These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, under the names cardiac physiology and circulatory physiology.
Although the different aspects of cardiovascular physiology are closely interrelated, the subject is still usually divided into several subtopics.
- Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle.)
- Stroke volume (= end-diastolic volume − end-systolic volume)
- Ejection fraction (= stroke volume / end-diastolic volume)
- Cardiac output is mathematically ` to systole[clarification needed]
- Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states
- Cardiac input (= heart rate * suction volume Can be calculated by inverting terms in Fick principle)
- Suction volume (= end-systolic volume + end-diastolic volume)
- Injection fraction (=suction volume / end-systolic volume)
- Cardiac input is mathematically ` to diastole[clarification needed]
- Electrical conduction system of the heart
- Frank–Starling law of the heart
- Wiggers diagram
- Pressure volume diagram
Regulation of blood pressure
- Renin–angiotensin system
- Juxtaglomerular apparatus
- Aortic body and carotid body
Under most circumstances, the body attempts to maintain a steady mean arterial pressure.
In turn, this can have a significant impact upon several other variables:
- Stroke volume
- Cardiac output
|Name of circulation||% of cardiac output||Autoregulation||Perfusion||Comments|
|pulmonary circulation||100% (deoxygenated)||Vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia|
|cerebral circulation||15%||high||under-perfused||Fixed volume means intolerance of high pressure. Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration|
|coronary circulation||5%||high||under-perfused||Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration. Blood flow through the left coronary artery is at a maximum during diastole (in contrast to the rest of systemic circulation, which has a maximum blood flow during systole.)|
|splanchnic circulation||15%||low||Flow increases during digestion.|
|hepatic circulation||15%||Part of portal venous system, so oncotic pressure is very low|
|renal circulation||25%||high||over-perfused||Maintains glomerular filtration rate|
|skeletal muscular circulation||17%||Perfusion increases dramatically during exercise.|
|cutaneous circulation||2%||over-perfused||Crucial in thermoregulation. Significant ability to use anaerobic respiration|
- Cardiovascular+physiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Comprehensive explanation of basic cardiovascular concepts, based on a textbook of the same name.
- The Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System - Mechanical overview of cardiovascular function. Free eBook and video resources.
- Clinical Sciences - Cardiovascular An iPhone app covering detailed cardiovascular physiology and anatomy
- Quantitative Cardiovascular Physiology and Clinical Applications for Engineers