limited to 120, although that limit has occasionally been exceeded.[24] The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 218.[e]

14 February 2015[edit]

On 11 December 2014, the Vatican announced that new cardinals would be created at a consistory on 14 February 2015.[25] On 4 January 2015, Pope Francis announced the names of 20 cardinals-designate, including 15 who were under the age of 80.[26] Vatican spokesman, Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the list "confirms that the pope doesn't feel tied to the traditional 'cardinal sees'", like Turin and Venice, "which reflected historic reasons in various countries. Instead we have various nominations of archbishops or bishops of sees in the past that wouldn't have had a cardinal."[27] The selections continued the pattern Pope Francis established the previous year, showing a "preference for diocesan bishops" and for the southern hemisphere.[4] Of those under the age of 80, only one is a member of the Curia (Mamberti); three are bishops rather than archbishops; four are the first cardinals from their countries (Cape Verde, Myanmar, Panama, Tonga) and others from a diocese that has not had one for decades (Agrigento, Italy, not since 1786; Ancona, Italy, not in more than a century; Montevideo, Uruguay, not since 1979; Valladolid, Spain, not since 1919) or never had one (Morelia, Mexico).[4][28] Nine have been elected by their peers as president of a national or regional episcopal conference.[29] These appointments brought the number of cardinal electors to 125, while two electors would turn 80 in April.[4] The total number of cardinals reached 227 after the consistory.[f]

On 23 January 2015, Pope Francis advised each nominee how to respond to his appointment: "Accept it with humility. Only do so in a way that in these celebrations there does not creep in a spirit of worldliness that intoxicates more than grappa on an empty stomach, disorienting and separating one from the cross of Christ."[30]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Dominique Mamberti (b. 1952) Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
2. Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente (b. 1948) Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
3. Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, CM (b. 1948) Archbishop of Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
4. John Atcherley Dew (b. 1948) Archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand
5. Edoardo Menichelli (b. 1939) Archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, Italy
6. Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn (b. 1938) Archbishop of Hanoi, Vietnam
7. Alberto Suárez Inda (b. 1939) Archbishop of Morelia, Mexico
8. Charles Maung Bo, SDB (b. 1948) Archbishop of Yangon, Myanmar
9. Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovitvanit (b. 1949) Archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand
10. Francesco Montenegro (b. 1946) Archbishop of Agrigento, Italy
11. Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB (b. 1959) Archbishop of Montevideo, Uruguay
12. Ricardo Blázquez Pérez (b. 1942) Archbishop of Valladolid, Spain
13. José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, OAR (b. 1944) Bishop of David, Panama
14. Arlindo Gomes Furtado (b. 1949) Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde, Cape Verde
15. Soane Patita Paini Mafi (b. 1961) Bishop of Tonga, Tonga
16. José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez (1919–2019) Archbishop emeritus of Manizales, Colombia
17. Luigi De Magistris (b. 1926) Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus, Italy
18. Karl-Josef Rauber (b. 1934) Apostolic Nuncio (retired), Germany
19. Luis Héctor Villalba (b. 1934) Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán, Argentina
20. Júlio Duarte Langa (b. 1927) Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai, Mozambique

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI again attended the consistory and was greeted by Pope Francis before and after the ceremony. The only new cardinal unable to attend was Archbishop José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, whose health prevented him from traveling to Rome.[31]

19 November 2016[edit]

On 9 October 2016, the Pope announced that he planned to create new cardinals at a consistory on 19 November 2016,[32] including 13 cardinals under the age of 80 and four over the age of 80. His selections continued to demonstrate his preference for the peripheries and places not previously represented in the College of Cardinals. Several are the first named cardinals from their countries. Of those who are under the age of 80, only Farrell is a member of the Roman Curia. In choosing Simoni, Francis named his first priest to the rank of cardinal.[33] The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 228 and the number of cardinal electors to 121.[6]

Asked a year later at a meeting with Jesuits in Bangladesh why he named a cardinal from "a nation where there is such a small Christian community", Francis said:[34]

Naming the cardinals, I tried to look at small Churches, those that grow in the peripheries, at the edges. Not to give consolation to those Churches, but to launch a clear message: the small Churches that grow in the periphery and are without ancient Catholic traditions today must speak to the universal Church, to the whole Church. I clearly feel that they have something to teach us.

