Carlos Ghosn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Carlos Ghosn

Carlos Ghosn 2010.jpg
Ghosn in 2010
Born (1954-03-09) 9 March 1954 (age 66)
NationalityFrenchLebaneseBrazilian
Alma mater
OccupationBusinessman
Spouse(s)
Rita Kordahi
(
m. 1984; div. 2012)

Carole Nahas
(
m. 2016)
ChildrenCaroline, Nadine, Maya and Anthony

Carlos Ghosn, KBE (/ɡn/;[1] French: [kaʁlɔs ɡon]; Arabic: كارلوس غصن‎; Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: ['kaːrlos 'ɣosˤn], born 9 March 1954) is a Brazilian-born businessman who also has French and Lebanese nationality.[2] As of January 2020,[3] he is an internationally wanted fugitive.[4] Ghosn has served as the CEO of Michelin North America, chairman and CEO of Renault, chairman of AvtoVAZ, chairman and CEO of Nissan, and chairman of Mitsubishi Motors.[5][6][7] Ghosn was also chairman and CEO of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, a strategic partnership among those automotive manufacturers through a complex cross-shareholding agreement. The venture has held approximately 10% of the total market share since 2010, and as of 2017, was reckoned to be the largest automobile group worldwide.

In 1996, Renault's CEO Louis Schweitzer hired Ghosn as his deputy and charged him with the task of turning the company around from near bankruptcy. Ghosn elaborated a plan to cut costs for the period 1998–2000, reducing the workforce, revising production processes, standardising vehicle parts and pushing the launch of new models. The company also undertook organisational changes, introducing a lean production system with delegate responsibilities inspired by Japanese systems (the "Renault Production Way"), reforming work methods and centralising research and development at its Technocentre to reduce vehicle conception costs while accelerating such conception.[8] Ghosn became known as "Le Cost Killer".[9] In the early 2000s, for orchestrating one of the auto industry's most aggressive downsizing campaigns and spearheading the turnaround of Nissan from its near bankruptcy in 1999, he earned the nickname "Mr. Fix It".[10]

Following the Nissan financial turnaround, in 2002 Fortune awarded him Asia Businessman of the Year.[11][12] In 2003 Fortune identified him as one of the 10 most powerful people in business outside the U.S.,[13] and its Asian edition voted him Man of the Year.[14] Surveys jointly published by the Financial Times and PricewaterhouseCoopers named him the fourth most respected business leader in 2003,[15] and the third most respected business leader in 2004 and in 2005.[16][17] He quickly achieved celebrity status in Japan and in the business world,[18][19] and his life has been chronicled in Japanese comics.[20]

Ghosn stepped down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining chairman of the company.[21] He was arrested at Haneda Airport on 19 November 2018, on allegations of under-reporting his earnings and misuse of company assets.[22][23] On 22 November 2018, Nissan's board made a unanimous decision to dismiss Ghosn as Nissan's chairman.[24][25] It was followed by Mitsubishi Motors' board on 26 November 2018.[26][27] Renault and the French government continued to support him at first, presuming him innocent until proven guilty.[28] However, they ultimately found the situation untenable and Ghosn was made to retire as chairman and CEO of Renault on 24 January 2019.[29] While out on bail granted in early March, Ghosn was re-arrested in Tokyo on 4 April 2019 over new charges of misappropriations of Nissan funds.[30] On 8 April 2019, Nissan shareholders voted to oust Ghosn from the company's board.[31] He was released again on bail on 25 April.[32] In June, Renault uncovered 11 million euros in questionable expenses by him, leading to a French investigation and raids.[33][34][35] With help from an American private-security contractor, Ghosn fled from Japan to Lebanon on 30 December, breaking his bail conditions.[36] On 2 January 2020, Interpol issued a red notice to Lebanon seeking Ghosn's arrest.[37]

Early life and education[edit]

