Entrance to Cardwell, Highway 1
|Population||1,176 (2011 census)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
|LGA(s)||Cassowary Coast Region|
Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2011 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,176 people. The Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes; connecting with the Queensland provincial cities of Cairns and Townsville. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, in February 2011.
West of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall. The coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland and tropical savanna. Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay and Hinchinbrook Channel. Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i.e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group.
Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell. This location experienced one of Australia's important conservation battles. With the establishment of Port Hinchinbrook, the Marina Public Boat Ramp provides year round access to the protected marine environments of Hinchinbrook Channel, Estuaries, Islands and Great Barrier Reef. The Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery; and anglers can enjoy both day and evening fishing activities.
The Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups; the boundary of the Dyirbal and Warrgamay lies between Cardwell and Tully in the north. The first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port initially called "Port Hinchinbrook". Subsequently, the town was renamed after Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell.
Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison (Bowen). The first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864 and was led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple. They were 20 in number including James Morrill, William Alcock Tully, Arthur Jervoise Scott, Lieut. Marlow of the Native Police and his troopers Norman, Archy and Warbragen. Dalrymple also brought his "black boy" servant, an Aboriginal man from Stradbroke Island that he called "Cockey". They came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman which was under the command of ex-Native Police officer Captain Powell, with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow.
Dalrymple's main purpose in establishing a settlement in Rockingham Bay was to create a port as close as possible to the Valley of Lagoons Station of which he was part owner. Very soon after disembarking from the Policeman, he endeavoured to create a road from the coast to the Valley of Lagoons largely by expanding already existing native paths. A few miles inland from the landing site was a very beautiful aboriginal village and bora ground surrounded by native banana plantations that reminded Dalrymple of villages in Ceylon. The Warrgamay people in the area and on nearby Hinchinbrook Island were described as numerous and having some of the largest spears, shields and wooden swords ever recorded in Australia. Having told the local people through his interpreter that he had come to take possession of their lands, Dalrymple bizarrely expressed frustration at the supposed inability of the aboriginals to understand the concept of "Thou shalt not steal".
Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864.
In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Cardwell became a transport hub for prospectors heading to the Etheridge Shire goldfields 200km inland from the town. Captain John Moresby visited Cardwell in 1871 and wrote that "various tribes of aborigines roam about the vicinity, and not unnaturally regard the white men, who are rapidly dispossessing them of their homes, as mortal enemies. They..suffer terrible retaliation at the hands of our countrymen, who employ native troopers, commanded by white men to hunt down and destroy the offenders when the opportunity offers".
In January 1872, two British dugong fishermen named Henry Smith and Charles Clements were killed at nearby Goold Island by resident Aboriginals. Wet weather prevented an immediate punitive expedition of four boats of armed local white men who were eager that "the blacks" be "taught that what they do is punishable by death". However, within the same month the Native Police forces of Sub-Inspectors Crompton and Johnstone completed a punitive mission and returned to Cardwell with three young Aboriginal children from the island. The eldest of the children was ten and "they were given away in Cardwell to domesticate them."
Cardwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- Valley of Lagoons Road, Damper Creek: Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track
- 51 Victoria Street: Cardwell Divisional Board Hall (later Cardwell Shire Hall)
- 53 Victoria Street: Cardwell Post Office (now the Cardwell Bush Telegraph heritage centre)
Cardwell also has a granite monument erected in memory of Walter Jervoise Scott, a pioneer of the Valley of Lagoons. The monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons. On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to be too large to transport up the rough track to Valley of Lagoons, so it was erected in Cardwell instead.
- Isidor Lissner, politician
- Ashleigh Southern, water polo player
- Margaret Thorsborne, naturalist, conservationist and environmental activist
- The Cardwell Bush Telegraph heritage centre, one of the oldest buildings in North Queensland, is located at the southern end of the town.
- Cardwell railway station
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Cardwell". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- Bureau of Meteorology Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- "Cardwell - town (entry 6216)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "Cardwell - locality (entry 45660)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "Cardwell decimated by Cyclone Yasi". The Cairns Post. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- (4 February 2011).Weary residents begin cyclone clean-up. ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 17 April 2012.
- "Port Hinchinbrook resort protest". Green Left Weekly. 1998. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "The New Settlement at Rockingham Bay.". Rockhampton Bulletin and Central Queensland Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1871). Qld.: National Library of Australia. 25 August 1864. p. 4. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "The New Settlement At Rockingham Bay.". Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875). Sydney, NSW: National Library of Australia. 11 August 1864. p. 2. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Dalrymple, G.E. (1865). "On the New Settlement at Rockingham Bay". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 35: 191–212. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Premier Postal Auctions. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- Moresby, John (1876). New Guinea and Polynesia. Discoveries and Surveys. London: John Murray. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "CARDWELL.". Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald And General Advertiser. XI, (1517). Queensland, Australia. 17 February 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "THE BLACKS OF GOULD ISLAND.". The Brisbane Courier. XXVI, (4,535). Queensland, Australia. 12 April 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Cardwell (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- "Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track (entry 600393)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cardwell Divisional Board Hall (former) and Honour Board (entry 601768)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cardwell Post Office - Residence (former) (entry 600392)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- ""CARAVAN TALES.".". The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 - 1939). Brisbane, Qld.: National Library of Australia. 24 April 1930. p. 4. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Bolton, G. C. "Scott, Walter Jervoise (1835–1890)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre for Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Cardwell Post Office - Residence (former)". Australian Heritage Places Inventory. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
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