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Mario Zenari (b. 1946) Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
2. Dieudonné Nzapalainga, C.S.Sp. (b. 1967) Archbishop of Bangui, Central African Republic
3. Carlos Osoro Sierra (b. 1945) Archbishop of Madrid, Spain
4. Sérgio da Rocha (b. 1959) Archbishop of Brasília, Brazil
5. Blase Joseph Cupich (b. 1949) Archbishop of Chicago, United States of America
6. Patrick D'Rozario, C.S.C. (b. 1943) Archbishop of Dhaka, Bangladesh
7. Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo (b. 1944) Archbishop of Mérida, Venezuela
8. Jozef De Kesel (b. 1947) Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, Belgium
9. Maurice Piat, C.S.Sp. (b. 1941) Bishop of Port-Louis, Mauritius
10. Kevin Joseph Farrell (b. 1947) Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
11. Carlos Aguiar Retes (b. 1950) Archbishop of Tlalnepantla, Mexico
12. John Ribat, M.S.C. (b. 1957) Archbishop of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
13. Joseph William Tobin, C.Ss.R. (b. 1952) Archbishop of Indianapolis,[g] United States of America
14. Anthony Soter Fernandez (b. 1930) Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
15. Renato Corti (1936–2020) Bishop emeritus of Novara, Italy
16. Sebastian Koto Khoarai, O.M.I. (b. 1929) Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho
17. Ernest Simoni (b. 1928) Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult, Albania

All the new cardinals attended the consistory on 19 November except Lesotho Bishop Khoarai, who was 87 and unable to travel. For the first time since his retirement Pope emeritus Benedict XVI did not attend.[37][38] The new cardinals were given the rank of Cardinal Priest except for Zenari, Farrell, and Simoni, who were made Cardinal Deacons.[39] Cardinal Nzapalainga became the youngest member of the College of Cardinals and the first born after the Second Vatican Council.[40] Following the consistory ceremony, Pope Francis and the 16 new cardinals present visited the Pope emeritus as a group at his residence in Mater Ecclesiae Monastery and received his blessing.[41]

28 June 2017[edit]

On 21 May 2017, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on 28 June. He adhered to his established pattern of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, including the first cardinals from El Salvador, Laos, Mali, and Sweden, the latter of whom will also be the first cardinal from Scandinavia. All five are under the age of 80.[42][7] According to the National Catholic Reporter, Gregorio Rosa Chávez is "believed to be the first auxiliary bishop to have been made a cardinal in at least the modern era."[43] It has also been claimed that Rosa is the first parish pastor to be named cardinal in decades.[44][better source needed] With these new cardinals, the number of cardinal electors reached 121[7] and the total number of cardinals amounted to 225.[h]

Following the consistory on 28 June, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict XVI, who did not attend the ceremony.[45][46]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Jean Zerbo (b. 1943) Archbishop of Bamako, Mali
2. Juan José Omella i Omella (b. 1946) Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain
3. Anders Arborelius, O.C.D. (b. 1949) Bishop of Stockholm, Sweden
4. Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun, I.V.D. (b. 1944) Apostolic Vicar of Paksé, Laos
5. Gregorio Rosa Chávez (b. 1942) Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador, El Salvador

28 June 2018[edit]

On 20 May 2018, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of fourteen new cardinals on 29 June–later changed to 28 June–,[47] including 11 young enough to participate in a papal election.[48] Those named were an international group, as is typical of Francis, including prelates from Pakistan, Japan, and Madagascar, countries unrepresented in the College since 1994, 2007, and 2010, respectively.[49] He also named two members of the Roman Curia, an official of the papal household and another of the Diocese of Rome. With this consistory Francis again raised the number of cardinal electors to 125.[50][51] The number of electors declined to 120 on 27 April 2019.[9] The total number of cardinals reached 226 after the consistory.[i]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Louis Raphael I Sako (b. 1948) Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, Iraq
2. Luis Francisco Ladaria Ferrer, S.J. (b. 1944) Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
3. Angelo De Donatis (b. 1954) Vicar General of Rome
4. Giovanni Angelo Becciu (b. 1948) Substitute of the Secretariat of State
5. Konrad Krajewski (b. 1963) Almoner of the Office of Papal Charities
6. Joseph Coutts (b. 1945) Archbishop of Karachi, Pakistan
7. António Augusto dos Santos Marto (b. 1947) Bishop of Leiria-Fátima, Portugal
8. Pedro Barreto, S.J. (b. 1944) Archbishop of Huancayo, Peru
9. Désiré Tsarahazana (b. 1954) Archbishop of Toamasina, Madagascar
10. Giuseppe Petrocchi (b. 1948) Archbishop of L'Aquila, Italy
11. Thomas Aquino Manyo Maeda (b. 1949) Archbishop of Osaka, Japan
12. Sergio Obeso Rivera (1931–2019) Archbishop Emeritus of Xalapa, Mexico
13. Toribio Ticona Porco (b. 1937) Prelate Emeritus of Corocoro, Bolivia
14. Aquilino Bocos Merino, C.M.F. (b. 1938) Claretian Superior-General Emeritus,[j] Spain

At the consistory, Sako addressed Francis on behalf of the new cardinals, thanking him for the concern he has shown for the small, persecuted Catholic population of the Middle East. Francis warned the new cardinals against "palace intrigues that take place, even in curial offices".[53] Sako did not receive the same red biretta as the others, but a rounder red "shash" traditionally worn by cardinals of the Chaldean Catholic Church.[54] Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict following the consistory.[55]

