Care Quality Commission
|Type||Non-departmental public body|
Chief Inspector of Hospitals
|Prof Sir Mike Richards|
Chief Inspector of Adult Social Care
|Chief Inspector of Primary Care: Prof Steve Field|
|£166m gross expenditure (2012/13)|
|2,147 whole time equivalents (2012/13)|
The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health. It was established in 2009 to regulate and inspect health and social care services in England.
It was formed from three predecessor organisations:
- the Healthcare Commission
- the Commission for Social Care Inspection (CSCI)
- the Mental Health Act Commission (MHAC)
The CQC's stated role is to make sure that hospitals, care homes, dental and general practices and other care services in England provide people with safe, effective and high-quality care, and to encourage them to improve. It carries out this role through checks it carries out during the registration process all new care services must complete, inspections and monitoring of a range of data sources that can indicate problems with services.
Part of the commission's remit is protecting the interests of people whose rights have been restricted under the Mental Health Act.
- 1 History
- 2 Organisation
- 3 Operations
- 4 Hospital inspections
- 5 Social care
- 6 Primary care
- 7 Staffing
- 8 Funding
- 9 Related issues
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Until 31 March 2009, regulation of health and adult social care in England was carried out by the Healthcare Commission and the Commission for Social Care Inspection. The Mental Health Act Commission had monitoring functions with regard to the operation of the Mental Health Act 1983.
The commission was established as a single, integrated regulator for England's health and adult social care services by the Health and Social Care Act 2008 to replace these three bodies. The Commission was created in shadow form on 1 October 2008 and began operating on 1 April 2009.
- Chair: Peter Wyman, current chair of Yeovil District Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
- Chief executive: David Behan, formerly Director General of Social Care, Local Government and Care Partnerships at the Department of Health, the President of the Association of Directors of Social Services, and Chief Inspector of the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
- Board members:
- Louis Appleby, the National Clinical Director for offender health, formerly the National Director for mental health. Appointed 3 June 2013.
- Anna Bradley, formerly chief executive of the National Consumer Council. Appointed 26 July 2012.
- Camilla Cavendish, a journalist and associate editor for The Sunday Times. Appointed 3 June 2013.
- Paul Corrigan, former health policy advisor to Tony Blair and former special advisor to Alan Milburn and John Reid. Appointed 3 June 2013.
- Jennifer Dixon, chief executive of the Nuffield Trust and past board member of the Healthcare Commission. Appointed 3 June 2013.
- Robert Francis QC non-executive board member. Appointed 4 June 2014.
- Michael Mire non-executive board member, a senior partner at McKinsey & Company. Appointed 3 June 2013.
- Paul Rew non-executive board member. Appointed 4 June 2014.
- Kay Sheldon, non-executive board member, formerly a Mental Health Act commissioner and past board member of the Mental Health Act Commission. Appointed 20 October 2010.
Previous board members have included:
- Chief executive: Cynthia Bower 2009-2012.
- Chair: David Prior 2013-2015, Jo Williams 2010-2012, Barbara Young, Baroness Young of Old Scone 2008-2010.
The Commission has appointed three Chief Inspectors:
- Sir Mike Richards: chief inspector of hospitals
- Andrea Sutcliffe: chief inspector for social care
- Dr Steve Field: chief inspector of general practice
In October 2014 Field announced that the Commission was going to begin inspecting health systems across whole geographical areas from 2015, including social care and NHS 111. There are suggestions that it could inspect clinical commissioning groups.
Behan admitted in March 2015 that the Commission would not be able to inspect all acute trusts before the end of 2015 as it had intended. In February 2015 it reported that it was missing its targets for following up on the safeguarding information it received that might indicate that patients are at risk. He also said the CQC would update its oversight in line with the growth of new provider models and would begin looking at care quality along pathways to a greater degree and, for the first time, across localities.
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
In November 2009 Barbara Young, then the CQC chair, resigned from the commission when a report detailing poor standards at Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was leaked to the media. The report found that "hundreds of people had died needlessly due to appalling standards of care." One month earlier the commission had rated the quality of care at the hospital as "good."
Grant Thornton report
In August 2012 chief executive David Behan commissioned a report by management consultants Grant Thornton. The report examined the CQC's response to complaints about baby and maternal deaths and injuries at Furness General Hospital in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria and was instigated by a complaint from a member of the public and "an allegation of a "cover-up" submitted by a whistleblower at CQC." It was published on 19 June 2013.
