Cardinals created by Francis
Pope Francis (r. 2013–present) has created cardinals at six consistories held at roughly annual intervals beginning in 2014, most recently on 5 October 2019. He has created 88 cardinals from 56 countries, 17 of which had never been represented in the College of Cardinals, and the first Scandinavian since the Reformation.[a]
Following the 2019 consistory, 67 of the cardinal electors had been appointed by Francis, 42 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 19 by Pope John Paul II.[b] Each set of Francis' appointments has increased the number of cardinal electors beyond the set limit of 120, as high as 125 in both 2015 and 2018 and 128 in 2019. The number exceeded 120 for ten months following the June 2018 consistory, the longest such time period during Francis' papacy.
Francis' consistories have all brought the number of cardinal electors above the maximum of 120, as did several consistories held by John Paul II and Benedict XVI.[c] The February 2014 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 122, but the 80th birthday of Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn and the death of Cardinal José da Cruz Policarpo reduced the number to 120 in less than a month. The February 2015 consistory increased the number to 125, but the 80th birthdays of Cardinals Antonios Naguib and Justin Francis Rigali, the announcement on 20 March that Cardinal Keith O'Brien would no longer participate in a conclave, and the deaths of Cardinals Jean-Claude Turcotte and Francis George reduced the number of cardinal electors to 120 on 19 April, just two months after the consistory. The November 2016 consistory resulted in 121 electors, which fell to 120 with the 80th birthday of Cardinal Théodore-Adrien Sarr at the end of the month. The June 2017 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 121, and it declined to 120 when Cardinal Carlo Caffarra died ten weeks later on 6 September. In the June 2018 consistory, Francis increased the number of cardinal electors to 125, which resulted in a count above 120 for ten months.[d] The October 2019 consistory increased the number of electors to 128, with the 80th birthdays of four electors reducing that number to 124 by mid-October.
22 February 2014
On 31 October 2013, Pope Francis announced plans to name new cardinals in a consistory on 22 February 2014. In December 2013, he said that rumors that he might name a woman cardinal were not to be taken seriously. He announced the names of 19 new cardinals on 12 January 2014. Sixteen were under the age of 80, eligible to vote in papal conclaves. Observers attempting to interpret Francis' approach to naming cardinals noted the absence of certain names, including the heads of the dioceses of Venice and Turin and the Vatican Librarian and Archivist. Others noted a preference for clerics with pastoral experience and only a single theologian, Müller. John L. Allen said the choices made the February meeting the "Consistory of the Periphery", noting the "broad global distribution" of the new cardinals. Of the nomination of the archbishop of Perugia rather than those of more prestigious dioceses like Turin and Venice, La Stampa said: "Any career planners in the Church who had the path from the seminary to the cardinalship set out very clearly in their minds will have to think again."
Pope Francis sent a letter to each cardinal-designate that said:
The cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration; it is simply a service that requires you to broaden your gaze and open your hearts.... Therefore I ask you, please, to receive this designation with a simple and humble heart. And, while you must do so with pleasure and joy, ensure that this sentiment is far from any expression of worldliness or from any form of celebration contrary to the evangelical spirit of austerity, sobriety and poverty.
Those made cardinal at the consistory were:
Pope emeritus Benedict XVI attended the consistory. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter's Basilica to greet him, and took a seat in a row with several cardinals using a chair the same as theirs. Loris Francesco Capovilla was granted a dispensation and did not attend the consistory.
Prior to this consistory, there were 106 cardinals under the age of 80 and eligible to participate in the election of a pope, and the addition of 16 new cardinals under age 80 brought the total to 122, although another 10 were due to turn 80 in the remainder of 2014. Because the maximum number of cardinals allowed to participate in a papal conclave is set at 120, the number of cardinals below 80 is usually limited to 120, although that limit has occasionally been exceeded. The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 218.[e]
14 February 2015
On 11 December 2014, the Vatican announced that new cardinals would be created at a consistory on 14 February 2015. On 4 January 2015, Pope Francis announced the names of 20 cardinals-designate, including 15 who were under the age of 80. Vatican spokesman, Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the list "confirms that the pope doesn't feel tied to the traditional 'cardinal sees'", like Turin and Venice, "which reflected historic reasons in various countries. Instead we have various nominations of archbishops or bishops of sees in the past that wouldn't have had a cardinal." The selections continued the pattern Pope Francis established the previous year, showing a "preference for diocesan bishops" and for the southern hemisphere. Of those under the age of 80, only one is a member of the Curia (Mamberti); three are bishops rather than archbishops; four are the first cardinals from their countries (Cape Verde, Myanmar, Panama, Tonga) and others from a diocese that has not had one for decades (Agrigento, Italy, not since 1786; Ancona, Italy, not in more than a century; Montevideo, Uruguay, not since 1979; Valladolid, Spain, not since 1919) or never had one (Morelia, Mexico). Nine have been elected by their peers as president of a national or regional episcopal conference. These appointments brought the number of cardinal electors to 125, while two electors would turn 80 in April. The total number of cardinals reached 227 after the consistory.[f]
On 23 January 2015, Pope Francis advised each nominee how to respond to his appointment: "Accept it with humility. Only do so in a way that in these celebrations there does not creep in a spirit of worldliness that intoxicates more than grappa on an empty stomach, disorienting and separating one from the cross of Christ."
