Carl Theodor Dreyer
Carl Theodor Dreyer
|Born||3 February 1889|
|Died||20 March 1968 (aged 79)|
|Occupation||Film director, screenwriter|
|Awards||Golden Lion at the 1955 Venice Film Festival for|
Ordet (The Word)
Carl Theodor Dreyer (Danish: [ˈkʰɑˀl ˈtsʰe̝ːotɒ ˈtʁɑjˀɐ]; 3 February 1889 – 20 March 1968), commonly known as Carl Th. Dreyer, was a Danish film director and screenwriter. Widely considered one of the greatest filmmakers of all time, his movies are noted for their emotional austerity and slow, stately pacing, frequent themes of social intolerance, the inseparability of fate and death, and the power of evil in earthly life.
His 1928 movie The Passion of Joan of Arc is considered to be one of the greatest movies of all time, renowned for its cinematography and use of close-ups. It frequently appears on Sight & Sound's lists of the greatest films ever made, and in 2012's poll it was voted the 9th-best film ever made by film critics and 37th by film directors.
Dreyer was born illegitimate in Copenhagen, Denmark. His birth mother was an unmarried Scanian maid named Josefine Bernhardine Nilsson, and he was put up for adoption by his birth father, Jens Christian Torp, a married Danish farmer living in Sweden who was his mother's employer. He spent the first two years of his life in orphanages until his adoption by a typographer named Carl Theodor Dreyer and his wife, Inger Marie (née Olsen). He was named after his adoptive father, but in accordance with Danish practice, there is no "Senior" or "Junior" added to their names to distinguish them from each other.
His adoptive parents were emotionally distant and his childhood was largely unhappy. He later recalled that his parents "constantly let me know that I should be grateful for the food I was given and that I strictly had no claim on anything, since my mother got out of paying by lying down to die." But he was a highly intelligent school student, who left home and formal education at the age of sixteen. He dissociated himself from his adoptive family, but their teachings influenced the themes of many of his films.
Dreyer was ideologically conservative. According to David Bordwell, "As a youth he belonged to the Social Liberal party, a conservative group radical only in their opposition to military expenditures." Dreyer recalled, "Even when I was with Ekstrabladet, I was conservative ... I don't believe in revolutions. They have, as a rule, the tedious quality of pulling development back. I believe more in evolution, in the small advances."
As a young man, Dreyer worked as a journalist, but he eventually joined the film industry as a writer of title cards for silent films and subsequently of screenplays. He was initially hired by Nordisk Film in 1913.
His first attempts at film direction had limited success, and he left Denmark to work in the French film industry. While living in France he met Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, and other members of the French artistic scene.
In 1928 he made his first classic film, The Passion of Joan of Arc. Working from the transcripts of Joan of Arc's trial, he created a masterpiece of emotion that drew equally on realism and expressionism. Because the Danish film industry was in financial ruin, Dreyer depended on private financing from Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg to make his next film, Vampyr (1932), a surreal meditation on fear. Logic gave way to mood and atmosphere in this story of a man protecting two sisters from a vampire. Both films were box office failures, and Dreyer did not make another movie until World War II.
By 1943, Denmark was under Nazi occupation, and Dreyer's film Day of Wrath had as its theme the paranoia surrounding witch hunts in the seventeenth century in a strongly theocratic culture. With this work, Dreyer established the style that would mark his sound films: careful compositions, stark monochrome cinematography, and very long takes.
Dreyer made two documentaries in the more than a decade before his next full-length feature film, in 1955, Ordet (The Word), based on the play of the same name by Kaj Munk. The film combines a love story with a conflict of faith.
Dreyer's last film was 1964's Gertrud. Although seen by some as a lesser film than its predecessors, it is a fitting close to Dreyer's career, as it deals with a woman who, through the tribulations of her life, never expresses regret for her choices. Dreyer said of it: "What I seek in my films, what I want to obtain, is a penetration to my actors' profound thoughts by means of their most subtle expressions. For these are the expressions...that lie in the depths of his soul. That is what interests me above all, not the technique of the cinema. Gertrud is a film that I made with all my heart." David Thomson, in his The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, says it "awaits rediscovery as Dreyer's finest film and vindication of his method."