Among the findings, the CQC was "accused of quashing an internal review that uncovered weaknesses in its processes" and had allegedly "deleted the review of their failure to act on concerns about University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust." One CQC employee claimed that he was instructed by a senior manager "to destroy his review because it would expose the regulator to public criticism." The report concluded: "We think that the information contained in the [deleted] report was sufficiently important that the deliberate failure to provide it could properly be characterised as a 'cover-up'." David Prior, who joined the commission as chairman in January 2013, responded that the organisation's previous management had been "totally dysfunctional" and admitted that the organisation was "not fit for purpose."
On 20 June 2013, Behan and Prior agreed to release the names of previously redacted senior managers within the Grant Thornton report, who it is alleged had suppressed the internal CQC report. The people named were former CQC Chief Executive Cynthia Bower, deputy CEO Jill Finney and media manager Anna Jefferson. All were reportedly present at a meeting where deletion of a critical report was allegedly discussed. Bower and Jefferson immediately denied being involved in a cover-up. The Guardian newspaper reported on 19 June 2013 that Tim Farron MP had written to the Metropolitan Police asking them to investigate the alleged cover-up.
Finney subsequently started litigation seeking at least £1.3m libel damages from the CQC on the basis that the CQC’s current chair David Prior and chief executive David Behan abused their power and acted maliciously in publishing allegations that she ordered a “cover up” of its failings. The Grant Thornton report said it was “more likely than not” that Ms Finney had ordered the deletion of an internal report by Louise Dineley, the CQC’s head of regulatory risk. The CQC started litigation against Grant Thornton claiming a contribution towards any “damages, interests and/or costs” incurred in the case.
Residential establishments, unlike hospitals, can easily be closed, or sold, and reopened with a new identity. Private Eye reported in November 2015 that most of the 34 homes closed under Cynthia Bower after failing their inspection later reopened with a new name or under new ownership, but with similar problems. Compassion in Care told the magazine that if a home changed name or ownership it was then listed by the CQC as "new services" and "uninspected" by the CQC, and there was no link to reports on the same establishment under different ownership, even if the new owners were linked to the previous owners, and there was no follow up inspection if problems had been identified. They had found 152 homes reregistered as new, when they had only changed owner or name. The Commission had identified safety concerns in more than 40% of the homes it had inspected, and 10% were rated as inadequate.
Winterbourne View was a private hospital at Hambrook, South Gloucestershire, owned and operated by Castlebeck. It was exposed in a Panorama investigation into physical and psychological abuse suffered by people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, first broadcast in 2011. One senior nurse had reported his concerns directly to CQC, but his complaint was not taken up. The public funded hospital was shut down as a result of the abuse that took place. Cynthia Bower, then the chief executive of the commission, resigned ahead of a critical government report in which Winterbourne View was cited.
Ash Court is a residential nursing home for the elderly in London, operated by Forest Healthcare. In April 2012 hidden camera footage was broadcast in a BBC Panorama exposé which showed an elderly woman being physically assaulted at Ash Court by a male carer and mistreated by four others. The standard of care at the nursing home had been rated "excellent." The victim was an 81-year-old woman suffering Alzheimer's disease and severe arthritis. Although the commission's primary function is to enforce national standards including safeguarding the vulnerable and "enabling them to live free from harm, abuse and neglect" the CQC responded by stating that they "should not be criticised for failing to protect people from harm" and could not be expected to spot abuse "which often takes place behind closed doors."
In January 2015 the Commission for the first time took action in respect of primary care. Three GP practices were put into special measures after unsatisfactory inspection results: Priory Avenue Surgery in Reading, Berkshire; Dr Michael Florin’s surgery in Sale, Greater Manchester; and Dr Srinivas Dharmana’s family and general practice in Walton, Liverpool.
In a report to the audit committee revealed by the Health Service Journal in July 2014 it was reported that the Commission had employed 134 applicants in 2012 who “failed some or all of its recruitment activities”. Of that group 121 were still in post. The report said: “This in essence implies that our regulatory judgments may be impaired as we have not always appointed staff with the core competencies required to do the job properly, and they may not have received appropriate training to bring them up to the standard required.”
A report of the CQC board in December 2014 showed the organisation had 852 full-time equivalent inspectors in post but a target of 1,411 by December 2015 - the number needed to “discharge the commitments that we’ve made in our business plan”.