Pope emeritus Benedict XVI again attended the consistory and was greeted by Pope Francis before and after the ceremony. The only new cardinal unable to attend was Archbishop José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, whose health prevented him from traveling to Rome.
19 November 2016
On 9 October 2016, the Pope announced that he planned to create new cardinals at a consistory on 19 November 2016, including 13 cardinals under the age of 80 and four over the age of 80. His selections continued to demonstrate his preference for the peripheries and places not previously represented in the College of Cardinals. Several are the first named cardinals from their countries. Of those who are under the age of 80, only Farrell is a member of the Roman Curia. In choosing Simoni, Francis named his first priest to the rank of cardinal. The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 228 and the number of cardinal electors to 121.
Asked a year later at a meeting with Jesuits in Bangladesh why he named a cardinal from "a nation where there is such a small Christian community", Francis said:
Naming the cardinals, I tried to look at small Churches, those that grow in the peripheries, at the edges. Not to give consolation to those Churches, but to launch a clear message: the small Churches that grow in the periphery and are without ancient Catholic traditions today must speak to the universal Church, to the whole Church. I clearly feel that they have something to teach us.
All the new cardinals attended the consistory on 19 November except Lesotho Bishop Khoarai, who was 87 and unable to travel. For the first time since his retirement Pope emeritus Benedict XVI did not attend. The new cardinals were given the rank of Cardinal Priest except for Zenari, Farrell, and Simoni, who were made Cardinal Deacons. Cardinal Nzapalainga became the youngest member of the College of Cardinals and the first born after the Second Vatican Council. Following the consistory ceremony, Pope Francis and the 16 new cardinals present visited the Pope emeritus as a group at his residence in Mater Ecclesiae Monastery and received his blessing.
28 June 2017
On 21 May 2017, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on 28 June. He adhered to his established pattern of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, including the first cardinals from El Salvador, Laos, Mali, and Sweden, the latter of whom will also be the first cardinal from Scandinavia. All five are under the age of 80. According to the National Catholic Reporter, Gregorio Rosa Chávez is "believed to be the first auxiliary bishop to have been made a cardinal in at least the modern era." It has also been claimed that Rosa is the first parish pastor to be named cardinal in decades.[better source needed] With these new cardinals, the number of cardinal electors reached 121 and the total number of cardinals amounted to 225.[h]
|Name||Title when named cardinal|
|1. Jean Zerbo (b. 1943)||Archbishop of Bamako, Mali|
|2. Juan José Omella i Omella (b. 1946)||Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain|
|3. Anders Arborelius, O.C.D. (b. 1949)||Bishop of Stockholm, Sweden|
|4. Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun, I.V.D. (b. 1944)||Apostolic Vicar of Paksé, Laos|
|5. Gregorio Rosa Chávez (b. 1942)||Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador, El Salvador|
28 June 2018
On 20 May 2018, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of fourteen new cardinals on 29 June–later changed to 28 June–, including 11 young enough to participate in a papal election. Those named were an international group, as is typical of Francis, including prelates from Pakistan, Japan, and Madagascar, countries unrepresented in the College since 1994, 2007, and 2010, respectively. He also named two members of the Roman Curia, an official of the papal household and another of the Diocese of Rome. With this consistory Francis again raised the number of cardinal electors to 125. The number of electors declined to 120 on 27 April 2019. The total number of cardinals reached 226 after the consistory.[i]
At the consistory, Sako addressed Francis on behalf of the new cardinals, thanking him for the concern he has shown for the small, persecuted Catholic population of the Middle East. Francis warned the new cardinals against "palace intrigues that take place, even in curial offices". Sako did not receive the same red biretta as the others, but a rounder red "shash" traditionally worn by cardinals of the Chaldean Catholic Church. Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict following the consistory.
