Cardinals created by Francis

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Pope Francis (r. 2013–present) held the first consistory of his pontificate on 22 February 2014, where he raised 19 to the rank of cardinal. For the first time, a pope emeritus, Benedict XVI, attended a consistory. A second consistory was held on 14 February 2015. A third was held on 19 November 2016. In these three consistories, Pope Francis created a total of 56 cardinals from 39 countries, 11 of which had never before had a cardinal. He held a fourth consistory on 28 June 2017 to elevate five new cardinals.

22 February 2014[edit]

On 31 October 2013, Pope Francis announced plans to name new cardinals in a consistory on 22 February 2014.[1] In December 2013, he said that rumors that he might name a woman cardinal were not to be taken seriously.[2] He announced the names of 19 new cardinals on 12 January 2014.[3] Sixteen were under the age of 80, eligible to vote in papal conclaves.[4] Observers attempting to interpret Francis' approach to naming cardinals noted the absence of certain names, including the heads of the dioceses of Venice and Turin and the Vatican Librarian and Archivist.[5] Others noted a preference for clerics with pastoral experience and only a single theologian, Müller.[6] John L. Allen said the choices made the February meeting the "Consistory of the Periphery", noting the "broad global distribution" of the new cardinals.[7] Of the nomination of the archbishop of Perugia rather than those of more prestigious dioceses like Turin and Venice, La Stampa said: "Any career planners in the Church who had the path from the seminary to the cardinalship set out very clearly in their minds will have to think again."[8]

Pope Francis sent a letter to each cardinal-designate that said:[9]

The cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration; it is simply a service that requires you to broaden your gaze and open your hearts.... Therefore I ask you, please, to receive this designation with a simple and humble heart. And, while you must do so with pleasure and joy, ensure that this sentiment is far from any expression of worldliness or from any form of celebration contrary to the evangelical spirit of austerity, sobriety and poverty.

Those made cardinal at the consistory were:[10]

Name Title when named cardinal
Pietro Parolin Secretary of State
Lorenzo Baldisseri Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
Gerhard Ludwig Müller Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Beniamino Stella Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
Vincent Gerard Nichols Archbishop of Westminster, England, United Kingdom
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano Archbishop of Managua, Nicaragua
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix, ISPX Archbishop of Quebec, Canada
Jean-Pierre Kutwa Archbishop of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Orani João Tempesta, OCist Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Gualtiero Bassetti Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve, Italy
Mario Aurelio Poli Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung Archbishop of Seoul, South Korea
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, SDB Archbishop of Santiago de Chile, Chile
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo Archbishop of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Orlando Beltrán Quevedo, OMI Archbishop of Cotabato, Philippines
Chibly Langlois Bishop of Les Cayes, Haiti
Loris Francesco Capovilla Prelate emeritus of Loreto, Italy
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, CMF Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela, Spain
Kelvin Edward Felix Archbishop emeritus of Castries, St. Lucia

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI attended the consistory. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter's Basilica to greet him,[10][11] and took a seat in a row with several cardinals using a chair the same as theirs.[12] Loris Francesco Capovilla was granted a dispensation and did not attend the consistory.[13]

Prior to this consistory, there were 106 cardinals under the age of 80 and eligible to participate in the election of a pope, and the addition of 16 new cardinals under age 80 brought the total to 122, although another 10 were due to turn 80 in the remainder of 2014. Because the maximum number of cardinals allowed to participate in a papal conclave is set at 120, the number of cardinals below 80 is usually limited to 120, although that limit has occasionally been exceeded.[14]

14 February 2015[edit]

On 11 December 2014, the Vatican announced that new cardinals would be created at a consistory on 14 February 2015.[15] On 4 January 2015, Pope Francis announced the names of 20 cardinals-designate, including 15 who were under the age of 80.[16] Vatican spokesman, Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the list "confirms that the pope doesn't feel tied to the traditional 'cardinal sees'", like Turin and Venice, "which reflected historic reasons in various countries. Instead we have various nominations of archbishops or bishops of sees in the past that wouldn't have had a cardinal."[17] The selections continued the pattern Pope Francis established the previous year, showing a "preference for diocesan bishops" and for the southern hemisphere.[18] Of those under the age of 80, only one is a member of the Curia (Mamberti); three are bishops rather than archbishops; four are the first cardinals from their countries (Cabo Verde, Myanmar, Panama, Tonga) and others from a diocese that has not had one for decades (Agrigento, Italy, not since 1786; Ancona, Italy, not in more than a century; Montevideo, Uruguay, not since 1979; Valladolid, Spain, not since 1919) or never had one (Morelia, Mexico).[18][19] Nine have been elected by their peers as president of a national or regional episcopal conference.[20]

