Cardinals created by John Paul II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pope John Paul II (1920–2005) with Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo (1935–2008).

Pope John Paul II (r. 1978–2005) created 231 cardinals in nine consistories.

30 June 1979[edit]

John Paul created fourteen cardinals at his first consistory[1] and he announced he was withholding the name of a fifteenth.[2] That additional cardinal's name was not made public until 1991.[3] All those named were archbishops, including six Italians and two Poles. These appointments, excluding the name withheld, brought the number of cardinals who had not passed their 80th birthday to 120, the maximum set by Pope Paul VI, while the entire membership of the College of Cardinals reached 135.[2]

  1. Agostino Casaroli (1914–1998)
  2. Giuseppe Caprio (1914–2005)
  3. Marco Cé (1925–2014)
  4. Egano Righi-Lambertini (1906–2000)
  5. Joseph-Marie Trịnh Văn Căn (1921–1990)
  6. Ernesto Civardi (1906–1989)
  7. Ernesto Corripio y Ahumada (1919–2008)
  8. Joseph Asajiro Satowaki (1904–1996)
  9. Roger Etchegaray (1922–)
  10. Anastasio Ballestrero (1913–1998)
  11. Tomás Ó Fiaich (1923–1990)
  12. Gerald Emmett Carter (1912–2003)
  13. Franciszek Macharski (1927–2016)
  14. Władysław Rubin (1917–1990)
  15. Ignatius Kung Pin-mei (1901–2000), created in pectore, revealed 29 May 1991[3]

2 February 1983[edit]

Józef Glemp (1929–2013), made a cardinal on 2 February 1983.

John Paul created 18 cardinals on 2 February 1983, including the first resident of the Soviet Union (Vaivods of Latvia)[4] and four others from countries with Communist governments. This brought the College to 138 members, of whom 120 are young enough to serve as electors in a papal conclave. Another cardinal was created in pectore or secretly.[5]

  1. Anthony Peter Khoraish (1907–1994)
  2. Bernard Yago (1916–1997)
  3. Aurelio Sabattani (1912–2003)
  4. Franjo Kuharić (1919–2002)
  5. Giuseppe Casoria (1908–2001)
  6. José Lebrún Moratinos (1919–2001)
  7. Joseph Bernardin (1928–1996)
  8. Michael Michai Kitbunchu (1929–)
  9. Alexandre do Nascimento (1925–)
  10. Alfonso López Trujillo (1935–2008)
  11. Godfried Danneels (1933–)
  12. Tom Williams (1930–)
  13. Carlo Maria Martini (1927–2012)
  14. Jean-Marie Lustiger (1926–2007)
  15. Józef Glemp (1929–2013)
  16. Julijans Vaivods (1895–1990)
  17. Joachim Meisner (1933–2017)
  18. Henri de Lubac (1896–1991)

25 May 1985[edit]

Francis Arinze (b. 1932), made a cardinal on 25 May 1985.
Henryk Gulbinowicz (b. 1923), made a cardinal on 25 May 1985.

John Paul created 28 cardinals on 25 May 1985 in a ceremony held outdoors for the first time in St. Peter's Square. They included the first from Ethiopia and Nicaragua and an archbishop of the Ukrainian Rite. It raised the College's membership to 152, with 120 eligible to vote for a new pope.[6]

  1. Luigi Dadaglio (1914–1990)
  2. Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (1924–2014)
  3. Francis Arinze (1932–)
  4. Juan Francisco Fresno (1914–2004)
  5. Antonio Innocenti (1915–2008)
  6. Miguel Obando y Bravo (1926–)
  7. Paul Mayer (1911–2010)
  8. Ángel Suquía Goicoechea (1916–2006)
  9. Jean Jérôme Hamer (1916–1996)
  10. Ricardo Vidal (1931–2017)
  11. Henryk Gulbinowicz (1923–)
  12. Paulos Tzadua (1921–2003)
  13. Jozef Tomko (1924–)
  14. Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky (1914–2000)
  15. Andrzej Maria Deskur (1924–2011)
  16. Paul Poupard (1930–)
  17. Louis-Albert Vachon (1912–2006)
  18. Albert Decourtray (1923–1994)
  19. Rosalio Lara (1922–2007)
  20. Friedrich Wetter (1928– )
  21. Silvano Piovanelli (1924–2016)
  22. Adrianus Johannes Simonis (1931–)
  23. Édouard Gagnon (1918–2007)
  24. Alfons Maria Stickler (1910–2007)
  25. Bernard Francis Law (1931–)
  26. John Joseph O'Connor (1920–2000)
  27. Giacomo Biffi (1928–2015)
  28. Pietro Pavan (1903–1994)

28 June 1988[edit]

José Freire Falcão (b. 1925), made a cardinal on 28 June 1988.
László Paskai (1927-2015), made a cardinal on 28 June 1988.

