Röchling was born in Saarbrücken, part of the Prussian Rhine Province, son of Friedrich Röchling, a judiciary worker, and Angelika Stoll. He studied from 1875 to 1880 in the Karlsruhe Academy of Arts (Kunstschule) with Ludwig des Coudres and Ernst Hildebrand and later in the Academy of Arts of Berlin (Akademie der Künste).
While in Berlin, he was a pupil of the great master painter Anton von Werner, with whom he participated in the creation of various panoramic paintings such as Der Schlacht von Sedan ("The Battle of Sedan"). Later he became well known for his independent work of historical and military paintings in the turn of the 19th century. He died on May 6, 1920 in Berlin.
Together with Georg Koch and Eugen Bracht a panorama of the Battle of Chattanooga is among his works. He also worked in partnership with Richard Knötel and Woldemar Friedrich in illustrating two popular children books (Der Alte Fritz in 50 Bildern für Jung und Alt in 1895 and Die Königin Luise in 50 Bildern für Jung und Alte in 1896).
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- Episode aus der Schlacht bei Gravelotte (Tod des Majors von Hadeln am 18.8.1870) in the Deutsches Historisches Museum, in German
- Carl Röchling in the German National Library catalogue
- Carl Röchling in the Saarländischen Biografien, in German