On 23 January 2015, Pope Francis advised each nominee how to respond to his appointment: "Accept it with humility. Only do so in a way that in these celebrations there does not creep in a spirit of worldliness that intoxicates more than grappa on an empty stomach, disorienting and separating one from the cross of Christ."[21]

Name Title when named cardinal
Dominique Mamberti Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, CM Archbishop of Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
John Atcherley Dew Archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand
Edoardo Menichelli Archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, Italy
Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn Archbishop of Hanoi, Vietnam
Alberto Suárez Inda Archbishop of Morelia, Mexico
Charles Maung Bo, SDB Archbishop of Yangon, Myanmar
Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovitvanit Archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand
Francesco Montenegro Archbishop of Agrigento, Italy
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB Archbishop of Montevideo, Uruguay
Ricardo Blázquez Pérez Archbishop of Valladolid, Spain
José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, OAR Bishop of David, Panama
Arlindo Gomes Furtado Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde, Cape Verde
Soane Patita Paini Mafi Bishop of Tonga, Tonga
José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez Archbishop emeritus of Manizales, Colombia
Luigi de Magistris Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus, Italy
Karl-Josef Rauber Apostolic Nuncio (retired), Germany
Luis Héctor Villalba Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán, Argentina
Júlio Duarte Langa Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai, Mozambique

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI again attended the consistory and was greeted by Pope Francis before and after the ceremony. The only new cardinal unable to attend was Archbishop José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, whose health prevented him from traveling to Rome.[22]

19 November 2016[edit]

On 9 October 2016, the pope announced that he planned to create new cardinals at a consistory on 19 November 2016,[23] including 13 cardinals under the age of 80 and four over the age of 80. His selections continued to demonstrate his preference for the peripheries and places not previously represented in the College of Cardinals. Several are the first named cardinals from their countries. Of those who are under the age of 80, only Farrell is a member of the Roman Curia. In choosing Simoni, Francis named his first priest to the rank of cardinal.[24] The new cardinals, in the order listed in the announcement, are:

Name Title when named cardinal
Mario Zenari Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
Dieudonné Nzapalainga, C.S.Sp. Archbishop of Bangui, Central African Republic
Carlos Osoro Sierra Archbishop of Madrid, Spain
Sérgio da Rocha Archbishop of Brasília, Brazil
Blase Joseph Cupich Archbishop of Chicago, United States of America
Patrick D'Rozario, C.S.C. Archbishop of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo Archbishop of Mérida, Venezuela
Jozef De Kesel Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, Belgium
Maurice Piat, C.S.Sp. Bishop of Port-Louis, Mauritius
Kevin Joseph Farrell Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
Carlos Aguiar Retes Archbishop of Tlalnepantla, Mexico
John Ribat, M.S.C. Archbishop of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
Joseph William Tobin, C.Ss.R. Archbishop of Indianapolis,[a] United States of America
Anthony Soter Fernandez Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Renato Corti Bishop emeritus of Novara, Italy
Sebastian Koto Khoarai, O.M.I. Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho
Ernest Simoni Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult, Albania

All the new cardinals attended the consistory on 19 November except Lesotho Bishop Khoarai, who was 87 and unable to travel. For the first time since his retirement Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI did not attend.[27][28] The new cardinals were given the rank of Cardinal Priest except for Zenari, Farrell, and Simoni, who were made Cardinal Deacons.[29] Cardinal Nzapalainga became the youngest member of the College of Cardinals and the first born after the Second Vatican Council.[30] Following the consistory ceremony, Pope Francis and the 16 new cardinals present visited the Pope Emeritus as a group at his residence in Mater Ecclesiae Monastery and received his blessing.[31]

28 June 2017[edit]

On 21 May 2017, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on 28 June. He adhered to his established pattern of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, including the first cardinals from El Salvador, Laos, Mali, and Sweden, the latter of whom will also be the first cardinal from Scandinavia. All five are under the age of 80.[32][33] According to the National Catholic Reporter, Rosa Chávez is "believed to be the first auxiliary bishop to have been made a cardinal in at least the modern era."[34]