Ghosn's grandfather was Bichara Ghosn, a Maronite Catholic who emigrated from Ajaltoun,[38] French Mandate Lebanon to Brazil at the age of 13, eventually settling in remote Guaporé, Rondônia, near the border between Brazil and Bolivia.[39] Bichara Ghosn was an entrepreneur and eventually headed several companies, in businesses including the rubber trade, the sale and purchase of agricultural products, and aviation.[40] His son Jorge Ghosn married Rose Jazzar, a Nigerian-born Lebanese woman[41] whose family came from Miziara in Lebanon then went to Brazil,[38] where they settled in Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia, and had four children.[42]

Carlos' father, Jorge Ghosn (died 2006) was a diamond trader and worked in the airline industry. Jorge was convicted of murdering a priest in Sawfar, Lebanon in 1960.[43] Jorge fled to Brazil in 1975 at the outbreak of Lebanese Civil War.[44][45]

Carlos Ghosn was born on 9 March 1954, in Porto Velho.[42][46][47] When he was about two years old he became sick after drinking unsanitary water, and his mother moved with him to Rio de Janeiro.[42] He did not fully recover there, and in 1960, when Ghosn was six years old, he and his mother and sister moved to Beirut, Lebanon, where his grandmother and two other sisters lived.[42]

Ghosn completed his secondary school studies in Lebanon, at the Jesuit school Collège Notre-Dame de Jamhour. He then completed his classes préparatoires in Paris, at the Collège Stanislas and the Lycée Saint-Louis.[48] He graduated as an engineer from the École Polytechnique in 1974 and the École des Mines de Paris in 1978.[46][49][50]

Career[edit]

Michelin[edit]

Carlos Ghosn answers reporters' questions at the Nissan factory in Kyushu, Japan. (September 2011)

After graduation in 1978, Ghosn spent 18 years at Michelin, Europe's largest tyre maker, initially training and working in several plants in France and Germany.[46][51] In 1981, he became plant manager in Le Puy-en-Velay, France.[46][52] In 1984 he was named head of research and development for the company's industrial tyre division.[46][53]

In 1985, when Ghosn was 30 years old, he was appointed chief operating officer (COO) of Michelin's South American operations.[46][54] He returned to Rio de Janeiro, reporting directly to François Michelin, who tasked Ghosn with turning around the operation, which was unprofitable and struggling under Brazil's hyperinflation.[54][55] Ghosn formed cross-functional management teams to determine best practices among the French, Brazilian, and other nationalities working in the South American division.[56] The multicultural experience in Brazil formed the basis of his cross-cultural management style and emphasis on diversity as a core business asset.[56][57] "You learn from diversity ... but you're comforted by commonality", Ghosn has said.[58] The division returned to profitability in two years.[56][59][60]

After turning around Michelin's South American operations, Ghosn was appointed president and COO of Michelin North America in 1989, and moved to Greenville, South Carolina, with his family.[61] He was promoted to CEO of Michelin North America in 1990.[56][61] He presided over the restructuring of the company after its acquisition of the Uniroyal Goodrich Tyre Company.[46][62]

Post-privatisation Renault[edit]

In 1996, Ghosn became executive vice president in charge of purchasing, advanced research, engineering and development, powertrain operations, and manufacturing at Renault; and he was also in charge of Renault's South American division, located in the Mercosur.[46][63] Ghosn's radical restructuring of Renault successfully contributed to profitability of the company over 1997.[9][64] His reputation of successful performance under François Michelin was repeated under the first CEO of the freshly privatized Renault.

Nissan and the Renault–Nissan Alliance[edit]

In March 1999, Renault and Nissan formed the Renault–Nissan Alliance, and in May 1999 Renault purchased a 36.8% stake in Nissan.[65] While maintaining his roles at Renault, Ghosn joined Nissan as its chief operating officer (COO) in June 1999, became its president in June 2000, and was named chief executive officer (CEO) in June 2001.[46] When he joined the company, Nissan had a consolidated interest-bearing net automotive debt of more than $20 billion (more than 2 trillion yen),[55][66] and only three of its 46 models sold in Japan were generating a profit.[67] Reversing the company's sinking fortunes was considered nearly impossible.[68][69][70][71]

