Among others, he studied the archives of Bologna, and the life of Antonio Urceo (Antonius Urceus), called Codro (1446–1500), who had taught Greek to Nicolaus Copernicus. Malagola discovered that according to the note Dominus Nicolaus Kopperlingk de Thorn - IX grossetos the young Prussian had enrolled in the Acta nationis Germanorum at Bologna in 1496 for the fee of 9 Groschen.
Malagola also revealed that the librarian Niccolò Comneno Papadopoli in Padua had falsely claimed in 1726 that he had seen an entry of Copernicus in records of a "Polish nation" at the university. In the century that had passed since, this claim had been widely published and "found a place in all subsequent biographies of Copernicus, but the decorative particulars added by the historian of the Patavian university have been shown to be wholly incorrect" and utterly baseless.
- Carlo Malagola, Mauro Sarti, Mauro Fattorini, Cesare Albicini: De claris Archigymnasii bononiensis professoribus a saeculo XI usque ad ... (Ex officina regiafratrum Merlani, 1896)
- Carlo Malagola: Della vita e delle opere di Antonio Urceo detto Codro: studi e ricerche (Fava e Garagnani, 1878)
- at openlibrary.org 
- at archive.org 
- Marian Biskup: Regesta Copernicana (calendar of Copernicus' Papers), 1973, Ossolineum 
- Carlo Malagola: Della vita e delle opere di Antonio Urceo detto Codro: studi e ricerche,1878,  
- Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers, 1959 
- Ernst Ludwig Wilhelm Maximilian Curtze: Nicolaus Coppernicus: Eine biographische Skizze, 1899 
- Der Aufenthalt des Coppernicus in Bologna, By Carlo Malagola, 1880
- Carlo Malagola: I libri della Nazione tedesca presso lo Studio bolognese, note storico ... 1884 
- The fact was asserted by Papadopoli in 1726, and found a place in all subsequent biographies of Copernicus ; but the decorative particulars added by the historian of the Patavian university having been shown wholly incorrect, it seemed unreasonable to rely on his discredited authority for the fundamental circumstance. - The Edinburgh Review: Or Critical Journal, By Sydney Smith et al., Published 1883, A. and C. Black, 
- As for the assertion that Copernicus was registered as a Pole at Padua, that was investigated, at the instance of Prince Boncompagni, by Favaro, and found utterly baseless. On the other hand, Carlo Malagola, in his admirable work on Urceo Codro showed that "Niccolo Kopperlingk di Thorn" had registered as a law student at Bologna in the album of the "Nazione Alemanna". This may not prove much, but it is, at least, not an invention. - Charles Sanders Peirce, Kenneth Laine Ketner, James E. Cook: Contributions to the Nation, Published 1982, Texas Tech University Press, 202 pages ISBN 0-89672-154-X (ISBN 0-89672-069-1 paper ISBN 0-89672-070-5 hardbound)