5 October 2019
On 1 September 2019, Pope Francis announced that he would hold a consistory to create thirteen new cardinals on 5 October, including ten who are young enough to participate in a papal conclave. This brought the number of cardinal electors to 128, eight more than the limit set by Pope Paul VI, but often ignored. The total number of cardinals reached 225 after the consistory.[k] The individuals named represent the international character of the Church, including prelates from Guatemala and Indonesia, as well as those with expertise on the care of migrants and relations with Islam; those from Luxembourg and Morocco are the first cardinals from those countries. Three of those named are Curial officials, including the only one not already a bishop.
Following the consistory, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict, who spoke to them briefly and gave them his blessing.
- Countries first represented among cardinals created by Francis, by consistory, with those represented in the College for the first time in italics:
- 2014: Argentina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Philippines, St. Lucia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom (15);
- 2015: Cape Verde, Colombia, Ethiopia, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Zealand, Panama, Thailand, Tonga, Uruguay, Vietnam (12);
- 2016: Albania, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Central African Republic, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea, United States of America, Venezuela (11);
- 2017: El Salvador, Laos, Mali, Sweden (4);
- 2018: Bolivia, Iraq, Japan, Malta, Madagascar, Pakistan, Peru, Poland (8);
- 2019: Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Luxembourg, Morocco (6).
- With four cardinals reaching their 80th birthdays, by 15 October the 124 cardinal electors will include 66 named by Francis, 42 by Benedict, and 16 by John Paul.
- The number of cardinal electors has been as high as 135 on two occasions, following Pope John Paul II's consistories on 21 February 2001 and 21 October 2003.
- It might have exceeded 120 for 13 months had Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran not died on 5 July 2018.
- 207 cardinals at 2013 conclave minus 1 cardinal elected pope (Bergoglio) minus 7 cardinals who died before the 2014 consistory (Antonetti, Nagy, Pimenta, Tonini, Mazombwe, Bartolucci, Carles Gordó) plus 19 newly-appointed cardinals.
- 218 cardinals at previous consistory minus 11 cardinals who died before the 2015 consistory (Policarpo, Delly, Cé, Lourdusamy, Agré, Marchisano, Clancy, Szoka, Angelini, Mejía, Becker) plus 20 newly-appointed cardinals.
- Tobin was appointed Archbishop of Newark on 7 November 2016, but was not installed there until 6 January 2017. He was nevertheless identified as Archbishop of Newark in the consistory service booklet and on the day following the consistory by L'Osservatore Romano.
- 228 cardinals at previous consistory minus 8 cardinals who died before the 2017 consistory (Arns, Agustoni, Connell, Vlk, Keeler, Nicora, Husar, Dias) plus 5 newly-appointed cardinals.
- 225 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2018 consistory (Meisner, Tettamanzi, Murphy-O’Connor, Caffarra, De Paolis, Vidal, Panafieu, Lanza di Montezemolo, Law, Lehmann, O'Brien, Castrillón Hoyos, Obando Bravo) plus 14 newly-appointed cardinals.
- He was consecrated a bishop on 16 June 2018.
- 226 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2019 consistory (Tauran, Sebastián Aguilar, Danneels, Sfeir, Sgreccia, Sardi, Estepa Llaurens, Ortega y Alamino, Obeso Rivera, Silvestrini, Pimiento Rodríguez, Etchegaray, Levada) minus 1 cardinal who resigned (McCarrick) plus 13 newly-appointed cardinals.
- He was consecrated a bishop on 4 October 2019.
