||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2009)|
October 29, 1923 |
|Known for||synthesis of norethisterone,
the first orally highly active progestin
used in one of the first three oral contraceptive pills
Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923, Vienna) is an Austrian-American chemist, novelist, and playwright best known for his contribution to the development of oral contraceptive pills and the use of physical methods in organic chemistry as well as on structure elucidation of natural products (notably steroids), an area in which he published over 1000 papers. Djerassi is emeritus professor of chemistry at Stanford University.
He participated in the invention in 1951, together with Mexican Luis E. Miramontes and Mexican-Hungarian George Rosenkranz, of the progestin norethindrone—which, unlike progesterone, remained effective when taken orally and was far stronger than the naturally occurring hormone. His preparation was first administered as an oral contraceptive to animals by Gregory Pincus and Min Chueh Chang and to women by John Rock.
Djerassi is also the author of several novels in the "science-in-fiction" genre, including Cantor's Dilemma, in which he explores the ethics of modern scientific research through his protagonist, Dr. Cantor. He also wrote Chemistry in Theatre: Insufficiency, Phallacy or both which demonstrate the potential pedagogic value of using dialogic style and plot structure of plays with special focus on chemistry.
Carl Djerassi was born in Vienna, Austria, but spent the first years of his infancy in Sofia, Bulgaria, the home of his father, Samuel Djerassi, a dermatologist and specialist in STD. His mother was Alice Friedmann, a Viennese dentist and physician. Both parents were Jewish.
Following his parents' divorce, Djerassi and his mother moved to Vienna. Until age fourteen, he attended the same realgymnasium that Sigmund Freud had attended many years earlier; he spent summers in Bulgaria with his father. After the Anschluss, his father briefly remarried his mother in 1938 to allow Carl and his mother to escape the Nazi regime and flee to Bulgaria, where he lived with his father for a year. During his time in Bulgaria, Djerassi attended the American College of Sofia where he learned fluent English. In December 1939, Djerassi arrived with his mother in the United States, nearly penniless. Djerassi's mother worked in a group practice in upstate New York. In 1949, his father emigrated to the United States, practiced in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and eventually retired near his son in San Francisco.
Djerassi started his college career at Newark Junior College, briefly attended Tarkio College (now defunct), and then studied chemistry at Kenyon College where he graduated summa cum laude. After one year at CIBA, he moved to the University of Wisconsin where he earned his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1945.
In 1949 Djerassi became associate director of research at Syntex in Mexico City and remained there through 1951. He worked on a new synthesis of cortisone based on diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin derived from a Mexican wild yam. His team later synthesized norethisterone (norethindrone), the first highly active progestin analogue that was effective when taken by mouth. This became part of one of the first successful combined oral contraceptive pills, known colloquially as the birth-control pill, or simply, the Pill. From 1952-1959 he was professor of chemistry at Wayne State University in Detroit.
In 1957, he became vice president of research at Syntex in Mexico City while on leave of absence from Wayne State. In 1960 Djerassi became a professor of chemistry at Stanford University. From 1968 until 1972 he also served as president of Syntex Research at Palo Alto. The Syntex connection brought wealth to Djerassi. He bought a large tract of land in Woodside, California, started a cattle ranch initially called SMIP (Syntex Made It Possible), and assembled a large art collection. In 1968, he started a new company, Zoecon, which focused on pest control, using modified insect growth hormones to stop insects from metamorphosing from the larval stage to the pupal and adult stages. Zoecon was eventually acquired by Occidental Petroleum, which later sold it to Sandoz, now Novartis. Part of Zoecon survives in Dallas, Texas, making products to control fleas and other pests.
In 1965 at Stanford University, nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg, computer scientist Edward Feigenbaum, and Djerassi devised the computer program DENDRAL (dendritic algorithm) for the elucidation of the molecular structure of unknown organic compounds taken from known groups of such compounds, such as the alkaloids and the steroids. This was a prototype for expert systems and one of the first uses of artificial intelligence in biomedical research.