Ghosn's "Nissan Revival Plan", announced in October 1999, called for a return to profitability in fiscal year 2000, a profit margin in excess of 4.5% of sales by the end of fiscal year 2002, and a 50% reduction in the current level of debt by the end of fiscal year 2002.[72][73][74] Ghosn promised to resign if these goals were not met.[75] Ghosn's Nissan Revival Plan called for cutting 21,000 Nissan jobs (14% of total workforce), mostly in Japan; shutting five Japanese plants; reducing the number of suppliers and shareholdings; and auctioning off prized assets such as Nissan's aerospace unit.[72][76][77]

Ghosn was the fourth non-Japanese person to lead a Japanese automaker, after Mark Fields, Henry Wallace, and James Miller were appointed by Ford to run Mazda in the late 1990s.[78] In addition to cutting jobs, plants, and suppliers, Ghosn spearheaded major and dramatic structural and corporate-culture changes at Nissan. He defied Japanese business etiquette in various ways, including by eliminating seniority-based and age-based promotion, by changing lifetime employment from a guarantee to a desired goal for when the company achieved high performance, and by dismantling Nissan's keiretsu system – an interwoven web of parts suppliers with cross-holdings in Nissan.[79][80][81] When the Nissan Revival Plan was announced, the proposed dismantling of keiretsu earned Ghosn the nickname "keiretsu killer",[82] and The Wall Street Journal quoted a Dresdner Kleinwort Benson analyst in Tokyo as saying Ghosn might become a "target of public outrage" if Nissan threw former affiliates out of its supply chain.[83][84] Ghosn changed Nissan's official company language from Japanese to English, and included executives from Europe and North America in key global strategy sessions for the first time.[85][86]

In the first year of the Nissan Revival Plan, Nissan's consolidated net profit after tax climbed to $2.7 billion for fiscal year 2000,[87] from a consolidated net loss of $6.46 billion in the previous year.[88] Twelve months into his three-year turnaround plan, Nissan had returned to profitability, and within three years it was one of the industry's most profitable auto makers, with operating margins consistently above 9%—more than twice the industry average.[89] The goals of the Nissan Revival Plan were all reached before 31 March 2002.[90]

In May 2002, Ghosn announced his next set of goals for the company, "Nissan 180", a three-year plan for growth based on the numbers 1, 8, and 0: By the end of September 2005, Nissan planned to increase its global sales by one million vehicles; and by the spring of 2005, it was committed to achieving an operating margin of at least 8% and reducing its net automotive debt to zero.[91][92] These goals were all reached:[93] In the spring of 2003, Nissan announced that its net automotive debt was eliminated in fiscal year 2002.[94][95] Nissan's operating profit margin climbed to 11.1% in fiscal year 2003;[96] it had been 1.4% in fiscal year 1999.[97] In October 2005, Nissan announced that its annual sales from 30 September 2004, to 30 September 2005, were more than 3.67 million, up from the 2.6 million vehicles sold in the fiscal year ended March 2002.[98][99]

Ghosn at Datsun Go launch in New Delhi, India (2013)

In May 2005, Ghosn was named president and chief executive officer of Renault.[46] When he assumed the CEO roles at both Renault and Nissan, Ghosn became the world's first person to run two companies on the Fortune Global 500 simultaneously.[100]

In 2005, billionaire investor Kirk Kerkorian acquired a 9.9% stake in General Motors (GM) and seated one of his representatives on the company's board, then urged GM to investigate a merger with Renault and Nissan with Ghosn as the new chairman of GM. In 2006, GM's embattled management rebuffed the takeover attempt, and by the end of the year, Kerkorian's Tracinda Corp. sold most of its GM stock.[101]

In 2006, Ford Motor Co. made Ghosn a formal offer to lead the company.[102] Ghosn refused, reportedly saying the only way he would come to the struggling company was if he was named both the CEO and chairman of the board. Bill Ford Jr. refused to give up his chairmanship.[103]

Carlos Ghosn at Nissan's Honmoku Wharf, a logistics hub about 10 km southeast of Nissan's global headquarters in Yokohama, July 2011