5 October 2019[edit]

On 1 September 2019, Pope Francis announced that he would hold a consistory to create thirteen new cardinals on 5 October, including ten who are young enough to participate in a papal conclave.[56] This brought the number of cardinal electors to 128, eight more than the limit set by Pope Paul VI, but often ignored.[10] The total number of cardinals reached 225 after the consistory.[k] The individuals named represent the international character of the Church, including prelates from Guatemala and Indonesia, as well as those with expertise on the care of migrants and relations with Islam; those from Luxembourg and Morocco are the first cardinals from those countries. Three of those named are Curial officials, including the only one not already a bishop.[57][58]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot M.C.C.J. (b. 1952) President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
2. José Tolentino Calaça de Mendonça (b. 1965) Librarian & Archivist of the Roman Church
3. Ignatius Suharyo Hardjoatmodjo (b. 1950) Archbishop of Jakarta, Indonesia
4. Juan de la Caridad García Rodríguez (b. 1948) Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana, Cuba
5. Fridolin Ambongo Besungu O.F.M. Cap. (b. 1960) Archbishop of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
6. Jean-Claude Hollerich S.J. (b. 1958) Archbishop of Luxembourg, Luxembourg
7. Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri (b. 1947) Bishop of Huehuetenango, Guatemala
8. Matteo Maria Zuppi (b. 1955) Archbishop of Bologna, Italy
9. Cristóbal López Romero S.D.B. (b. 1952) Archbishop of Rabat, Morocco
10. Michael Czerny S.J. (b. 1946) Undersecretary of the Migrant and Refugee Section of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development[l]
11. Michael Louis Fitzgerald M.Afr. (b. 1937) Apostolic Nuncio (retired) and President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
12. Sigitas Tamkevicius S.J. (b. 1938) Archbishop Emeritus of Kaunas, Lithuania
13. Eugenio Dal Corso P.S.D.P. (b. 1939) Bishop Emeritus of Benguela, Angola

Following the consistory, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict, who spoke to them briefly and gave them his blessing.[60]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Countries first represented among cardinals created by Francis, by consistory, with those represented in the College for the first time in italics:
    • 2014: Argentina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Philippines, St. Lucia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom (15);
    • 2015: Cape Verde, Colombia, Ethiopia, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Zealand, Panama, Thailand, Tonga, Uruguay, Vietnam (12);
    • 2016: Albania, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Central African Republic, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea, United States of America, Venezuela (11);
    • 2017: El Salvador, Laos, Mali, Sweden (4);
    • 2018: Bolivia, Iraq, Japan, Malta, Madagascar, Pakistan, Peru, Poland (8);
    • 2019: Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Luxembourg, Morocco (6).
  2. ^ With four cardinals reaching their 80th birthdays, by 15 October the 124 cardinal electors will include 66 named by Francis, 42 by Benedict, and 16 by John Paul.[2]
  3. ^ The number of cardinal electors has been as high as 135 on two occasions, following Pope John Paul II's consistories on 21 February 2001 and 21 October 2003.
  4. ^ It might have exceeded 120 for 13 months had Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran not died on 5 July 2018.
  5. ^ 207 cardinals at 2013 conclave minus 1 cardinal elected pope (Bergoglio) minus 7 cardinals who died before the 2014 consistory (Antonetti, Nagy, Pimenta, Tonini, Mazombwe, Bartolucci, Carles Gordó) plus 19 newly-appointed cardinals.
  6. ^ 218 cardinals at previous consistory minus 11 cardinals who died before the 2015 consistory (Policarpo, Delly, , Lourdusamy, Agré, Marchisano, Clancy, Szoka, Angelini, Mejía, Becker) plus 20 newly-appointed cardinals.
  7. ^ Tobin was appointed Archbishop of Newark on 7 November 2016, but was not installed there until 6 January 2017. He was nevertheless identified as Archbishop of Newark in the consistory service booklet[35] and on the day following the consistory by L'Osservatore Romano.[36]
  8. ^ 228 cardinals at previous consistory minus 8 cardinals who died before the 2017 consistory (Arns, Agustoni, Connell, Vlk, Keeler, Nicora, Husar, Dias) plus 5 newly-appointed cardinals.
  9. ^ 225 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2018 consistory (Meisner, Tettamanzi, Murphy-O’Connor, Caffarra, De Paolis, Vidal, Panafieu, Lanza di Montezemolo, Law, Lehmann, O'Brien, Castrillón Hoyos, Obando Bravo) plus 14 newly-appointed cardinals.
  10. ^ He was consecrated a bishop on 16 June 2018.[52]
  11. ^ 226 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2019 consistory (Tauran, Sebastián Aguilar, Danneels, Sfeir, Sgreccia, Sardi, Estepa Llaurens, Ortega y Alamino, Obeso Rivera, Silvestrini, Pimiento Rodríguez, Etchegaray, Levada) minus 1 cardinal who resigned (McCarrick) plus 13 newly-appointed cardinals.
  12. ^ He was consecrated a bishop on 4 October 2019.[59]


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