In 1977, Djerassi began a relationship with bestselling biographer and Stanford University professor of English Diane Middlebrook, and in 1985 they were married. In 2002 she became professor emerita to work full-time as a biographer. In that same year, Djerassi also became professor emeritus.  They divided their time between homes in San Francisco and London, until her death on 15 December 2007.
On July 5, 1978, Djerassi's artist daughter Pamela (from his second marriage, to Norma Lundholm), committed suicide, which is described in a moving chapter in his autobiography. With Middlebrook's help, Djerassi then considered how he could help living artists, rather than collecting works of dead ones. He donated half of his Klee collection to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and half to the Albertina in Vienna, effective on his death. He visited existing artist colonies, such as Yaddo and MacDowell, and decided to create his own. He closed his cattle ranch, converted the barn and houses to residential and work space for artists, and moved his home to a spectacular high rise in San Francisco that he and his wife had renovated. 
Djerassi's son Dale (also with Norma Lundholm) is a documentary filmmaker and private investor.
Djerassi wrote five novels, four of which he describes as "science-in-fiction", fiction which portrays the lives of real scientists, with all their accomplishments, conflicts, and aspirations. The genre is also referred to as Lab lit.
In his first two novels, Cantors Dilemma and Bourbaki Gambit, he shows how scientists work and think. In Cantors Dilemma, there is the suspicion of scientific fraud; in Bourbaki Gambit the question of personal achievement stands in the center. In the third, Menachem's Seed, ICSI and the Pugwash organization are the main themes. In the last, NO, he shows how young scientists develop an idea as far as founding a company to market a product - something Djerassi himself has done in the field of insecticides.
The topic of the fifth novel, Marx deceased is the role of a writer's earlier bestsellers for the assessment of a new work - in contrast to the assessment of an anonymous work or one of a formerly unknown author. He plays with this topic also in Bourbaki Gambit.
After his success with prose literature in the Science-in-Fiction genre, Carl Djerassi started to write plays. Theatre, even more so than prose, seems to fulfill his desire to work in a more “dialogical” environment than the monological natural sciences had allowed him to do. According to British director Andy Jordan, who has produced all of his plays in England, Djerassi’s dramatic works are “not wholly or straightforwardly naturalistic or realistic […but] avowedly text-driven, where ideas, themes, words and language were majorly important, a fact I had always to be conscious of as the director.” 
Djerassi’s first play, An Immaculate Misconception (1998), dealing with the in vitro fertilization procedure ICSI, was followed by two plays about priority struggles in the history of science, Oxygen (co-authored with Roald Hoffmann, 1999) and Calculus (2002), and a drama at the intersection of chemistry and art history, Phallacy (2004). Ego (2003, also produced under the title Three on a Couch), together with the docudrama Four Jews on Parnassus (2006, publ. 2008) and Foreplay (2010), are the only three dramatic pieces which do not deal with science-in-literature but rather carry the notion of intellectual competitiveness into literature, philosophy and the humanities. Taboos (2006), a complex play between reproductive, gender and political issues, returns to Djerassi’s central concerns as a scientist; his 2012 play Insufficiency is a bitter satire of both the scientific community and academic environments.
As in his novels, Djerassi's plays incorporate the life and achievements of (sometimes famous) scientists as well as new scientific technologies. The science in his plays is always scientifically plausible although the dramatic personae and locations are fictitious. By placing scientists and research into dramatic worlds, he raises critical questions about the sciences as cultural systems and looks into internal conflicts and contradictions in science and between scientists. The constant competition between them, the need for priority in new scientific discoveries even if the required speed necessitates risky and immoral means, as well as the problematic consequences of new discoveries are important topics of the plays.
Connected with many of these questions is the role of women in the sciences (including researchers’ wives and female friends). Djerassi’s plays recognize the special contributions women make as scientists and to science, both directly and indirectly. His female characters are usually depicted as strong and independent, proving a strong impact of feminist thinking on his work.