The Commission charges fees to the organisations it regulates. These relate to the size and type of organisation and have been increased on a yearly basis. in 2015/6 charges (9% more than 2014/5) included:
- GP Practice on one site with 5,000-10000 patients: £726
- NHS Trust, with turnover between £125 million and £225 million: £78,208
Substantial increases are expected in future years as it moves to a full cost recovery basis.
It had a budget of £1.1 million for “travel and subsistence” for hospital inspections in 2014-15, but actually spent £4.4 million.
- "Our annual report for 2012/13". Care Quality Commission. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Office of Public Sector Information - Health and Social Care Act 2008". Opsi.gov.uk. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Office of Public Sector Information - Health and Social Care Act 2008 (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Care Quality Commission" (Press release). Department of Health. 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- "David Behan announced as the new Chief Executive of CQC". Care Quality Commission. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Manchester expert appointed to Care Quality Commission". The University of Manchester. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Anna Bradley confirmed as Chair of Healthwatch England". GOV.UK. 26 July 201. Retrieved 21 June 2013. Check date values in:
- "Care Quality Commission appoints new board members". Care Quality Commission. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- CQC website CQC welcomes new Board members
- "Kay Sheldon re-appointed to CQC board". Care Quality Commission. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Steve Field appointed as chief inspector of general practice". Health Service Journal. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "James Titcombe". Care Quality Commission. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "CQC to inspect whole health systems". Health Service Journal. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "CQC to assess whole health systems". Health Service Journal. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "CQC will miss own inspection deadlines, regulator admits". Health Service Journal. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "CQC falls short in responding to safeguarding alerts". Health Service Journal. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "CQC unveils new approach to regulating forward view care models". Health Service Journal. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- "Baroness Young, health watchdog chief, to stand down". The Daily Telegraph (London). 4 December 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Taskforce sent in to raise standards at Essex NHS trust". BBC News. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Campbell, Denis (4 December 2009). "NHS watchdog chief Barbara Young quits after Essex hospital furore". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Dominiczak, Peter (19 June 2013). "NHS Watchdog accused of hospital 'cover-up' still not fit for purpose, chairman admits". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "The Care Quality Commission re: Project Ambrose" (PDF). Care Quality Commission. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Healthcare regulator CQC 'may have covered up failings'". BBC News. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Cooper, Charlie (19 June 2013). "NHS watchdog covered-up scandal at hospital where eight babies died of neglect". The Independent (London). Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Donnelly, Laura (18 Jun 2013). "Cover-up over hospital scandal". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Siddique, Haroon (19 June 2013). "NHS regulator exposed as 'not fit for purpose' by maternity deaths". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Triggle, Nick (20 June 2013). "NHS 'cover-up' names revealed by CQC". BBC News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Randeep Ramesh, social affairs editor (2013-06-19). "Met asked to investigate NHS regulator after Morecambe Bay trust report | Society | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "CQC drags Grant Thornton into libel court case". Health Service Journal. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Sleeping Watchdog" (1405). Private Eye. 13 November 2015. p. 37.
- "Four arrests after patient abuse caught on film". BBC News. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Winterbourne View 'failed to protect people'". BBC News. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Winterbourne View 'abuse' hospital closes on Friday". BBC News. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Campbell, Denis (23 February 2013). "NHS watchdog chief Cynthia Bower resigns". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Abuse secretly filmed in 'excellent' London care home". BBC News. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Regulator criticised after woman assaulted in care home". BBC News. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Carvel, John (1 May 2012). "Stafford hospital investigator berates CQC regulator". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Worroll, Jane (22 April 2012). "'I used a spy camera to catch a care home thug beating up my mother': How a daughter's suspicions lead to her uncovering harrowing abuse". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "The National Standards: Safeguarding people". Care Quality Commission. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Foot, Tom (26 April 2012). "Ash Court abuse leads to calls for public inquiry into care watchdog". Camden New Journal (London). Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Three GP surgeries put into special measures over patient safety concerns". The Guardian. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "CQC hired inspectors who failed recruitment criteria in 'flawed' process". Health Service Journal. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "CQC needs to increase inspection workforce by 66pc in one year". Health Service Journal. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Trust CQC fees could increase by 75 per cent next year". Health Service Journal. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- "Hospital inspections exceeded hotel and travel budget by four times". Health Service Journal. 16 November 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.