The great, never finished project of Dreyer's career was a film about Jesus. Though a manuscript was written (published in 1968), the unstable economic conditions and Dreyer's own perfectionism left the project undeveloped at his death.
|Year||English title||Original title||Production country||Notes|
|1919||The President||Præsidenten||Denmark||Based on the novel by Karl Emil Franzos.|
|1920||The Parson's Widow||Prästänkan||Sweden||Based on the story "Prestekonen" by Kristofer Janson.|
|1921||Leaves from Satan's Book||Blade af Satans bog||Denmark||Loosely based on The Sorrows of Satan.|
|1922||Love One Another||Die Gezeichneten||Germany||Based on the novel by Aage Madelung.|
|1922||Once Upon a Time||Der var engang||Denmark||Based on the play by Holger Drachmann.|
|1924||Michael||Mikaël||Germany||Based on the novel Mikaël (1904) by Herman Bang.|
|1925||Master of the House (aka Thou Shalt Honor Thy Wife)||Du skal ære din hustru||Denmark||Based on the play by Svend Rindom.|
|1926||The Bride of Glomdal||Glomdalsbruden||Norway||Based on the novel by Jacob Breda Bull.|
|1928||The Passion of Joan of Arc||La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (Jeanne d'Arc lidelse og død)||France||Co-written with Joseph Delteil, author of the novel Jeanne d'Arc (1925, Prix Femina). Named the most influential film of all time by the curators of the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival.|
|1932||Vampyr||Vampyr – Der Traum des Allan Grey||France/Germany||Based on the novella Carmilla (1872) by J. Sheridan Le Fanu.|
|1943||Day of Wrath||Vredens Dag||Denmark||Based on the play Anne Pedersdotter by Hans Wiers-Jenssen; hymns by Paul La Cour.|
|1945||Two People||Två människor||Sweden||Based on the play "Attentat" by W.O. Somin. Made in Nazi-related exile in Sweden, the film was disowned by Dreyer and withdrawn from distribution.|
|1955||The Word||Ordet||Denmark||Based on the play by Kaj Munk.|
|1964||Gertrud||Gertrud||Denmark||Based on the play by Hjalmar Söderberg.|
- Good Mothers (Mødrehjælpen, 12 min, 1942)
- Water from the Land (Vandet på landet, 1946)
- The Struggle Against Cancer (Kampen mod kræften, 15 min, 1947)
- The Danish Village Church (Landsbykirken, 14 min, 1947)
- They Caught the Ferry (De nåede færgen, 11 min, 1948)
- Thorvaldsen (10 min, 1949)
- The Storstrom Bridge (Storstrømsbroen, 7 min, 1950)
- The Castle Within the Castle (Et Slot i et slot, 1955)
- The Carl Th. Dreyer website Retrieved 12 March 2013
- "The 1,000 Greatest Films (Top 250 Directors)". They Shoot Pictures, Don't They. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Bright Lights Film Journal review of Day of Wrath, Order and Gertrud
- "kamera.co.uk - feature item - Carl Dreyer - Antonio Pasolini". www.kamera.co.uk. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "Carl Theodor Dreyer | Biography, Movie Highlights and Photos | AllMovie". AllMovie. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- The Passion of Joan of Arc review by Roger Ebert
- "Carl Th. Dreyer - Biography - extended". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Bordwell, David (1983). The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer. University of California Press. p. 191.
- Thomson, David. The New Biographical Dictionary of Film. Alfred A. Knopf.
- "Dreyer film voted most influential". Copenhagen Post. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- Bordwell, David (January 1981). The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04450-0.
- Carney, Raymond Francis, Junior, Speaking the Language of Desire: The Films of Carl Dreyer, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- Dreyer, Carl Theodor; Skoller, Donald (1973). Dreyer in double reflection. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80458-8.
- Milne, Tom (1971). The cinema of Carl Dreyer. A. S. Barnes. ISBN 9780498077111.
- Schamus, James (1 January 2008). Carl Theodor Dreyer's Gertrud: The Moving Word. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98854-2.
- Wahl, Jan (2012). Carl Theodor Dreyer and Ordet: My Summer with the Danish Filmmaker. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-3618-9.