Djerassi's plays have found their way into theatres around the globe and have been translated into a large number of European and Asian languages. Djerassi has repeatedly revised his plays and some of them have different versions and multiple endings (especially "An Immaculate Misconception": the nationalities of the main characters vary, also the endings). If possible, Carl Djerassi also cooperates with directors in the production of dramatic performances. All of his plays have been published in book form, many of them in a number of languages. Some of them can be downloaded from his website.
Djerassi has written numerous poems that have been published in journals or anthologies. Some of the poems reflect his life as a chemist (e.g. Why are chemists not poets or The clock runs backwards).
Awards and honors
- Ernest Guenther Award of the American Chemical Society (1969)
- Scheele Award (1972)
- National Medal of Science (President of the United States of America, 1973) for his work on the contraceptive pill (The award was somewhat ironic in that his name at the time was on the infamous "Nixon's enemies list", which was compiled by Charles Colson and Richard Nixon. He learned this from an article in the San Francisco Examiner, several months later.)
- Perkin Medal (1975)
- Inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame (1978)
- National Medal of Technology (President of the United States of America, 1991) for "his broad technological contributions to solving environmental problems; and for his initiatives in developing novel, practical approaches to insect control products that are biodegradable and harmless"
- Priestley Medal (American Chemical Society, 1992)
- Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class (1999)
- Prize of the German Chemical Society for Writers (2001)
- Grand Gold Medal for services to the province of Lower Austria (2002)
- Gold Medal of the capital Vienna (2002)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (2003)
- Erasmus Medal of the Academia Europaea (2003)
- American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal (2004)
- Lichtenberg Medal of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences (2005)
- Premio letterario Serono in Rome (2005)
- An Austrian postage stamp with Djerassi's portrait, issued to mark his 80th birthday (2005) The Austrian government also sent him a new Austrian passport.
- Grand Decoration of Honour in Silver for Services to the Republic of Austria (2008)
- Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Humanities of the Technical University of Dortmund for his literary work (as 21 honorary doctorate) (2009)
- Alecrin Prize (2009, Vigo, Spain)
- Foreign Member of the Royal Society (2010)
- Edinburgh Medal (2011)
- Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Heidelberg University (2011)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Vienna (2012)
- Honorary Doctorate from the Medical University of Vienna (2012)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Applied Arts, Vienna (2013)
- Honorary Doctorate from the Sigmund Freud University, Vienna (2013)
- Optical Rotatory Dispersion, McGraw-Hill & Company, 1960.
- The Politics of Contraception, New York & London: W. W. Norton, 1979. ISBN 0-393-01264-6
- Steroids Made it Possible, Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1990. ISBN 0-8412-1773-4 (autobiography)
- The Pill, Pygmy Chimps, and Degas' Horse, Basic Books, 1992. ISBN 0-465-05758-6 (autobiography)
- From the Lab into The World: A Pill for People, Pets, and Bugs, American Chemical Society, 1994. ISBN 0-8412-2808-6
- Paul Klee: Masterpieces of the Djerassi Collection, (coeditor), Prestel Publishing, 2002. ISBN 3-7913-2779-8
- Dalla pillola alla penna, Di Renzo Editore, 2004. ISBN 88-8323-086-8
- This Man's Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill, Oxford University Press, USA, 2004. ISBN 0-19-860695-8 (autobiography)
- The Clock Runs Backwards, Brownsville, OR: Story Line Press, 1991. ISBN 0-934257-75-2