- Pentin, Edward (2 September 2019). "Profiles of Pope Francis' New Cardinals". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (1 September 2019). "Francis names 13 new cardinals, including Vatican's point-person on helping refugees". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Allen Jr., John L. (12 January 2014). "Francis uses red hats to offer lesson on global church". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Tornielli, Andrea (4 January 2015). "Pope announces names of new cardinals: Only one Curia member, many pastors from the peripheries". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Allen Jr., John L. (20 March 2015). "In rare step, Scottish prelate caught in sex scandal quits as cardinal". Crux. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- San Martín, Inés (17 November 2016). "Everything you need to know about a consistory for new cardinals". Crux. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Pope Francis Calls Consistory to Create 5 New Cardinals". National Catholic Register. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Wooden, Cindy (22 May 2018). "Cardinal stats: Pope makes college more international, not much younger". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, John Paul II's former secretary, turns 80". Rome Reports. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- O'Connell, Gerard (5 October 2019). "Pope Francis creates 13 new cardinals, emphasizes their 'compassion'". America. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "New Cardinals to be created in February 2014". Vatican Radio. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Allen Jr., John L. (15 December 2013). "Francis shoots down women cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- "Pope Francis announces names of new Cardinals". Vatican Radio. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- D'Emilio, Frances (12 January 2014). "Pope Names 19 New Cardinals, Focusing on the Poor". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Reese, Thomas (13 January 2014). "Cardinals: continuity and change". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Winters, Michael Sean (13 January 2014). "The New Cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Allen, John L. (13 January 2014). "Four new echoes in 'Francis revolution'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "The importance of Gualtiero Bassetti's nomination". Vatican Insider. La Stampa. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Francis reminds new cardinals their nomination is not about promotion it is about service". Vatican Insider. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- Galeazzi, Giacomo (22 February 2014). "19 new cardinals created in Consistory in the presence of two Popes". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (22 February 2014). "Under Benedict's eye, Francis tells cardinals to be peacemakers". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Tornielli, Andrea (24 February 2014). "The "hidden" Pope's first step towards normality". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Tornielli, Andrea (19 February 2014). "Loris Capovilla will not receive the biretta in Rome". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Tornielli, Andrea (20 October 2013). "Francis' first consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- "Consistory for the creation of new cardinals in February 2015". Vatican News. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- D'Emilio, Frances (4 January 2015). "Pope Francis Names 15 New Cardinals From 14 Countries". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (4 January 2015). "Francis diversifies cardinals, choosing prelates from Asia, island nations". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Mickens, Robert (5 January 2015). "Francis chooses new cardinals from the margins". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Wooden, Cindy (23 January 2015). "Pope Francis urges new cardinals not to let nomination go to their heads". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Tornielli, Andrea (14 February 2015). "'The cardinalate is certainly an honour, but it is not honorific. Be examples of charity'". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (Press release). Holy See. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Pope to create 13 new cardinals, including 3 Americans". Crux. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "At the Crossroads of History: Pope Francis' Conversations with the Jesuits in Myanmar and Bangladesh". La Civiltà Cattolica. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Concistoro Ordinario Pubblico" (PDF). Holy See Press Office (in Italian). 19 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Diciasette Nuovi Cardinali" [Seventeen New Cardinals] (PDF). L'Osservatore Romano (in Italian). 20 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (19 November 2016). "Creating new cardinals, Francis warns against 'virus of polarization' in the church". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Wooden, Cindy (19 November 2016). "Pope calls new cardinals to be agents of unity in divided world". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Titular churches and diaconates of the new cardinals, 19.11.2016" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Now a cardinal, this African prelate was already a 'saint'". Crux. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Agasso Jr., Domenico (19 November 2016). "Pope and new cardinals pay Ratzinger a visit after the Consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Annuncio di Concistoro il 28 giugno per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (28 June 2017). "Francis tells new cardinals to look at reality facing today's Catholics". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Palmo, Rocco (21 May 2017). "Another Scarlet Jolt – With Firsts All Around, Pope Adds 5 More Red Hats". Whispers in the Loggia. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- Brockhaus, Hannah (28 June 2017). "Pope Francis to Five New Cardinals: Jesus 'Calls You to Serve Like Him and With Him'". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Tornielli, Andrea (28 June 2017). "Il Papa: "Gesù non vi chiama a essere prìncipi, ma a servire"". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Calendar of the Celebrations presided at by the Holy Father Francis (June – August 2018), 29.05.2018" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Tornielli, Andrea (20 May 2018). "Concistoro a giugno, ecco i nuovi cardinali di Francesco". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (20 May 2018). "Francis names 14 cardinals, surpassing numbers appointed by Benedict and John Paul". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
- San Martín, Inés (20 May 2018). "Pope Francis to create 14 new cardinals on June 29". Crux. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Senèze, Nicholas (20 May 2018). "Nouveaux cardinaux: le pape confirme ses équilibres". La Croix (in French). Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Aquilino Bocos, un nuevo arzobispo "padre, hermano y amigo de todos"". Vida Nueva (in Spanish). 16 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "Pope, Making New Cardinals, Hears Iraqi Tell of Martyrs". New York Times. Associated Press. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Lamb, Christopher (28 June 2018). "On becoming a cardinal, Sako says: 'Christianity will grow'". The Tablet. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- D'Emilio, Francis (28 June 2018). "Pope to new cardinals: Defend dignity of others". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Annuncio di Concistoro il 5 ottobre per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali, 01.09.2019" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Harris, Elise (1 September 2019). "Pope announces surprise consistory, handing red hats to key allies". Crux. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (1 September 2019). "Francis names 13 new cardinals, including Vatican's point-person on helping refugees". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Ordinazione Episcopale conferita dal Santo Padre Francesco, 04.10.2019" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- Mares, Courtney (5 October 2019). "Pope Francis urges new cardinals to imitate Christ's compassionate heart". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 6 October 2019.