On 29 May 1988 John Paul announced he would create 25 new cardinals in 28 June, though the death of Hans Urs von Balthasar of Switzerland reduced that number to 24.[7] This consistory took the number of cardinal electors from 97 to 121, which would fall within a month to the maximum of 120, a majority of them appointed by John Paul. It brought the total number of cardinals to a new high of 160, of whom John Paul named 84.[8]

  1. Eduardo Martínez Somalo (1927–)
  2. Achille Silvestrini (1923–)
  3. Angelo Felici (1919–2007)
  4. Paul Grégoire (1911–1993)
  5. Antony Padiyara (1921–2000)
  6. José Freire Falcão (1925–)
  7. Michele Giordano (1930–2010)
  8. Alexandre José Maria dos Santos (1924–)
  9. Giovanni Canestri (1918–2015)
  10. Antonio María Javierre Ortas (1921–2007)
  11. Simon Pimenta (1920–2013)
  12. Mario Revollo Bravo (1919–1995)
  13. Edward Bede Clancy (1923–2014)
  14. Lucas Moreira Neves (1925–2002)
  15. James Aloysius Hickey (1920–2004)
  16. Edmund Szoka (1927–2014)
  17. László Paskai (1927–2015)
  18. Christian Tumi (1930–)
  19. Hans Hermann Groër (1919–2003)
  20. Jacques-Paul Martin (1908–1992)
  21. Franz Hengsbach (1910–1991)
  22. Vincentas Sladkevičius (1920–2000)
  23. Jean Margéot (1916–2009)
  24. John Wu (1925–2002)

28 June 1991[edit]

On 29 May 1991, John Paul announced he would create 22 cardinals at a consistory on 28 June and revealed the name of one he had created in pectore in 1979, Ignatius Kung Pin-mei. This increased the number of cardinal electors to 120 from 100. It also raised to 13 the number cardinals from the Soviet Union and nations of the Warsaw Pact.[3][9]

  1. Angelo Sodano (1927–)
  2. Alexandru Todea (1912–2002)
  3. Pio Laghi (1922–2009)
  4. Edward Cassidy (1924–)
  5. Robert-Joseph Coffy (1920–1995)
  6. Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi (1930–2007)
  7. Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez (1936–)
  8. Jose Tomas Sanchez (1920–2012)
  9. Virgilio Noè (1922–2011)
  10. Antonio Quarracino (1923–1998)
  11. Fiorenzo Angelini (1916– 2014)
  12. Roger Mahony (1936–)
  13. Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo (1926–1993)
  14. Anthony Bevilacqua (1923–2012)
  15. Giovanni Saldarini (1924–2011)
  16. Cahal Daly (1917–2009)
  17. Camillo Ruini (1931–)
  18. Ján Chryzostom Korec (1924–2015)
  19. Henri Schwery (1932–)
  20. Georg Sterzinsky (1936–2011)
  21. Guido del Mestri (1911–1993)
  22. Paolo Dezza (1901–1999)

26 November 1994[edit]

On 30 October 1994, John Paul announced the names of 30 new cardinals from 24 countries, scheduling the consistory for 26 November. He said others were deserving but he "thought it appropriate to adhere to the limit set by my Predecessor Paul VI".[10]

Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (b. 1920), made a cardinal on 26 November 1994.
Jan Pieter Schotte (1928-2005), made a cardinal on 26 November 1994.
Kazimierz Świątek (1914-2011), made a cardinal on 26 November 1994.
  1. Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (1920–)
  2. Miloslav Vlk (1932–2017)
  3. Luigi Poggi (1917–2010)
  4. Peter Shirayanagi (1928–2009)
  5. Vincenzo Fagiolo (1918–2000)
  6. Carlo Furno (1921–2015)
  7. Carlos Oviedo Cavada (1927–1998)
  8. Thomas Winning (1925–2001)
  9. Adolfo Suárez Rivera (1927–2008)
  10. Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino (1936–)
  11. Julius Darmaatmadja (1934–)
  12. Jan Pieter Schotte (1928–2005)
  13. Pierre Eyt (1934–2001)
  14. Gilberto Agustoni (1922–2017)
  15. Emmanuel Wamala (1926–)
  16. William Henry Keeler (1931–2017)
  17. Augusto Vargas Alzamora (1922–2000)
  18. Jean-Claude Turcotte (1936–2015)
  19. Ricardo María Carles Gordó (1926–2013)
  20. Adam Maida (1930–)
  21. Vinko Puljić (1945–)
  22. Armand Razafindratandra (1925–2010)
  23. Pham Dinh Tung (1919–2009)
  24. Juan Sandoval Íñiguez (1933–)
  25. Bernardino Echeverría Ruiz (1912–2000)
  26. Kazimierz Świątek (1914–2011)
  27. Ersilio Tonini (1914–2013)
  28. Mikel Koliqi (1900–1997)
  29. Yves Congar (1905–1995)
  30. Aloys Grillmeier (1910–1998)

