Cardiovascular & pulmonary physiotherapy
Physiotherapists treating patients following uncomplicated coronary artery bypass surgery (also called coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG) surgery continue to use interventions such as deep breathing exercises that are not supported by best available evidence. Standardised guidelines may be required to better match clinical practice with current literature.
- 1 Diseases and conditions treated
- 2 Techniques
- 3 Assessment Tests
- 4 Current concepts
- 5 References
Diseases and conditions treated
Cystic fibrosis (CF), also known as mucoviscidosis, is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestines. Major advances over the past few years in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) have resulted in dramatic improvements in longevity and quality of life for many patients. However, respiratory dysfunction remains responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality associated with the disorder. Physiotherapy has long played an important role in the respiratory management of the disease, and has had to adapt to the changes in disease pattern from infancy to adulthood. The role of the physiotherapist is not limited to airway clearance, but also includes encouragement and advice regarding exercise, posture and mobility, inhalation therapy and, in the later stages of the disease process, non-invasive respiratory support. It is generally felt that the use of chest physiotherapy in CF has lacked good scientific basis, and the current call for evidence-based medicine requires physiotherapists to scrutinize their practice closely.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and excess sputum production. As COPD gets worse, subject may be short of breath even when one does simple things like get dressed or fix a meal. It gets harder to eat or exercise, and breathing takes much more energy. People often lose weight and get weaker.
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
Deep vein thrombosis, or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein, most commonly the legs. Nonspecific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins. Pulmonary embolism, a potentially life-threatening complication, is caused by the detachment (embolization) of a clot that travels to the lungs. Together, DVT and pulmonary embolism constitute a single disease process known as venous thromboembolism.
Chest physiotherapy:Postural drainage
Active cycle of breathing techniques
The active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) is a flexible regimen comprising breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises and the FET, frequently combined with gravity-assisted positioning. Increasing lung volumes during thoracic expansion allows air to get behind distal secretions via collateral ventilatory channels. During a forced expiratory manoeuvre, compression and narrowing occurs within the airways at a point dependent on lung volume (the equal pressure point). This is shifted distally as a forced expiration is continued to low lung volume, thereby mobilizing peripheral secretions.
This technique has been reported to be an effective and efficient means of airway clearance with documented improvements in lung function and no detrimental effect on oxygen saturation. In comparative studies the ACBT has been found to be advantageous when compared with CCPT, Flutter, and PEP. When compared with the technique of autogenic drainage (AD) Miller et al., reported no differences in efficacy, although ACBT was associated with oxygen desaturation in some cases. There was, however, no significant overall difference in saturation between the two techniques. A more recent comparison of the Flutter and forced expiration with the ACBT reported no significant differences between the treatments for sputum weight, lung function tests or oxygen saturation.
6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT)
Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based intervention for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In clinical practice, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is commonly used to assess changes in functional exercise capacity in COPD patients following pulmonary rehabilitation with the primary outcome reported being the distance walked during the test (i.e. 6MWD). The 6MWD has demonstrated validity and reliability after one familiarisation test and the capacity to detect changes following pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition to assessing the outcomes of pulmonary rehabilitation, 6MWD may be used to quantify the magnitude of a patient's disability, prescribe a walking programme, identify patients likely to benefit from a rollator and to identify the presence of exercise-induced hypoxemia.
Randomized trials have demonstrated that pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve dyspnea, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life. Rehabilitation has traditionally been provided in secondary care to patients with moderate to severe disease. However, current concepts are recommending that it should be delivered in a primary and community care setting for patients with milder disease.
There are several opportunities for spreading the word for PR in primary care. One of these is to improve access to PR for all those disabled by their disease by the increase of community schemes. One such scheme being utilised in Canada is reviewed. The essential components of PR include behavior change, patient self-management and prescriptive exercise. In the last decade new strategies have been developed to enhance the effects of exercise training. An overview of these new approaches being an adjunct to exercise training is reviewed. Although the role of exercise training is well established, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of behavior change and patient self-management in contributing to improved health and diminished healthcare resource utilisation.
- Inverarity, Laura; Grossman, K (28 November 2007). "Types of Physical Therapy". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 29 May 2008
- O'Sullivan, BP; Freedman, SD (2009). "Cystic fibrosis". Lancet. 373 (9678): 1891–904. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60327-5. PMID 19403164.
- Prasad, SA; Tannenbaum, EL; Mikelsons, C (2000). "Physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis". J R Soc Med. 93 Suppl 38: 27–36. PMC 1305881. PMID 10911816.
- Vestbo, Jørgen (2013). "Definition and Overview". Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 1–7.
- "COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)-Topic Overview".
- Scarvelis, D; Wells, P (2006). "Diagnosis and treatment of deep-vein thrombosis". CMAJ. 175 (9): 1087–92. doi:10.1503/cmaj.060366. PMC 1609160. PMID 17060659.
- Pryor, JA; Webber, BA (1979). "Evaluation of the forced expiration technique as an adjunct to postural drainage in treatment of cystic fibrosis". BMJ. 2: 417–18. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6187.417.
- Wilson GE, Baldwin AL, Walshaw MJ. "A comparison of traditional chest physiotherapy with the active cycle of breathing in patients with chronic supperative lung disease. Eur Respir J 1985; 8(S19):S171
- Webber, BA; Hofmeyr, JL; Morgan, MDL; Hodson, ME (1986). "Effects of postural drainage, incorporating the forced expiratory technique, on pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis". Br J Dis Chest. 80: 353–9. doi:10.1016/0007-0971(86)90088-4.
- Pryor, JA; Webber, B; Hodson, ME (1990). "Effect of chest physiotherapy on oxygen saturation in patients with cystic fibrosis". Thorax. 45: 77. doi:10.1136/thx.45.1.77. PMC 475668.
- Lyons, E; Chatham, K; Campbell, IA; Prescott, RJ (1993). "Evaluation of the flutter VRP1 device in young adults with cystic fibrosis". Med Sci Res. 21: 101–2.
- Pryor, JA; Webber, BA; Hodson, ME; Warner, JO (1994). "The flutter VRP1 as an adjunct to chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis". Respir Med. 88: 677–81. doi:10.1016/s0954-6111(05)80066-6.
- Hofmeyer, JL; Webber, BA; Hodson, ME (1986). "Evaluation of positive expiratory pressure as an adjunct of chest physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis". Thorax. 41: 951–4. doi:10.1136/thx.41.12.951. PMC 460551. PMID 3296295.
- Miller, S; Hall, DO; Clayton, CB; Nelson, R (1995). "Chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis; a comparative study of autogenic drainage and the active cycle of breathing techniques with postural drainage". Thorax. 50: 165–9. doi:10.1136/thx.50.2.165. PMC 473916.
- Pike, SE; Machin, AC; Dix, KJ; Pryor, JA; Hodson, ME (1999). "Comparison of flutter VRP1 and forced expirations with active cycle of breathing techniques in subjects with cystic fibrosis". Netherlands J Med. 54: A125.
- "Frozen Shoulder". www.local-physio.co.uk.
- Ambrosino, N; Casaburi, R; Ford, G; Goldstein, R; Morgan, MD; Rudolf, M; Singh, S (Jun 2008). "Developing concepts in the pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD. " Wijkstra PJ". Respir Med. 102 (Suppl 1): S17–26. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(08)70004-0.