Cardiovirus

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Cardiovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order: Picornavirales
Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Cardiovirus
Type Species

Cardiovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. Human and vertebrates serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Cardiovirus A. Diseases associated with this genus include: myocarditis.[1][2]

Cardiovirus A has only one serotype, while Cardiovirus B consists of four viruses which are probably serologically distinct; these are Theiler's Murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), a Theiler-like rat virus (TRV) (which has yet to be named) and Saffold virus (SAF-V).[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Group: ssRNA(+)

[2]

Structure[edit]

Viruses in Cardiovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, Spherical, and Round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 7.8kb in length.[1]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic Arrangement Genomic Segmentation
Cardiovirus Icosahedral Pseudo T=3 Non-Enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life Cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, viral initiation, and ribosomal skipping. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. Human and vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are zoonosis and fomite.[1]

The 3’ end of the genome encodes a polyA tail while the 5’ end encodes a genome-linked protein. A unique feature of this genus is the presence of the L* protein that is made out of frame from the polyprotein and is present in the DA subgroup of TMEV. It has been found to be important for the virus pathogenesis.

In the case of Cardiovirus A, the virus can cause encephalitis and myocarditis, mostly in rodents, which are natural hosts. The virus is transmitted from rodents to other animals. Severe epidemics have been seen in swine and elephants.[4]

Replication of cardioviruses is dependent on a structured RNA element called the Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE).

Genus Host Details Tissue Tropism Entry Details Release Details Replication Site Assembly Site Transmission
Cardiovirus Humans; vertebrates Gastrointestinal tract; CNS; heart Cell receptor endocytosis Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Zoonosis; fomite

Clinical[edit]

Human cardioviruses were first isolated in 1981. Seven additional isolates have since been described. They have been associated with gastroenteritis, influenza-like symptoms and non polio associated acute flaccid paralysis in North America, Europe and South Asia.

Other viruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Jones, MS.; Lukashov, VV; Ganac, RD; Schnurr, DP. (July 2007). "Discovery of a novel Human Picornavirus in a stool sample from a pediatric patient presenting with fever of unknown origin". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (7). doi:10.1128/JCM.00174-07. PMC 1933019Freely accessible. PMID 17460053. 
  4. ^ Fenner FJ.; Gibbs EPJ; Murphy FA; Rott R; Studdert MJ; White, DO (1993). Veterinary Virology (2nd ed.). Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-253056-X. 
  5. ^ Anonymous. (2014) Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Vopr Virusol 59(4):15-19

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