21 February 1998[edit]

John Paul announced he would create 22 new cardinals on 18 January 1998, but withheld the names of two of them. He had also planned to include as well Josip Uhač, a Vatican diplomat and curial official who died that morning. The consistory was scheduled for 21 February.[11] Excluding the two not named, this brought the membership of the College of Cardinals to 165, of whom 122 were eligible to vote in a conclave.[12]

  1. Jorge Medina Estévez (1926–)
  2. Alberto Bovone (1922–1998)
  3. Darío Castrillón Hoyos (1929–)
  4. Lorenzo Antonetti (1922–2013)
  5. James Stafford (1932–)
  6. Salvatore De Giorgi (1930–)
  7. Serafim Fernandes de Araújo (1924–)
  8. Antonio María Rouco Varela (1936–)
  9. Aloysius Ambrozic (1930–2011)
  10. Jean Marie Balland (1934–1998)
  11. Dionigi Tettamanzi (1934–2017)
  12. Polycarp Pengo (1944–)
  13. Christoph Schönborn (1945–)
  14. Norberto Rivera Carrera (1942–)
  15. Francis George (1937–2015)
  16. Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi (1924–2012)
  17. Adam Kozłowiecki (1911–2007)
  18. Giovanni Cheli (1918–2013)
  19. Francesco Colasuonno (1925–2003)
  20. Dino Monduzzi (1922–2006)
  21. Marian Jaworski (1926–), created in pectore, revealed 29 January 2001[13]
  22. Jānis Pujats (1930–), created in pectore, revealed 29 January 2001[13]

21 February 2001[edit]

Jorge Mario Bergoglio (b. 1936), made a cardinal on 21 February 2001, elected Pope on 13 March 2013.

On 21 January 2001, Pope John Paul II announced plans to raise 37 prelates to the rank on cardinal at a consistory in February. He also said that at the consistory he would announce the names of two cardinals he named in pectore in 1998.[14] He followed that by announcing the names of five more on 28 January and revealed the two made cardinals secretly in 1998, Marian Jaworski and Janis Pujats.[13] The 44 cardinals created at this consistory was the largest ever created at a consistory.[15] It increased the number of cardinals eligible to vote in a papal election to 135, despite the maximum of 120 set by Pope Paul VI in 1975 and reiterated by John Paul II in 1996; he said in each of his announcements that he was setting aside this limit.[14][13][15]

Cardinals Walter Kasper (b. 1933) and Godfried Danneels (b. 1933).
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga (b. 1942), made a cardinal on 21 February 2001.
  1. Giovanni Battista Re (1934–)
  2. Nguyen Van Thuan (1928–2002)
  3. Agostino Cacciavillan (1926–)
  4. Sergio Sebastiani (1930–)
  5. Zenon Grocholewski (1939–)
  6. José Saraiva Martins (1932–)
  7. Crescenzio Sepe (1943–)
  8. Jorge María Mejía (1923–2014)
  9. Ignatius Moses I Daoud (1930–2012)
  10. Mario Francesco Pompedda (1929–2006)
  11. Walter Kasper (1933–)
  12. Johannes Joachim Degenhardt (1926–2002)
  13. Antonio José González Zumárraga (1925–2008)
  14. Ivan Dias (1936–2017)
  15. Geraldo Majella Agnelo (1933–)
  16. Pedro Rubiano Sáenz (1932–)
  17. Theodore Edgar McCarrick (1930–)
  18. Desmond Connell (1926–2017)
  19. Audrys Bačkis (1937–)
  20. Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa (1933–)
  21. Julio Terrazas Sandoval (1936–2015)
  22. Wilfrid Napier (1941–)
  23. Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga (1942–)
  24. Bernard Agré (1926–2014)
  25. Louis-Marie Billé (1938–2002)
  26. Ignacio Velasco (1929–2003)
  27. Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne (1943–)
  28. Francisco Álvarez Martínez (1925–)
  29. Cláudio Hummes (1934–)
  30. Varkey Vithayathil (1927–2011)
  31. Jorge Mario Bergoglio (1936–) (Pope Francis, 2013– )
  32. José Policarpo (1936–2014)
  33. Severino Poletto (1933–)
  34. Cormac Murphy-O'Connor (1932–2017)
  35. Edward Egan (1932–2015)
  36. Lubomyr Husar (1933–2017)
  37. Karl Lehmann (1936–)
  38. Stéphanos II Ghattas (1920–2009)
  39. Jean Marcel Honoré (1920–2013)
  40. Roberto Tucci (1921–2015)
  41. Leo Scheffczyk (1920–2005)
  42. Avery Dulles (1918–2008)

21 October 2003[edit]

Attilio Nicora (1937-2017), made a cardinal on 21 October 2003.
Josip Bozanić (b. 1949), made a cardinal on 21 October 2003.

