Carl Erik Alexander Bovallius (or Bowallius) (31 July 1849–8 November 1907) was a Swedish biologist and archaeologist. Bowallius became a student in Uppsala in 1868 and a Ph.D. in 1875. Bowallius undertook, for scientific purposes, travel along the Swedish and Norwegian coasts.
In 1881-83, he made zoological and ethnographic studies in Latin America, to where he returned in the late 1890s.
Starting in 1881, Carl Bovallius explored Central America, and especially Nicaragua, in search of ancient sites. He studied places like Ometepe, and Zapatera, and also researched the etnography of local tribes.