- A Diary of Pique/ Tagebuch des Grolls, Haymon Verlag, Innsbruck, 2012. ISBN 978-3-85218-719-8
- Cantor's Dilemma, Penguin, 1989. ISBN 0-14-014359-9
- The Bourbaki Gambit, Penguin, 1994. ISBN 0-14-025485-4
- The Futurist and Other Stories, London & Sydney: Macdonald, 1989. ISBN 0-356-17500-6
- How I Beat Coca-Cola and Other Tales of One-Upmanship, Madison: Terrace Books/U Wisconsin P, 2013. ISBN 978-0-299-29504-2
- Marx, Deceased. A Novel, Athens & London: U of Georgia P, 1996. ISBN 0-8203-1835-3
- Menachem's Seed. A Novel, Athens & London: U Georgia P, 1997. ISBN 0-8203-1925-2
- Menachem's Seed, Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0-14-027794-3
- NO. A Novel, Athens & London: The U of Georgia P, 1998. ISBN 0-8203-2032-3
- NO, Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-029654-9
- Chemistry in Theatre: Insufficiency, Phallacy or Both, Imperial College Press, 2012. ISBN 978-1-84816-937-1
- Foreplay: Hannah Arendt, the Two Adornos, and Walter Benjamin, Madison: U Wisconsin P, 2011. ISBN 978-0-299-28334-6
- Four Jews on Parnassus
- An Immaculate Misconception: Sex in an Age of Mechanical Reproduction, London: Imperial College Press, 2000. ISBN 1-86094-248-2 (adapted from the novel Menachem's Seed)
- L.A. Theatre Works, Audio Theatre Collection CD, 2004. ISBN 1-58081-286-4
- Oxygen (with Roald Hoffmann, coauthor), Weinheim et al.: WILEY-VCH, 2001. ISBN 3-527-30413-4
- Newton's Darkness: Two Dramatic Views, (with David Pinner, coauthor), London: Imperial College Press, 2004. ISBN 1-86094-390-X
- Sex in an Age of Technological Reproduction: ICSI and TABOOS, Madison: U Wisconsin P, 2008. ISBN 978-0-299-22790-6
- Gehrke, Ingrid (2008). Der intellektuelle Polygamist: Carl Djerassi's Grenzgänge in Autobiographie, Roman und Drama. Berlin et al.: Lit Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8258-1444-1.
- Grünzweig, Walter, ed. (2012). The SciArtist: Carl Djerassi's Science-in-Literature in Transatlantic and Interdisciplinary Contexts. Berlin et al.: Lit Verlag. ISBN 978-3-643-90231-3.
- Marks, Lara V (2004). Sexual Chemistry: A History Of The Contraceptive Pill. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN 0-300-08943-0.
- Tone, Andrea (2001). Devices and Desires. New York: Hill and Wang, A Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-8090-3817-X.
- Weintraub, Bob. "Pincus, Djerassi and Oral Contraceptives", Chemistry in Israel, Bulletin of the Israel Chemical Society. August 2005, pp.47–50.
- . (July 2011). "The Joshua Lederberg Papers: Computers, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems in Biomedical Research". Profiles in Science. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- "Board of Sponsors". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
- "Carl Djerassi, Ph.D.". Pharmanews. Phamanex. Retrieved 2006-12-17.
- Diane Middlebrook, professor emeritus and legendary biographer, dies at 68, Stanford University, 9 January 2008.
- Richard Feynman at estherlederberg.com
- Djerassi, Carl. "Science in Fiction". Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Solon, Olivia (September 6, 2012). "Q&A: Co-Inventor of ‘The Pill’ Talks Art, Science and Chemistry". Wired UK.
- Andi Jordan, "Carl Djerassi's Science-in-Theatre Plays: The Theatrical Realization," in: Walter Grünzweig, ed., The SciArtist: Carl Djerassi's Science-in-Literature in Transatlantic and Interdisciplinary Contexts, Berlin et al.: Lit Verlag, 2012, p.119.
- National Science Foundation - The President's National Medal of Science
- National Inventors Hall of Fame
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 1219. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 1833. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "Foreign Members". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Pill inventor Carl Djerassi to receive Edinburgh Medal", BBC News, 8 April 2011.
- Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica: Djerassi Glacier.
- Personal website
- Carl Djerassi tells his life story at Web of Stories
- Djerassi Resident Artists Program
- Djerassi’s autograph from The Chemical Record