Following the consistory on 28 June, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict XVI, who did not attend the ceremony.[35][36]

Name Title when named cardinal
Jean Zerbo Archbishop of Bamako, Mali
Juan José Omella i Omella Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain
Anders Arborelius, O.C.D. Bishop of Stockholm, Sweden
Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun Vicar Apostolic of Paksé, Laos
Gregorio Rosa Chávez Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador, El Salvador

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tobin was appointed Archbishop of Newark on 7 November 2016, but was not installed there until 6 January 2017. He was nevertheless identified as Archbishop of Newark in the consistory service booklet[25] and on the day following the consistory by L'Osservatore Romano.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New Cardinals to be created in February 2014". 31 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  2. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (15 December 2013). "Francis shoots down women cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Pope Francis announces names of new Cardinals". Vatican Radio. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  4. ^ D'Emilio, Frances (12 January 2014). "Pope Names 19 New Cardinals, Focusing on the Poor". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Reese, Thomas (13 January 2014). "Cardinals: continuity and change". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  6. ^ Winters, Michael Sean (13 January 2014). "The New Cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Allen, John L. (13 January 2014). "Four new echoes in 'Francis revolution'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "The importance of Gualtiero Bassetti's nomination". Vatican Insider. La Stampa. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  9. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (13 January 2014). "Francis reminds new cardinals their nomination is not about promotion it is about service". Vatican Insider. 
  10. ^ a b Galeazzi, Giacomo (22 February 2014). "19 new cardinals created in Consistory in the presence of two Popes". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  11. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (22 February 2014). "Under Benedict's eye, Francis tells cardinals to be peacemakers". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (24 February 2014). "The "hidden" Pope's first step towards normality". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (19 February 2014). "Loris Capovilla will not receive the biretta in Rome". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (20 October 2013). "Francis' first consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Consistory for the creation of new cardinals in February 2015". Vatican News. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  17. ^ D'Emilio, Frances (4 January 2015). "Pope Francis Names 15 New Cardinals From 14 Countries". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  18. ^ a b Tornielli, Andrea (4 January 2015). "Pope announces names of new cardinals: Only one Curia member, many pastors from the peripheries". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  19. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (4 January 2015). "Francis diversifies cardinals, choosing prelates from Asia, island nations". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Mickens, Robert (5 January 2015). "Francis chooses new cardinals from the margins". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Wooden, Cindy (23 January 2015). "Pope Francis urges new cardinals not to let nomination go to their heads". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  22. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (14 February 2015). "'The cardinalate is certainly an honour, but it is not honorific. Be examples of charity'". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali". Holy See. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  24. ^ "Pope to create 13 new cardinals, including 3 Americans". Crux. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  25. ^ "Concistoro Ordinario Pubblico" (PDF) (in Italian). 19 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  26. ^ "Diciasette Nuovi Cardinali" [Seventeen New Cardinals] (PDF). L'Osservatore Romano (in Italian). 20 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  27. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (19 November 2016). "Creating new cardinals, Francis warns against 'virus of polarization' in the church". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  28. ^ Wooden, Cindy (19 November 2016). "Pope calls new cardinals to be agents of unity in divided world". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  29. ^ "Titular churches and diaconates of the new cardinals, 19.11.2016" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  30. ^ "Now a cardinal, this African prelate was already a 'saint'". CRUX. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  31. ^ Agasso Jr., Domenico (19 November 2016). "Pope and new cardinals pay Ratzinger a visit after the Consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  32. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro il 28 giugno per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  33. ^ "Pope Francis Calls Consistory to Create 5 New Cardinals". National Catholic Register. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  34. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (28 June 2017). "Francis tells new cardinals to look at reality facing today's Catholics". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  35. ^ Brockhaus, Hannah (28 June 2017). "Pope Francis to Five New Cardinals: Jesus 'Calls You to Serve Like Him and With Him'". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  36. ^ cite news | work = La Stampa | language = it | accessdate = 28 June 2017 | url = http://www.lastampa.it/2017/06/28/vaticaninsider/ita/vaticano/il-papa-ges-non-vi-chiama-a-essere-prncipi-nella-chiesa-ma-a-servire-S8ytR3qjhvAhNe3xU8hHYL/pagina.html | title = Il Papa: “Gesù non vi chiama a essere prìncipi, ma a servire” | date = 28 June 2017 | first = Andrea | last = Tornielli }}