Pope John Paul II announced on 28 September 2003 that he would create 31 new cardinals in an October consistory, but withheld the name of one of them, apparently a resident of a country where Catholicism was the object of government persecution.[a] Twenty-six of those named were young enough to vote in a papal conclave, and seven of those were members of the Roman Curia.[17][18][19]

  1. Jean-Louis Tauran (1943–)
  2. Renato Martino (1932–)
  3. Francesco Marchisano (1929–2014)
  4. Julián Herranz Casado (1930–)
  5. Javier Lozano Barragán (1933–)
  6. Stephen Fumio Hamao (1930–2007)
  7. Attilio Nicora (1937–2017)
  8. Angelo Scola (1941–)
  9. Anthony Olubunmi Okogie (1936–)
  10. Bernard Panafieu (1931–2017)
  11. Gabriel Zubeir Wako (1941–)
  12. Carlos Amigo Vallejo (1934–)
  13. Justin Francis Rigali (1935–)
  14. Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien (1938–)
  15. Eusébio Scheid (1932–)
  16. Ennio Antonelli (1936–)
  17. Tarcisio Bertone (1934–)
  18. Peter Turkson (1948–)
  19. Telesphore Toppo (1939–)
  20. George Pell (1941–)
  21. Josip Bozanić (1949–)
  22. Pham Minh Man (1934–)
  23. Rodolfo Quezada Toruño (1932–2012)
  24. Philippe Barbarin (1950–)
  25. Péter Erdő (1952–)
  26. Marc Ouellet (1944–)
  27. Georges Cottier (1922–2016)
  28. Gustaaf Joos (1923–2004)
  29. Tomáš Špidlík (1919–2010)
  30. Stanisław Nagy (1921–2013)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ John Paul never revealed this name, not even in his will.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tanner, Henry (1 July 1979). "Pope Installs 14 Cardinals but Keeps a 15th Secret". New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "Pope Names 14 New Cardinals, Including 6 Italians and 2 Poles". New York Times. 27 May 1979. Retrieved 23 October 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Haberman, Clyde (30 May 1991). "Pope Names 22 Cardinals; Chinese Prelate Is Identified". New York Times. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  4. ^ Burns, John F. (9 January 1983). "Latvian Cardinal Surprise to Soviet". New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  5. ^ Kamm, Henry (3 February 1983). "Pope John Paul Installs 18 as Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  6. ^ Dionne Jr., E.J. (26 May 1985). "28 Consecrated 'Princes of the Church'". New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  7. ^ "24 New Cardinals Installed by Pope". New York Times. 29 June 1988. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  8. ^ Suro, Roberto (30 May 1988). "Pope Chooses 25 New Cardinals, Including Two American Prelates". New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  9. ^ "Cardinals Named by Pope". New York Times. 30 May 1991. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  10. ^ "Angelus, 30 October 1994". Libreria Editrice Vatican. 30 October 1994. Retrieved 2 September 2017. ho ritenuto opportuno attenermi al limite fissato dal mio Predecessore Paolo VI 
  11. ^ "Angelus, 18 January 1998". Libreria Editrice Vatican. 18 January 1998. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "Messa solenne del Papa con i nuovi cardinali". La Reppublica (in Italian). 23 February 1998. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d Stanley, Alexandra (29 January 2001). "Pope Adds 7 Cardinals to a Record 37 Chosen Last Week". New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  14. ^ a b Stanley, Alexandra (22 January 2001). "37 New Cardinals Selected by Pope; Egan is Elevated". New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Stanley, Alexandra (22 February 2001). "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  16. ^ Boudreaux, Richard (7 April 2005). "Mystery Cardinal Will Never Be Able to Join Peers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  17. ^ Bruni, Frank (29 September 2003). "Pope Names 31 Cardinals, Future Voters on Succession". New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  18. ^ "List of the 31 New Cardinals". New York Times. Reuters. 28 September 2003. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  19. ^ "The New Cardinals and Their Duties". Zenit. 21 October 2003. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
See also
  • Lentz III, Harris M. (2002). Popes and Cardinals of the 20th Century: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-4101-3.