In 2007, Ghosn led the Renault–Nissan Alliance into the mass-market zero-emission electric car market in a major way, and committed €4 billion (more than $5 billion) to the effort.[104][105][106][107] In 2008, he confirmed that Nissan–Renault would bring an "entire lineup" of zero-emission electric cars to the worldwide market by 2012.[108][109] In 2009, he told the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business, "If you're going to let developing countries have as many cars as they want—and they're going to have as many cars as they want one way or another—there is absolutely no alternative but to go for zero emissions. And the only zero-emissions vehicle available today is electric ... So we decided to go for it."[110] The Nissan Leaf, an electric car billed as "the world's first affordable zero-emission car",[111][112] debuted in December 2010.[105][113] As of 2017, the Renault–Nissan Alliance is the world's electric vehicle leader, selling more than twice as many electric cars as Tesla, and the Nissan Leaf is the world's best-selling electric vehicle by a wide margin.[114]

Ghosn was a visible leader in recovery efforts after the Japanese earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, one of the worst natural disasters in modern history.[115] On 29 March 2011, he made the first of several visits to the hard-hit Iwaki engine plant in Fukushima prefecture, 50 km (31 miles) from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant,[116][117][118] and at his direction Nissan restored full operations at the Iwaki factory well ahead of expectations.[119][120][121] He appeared on television in Japan to encourage optimism.[118][122][123][124] In May 2011, Ghosn remained committed to building at least 1 million of Nissan's cars and trucks in Japan annually.[125] In 2011 Ghosn was under scrutiny by the French government for mishandling a spying scandal related to Renault.[126][127]

In June 2012, Ghosn was named deputy chairman of the board of directors of Russian automobile manufacturer AvtoVAZ.[128] In June 2013, he was appointed chairman of the Russian company, a position he retained through June 2016.[129][130][131][132][133] Renault had begun a strategic partnership with AvtoVAZ in 2008 by acquiring a 25% stake in the company;[134] this led to increasingly deeper partnerships between Renault–Nissan and AvtoVAZ,[135] ending in Renault–Nissan Alliance control of the Russian automaker in 2014.[136]

In February 2017, Ghosn announced he would step down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining chairman of the company.[21][137] Hiroto Saikawa, succeeded Ghosn at Nissan.[21] In November 2018, Renault owned 43.4% of Nissan, while Nissan owned non-voting shares equal to 15% of Renault's equity.[138][139]

Mitsubishi[edit]

In October 2016, Nissan completed the acquisition of a controlling 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors. Ghosn became, in addition to his Renault–Nissan posts, chairman of Mitsubishi, with an aim to rehabilitate the automaker after a months-long scandal involving fuel-economy misrepresentation and consequent falling revenues. The Nissan–Mitsubishi partnership includes partnership in developing electric automobiles for Mitsubishi, and the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance creates the world's fourth-largest auto group, after Toyota, Volkswagen AG, and General Motors Co.[140][141][142]

Mitsubishi Motors board removed Ghosn from his role as chairman on 26 November 2018, following his arrest and ousting from Nissan for alleged financial misconduct.[26]

Advisorships[edit]

Ghosn served on the International Advisory Board of Brazilian bank Banco Itaú (a major party in the privatisation of Renault) until 2015.[143][144] He is also a member of the Advisory Board of Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management in Beijing.[145] He has received an honorary doctorate from American University of Beirut;[146] and he is a member of the Strategic Council, Saint Joseph University of Beirut.[147] In 2014 and 2015, he was elected president of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association.[148][149][150] He serves as governor of the World Economic Forum.[151]

Arrest in Tokyo and subsequent Nissan investigation[edit]

Initial arrest[edit]

On 19 November 2018, Tokyo District Prosecutors arrested Ghosn at 4:30 p.m. upon his re-entry into Japan aboard a private jet that had come from Lebanon,[152] for questioning over allegations of false accounting.[153][154][155][156] Ghosn's top aide Greg Kelly, a Nissan director and former head of human resources, was also arrested upon his arrival from the U.S. that day.[138]

On the same day, Nissan chief executive Hiroto Saikawa announced at a press conference that Ghosn had been dismissed from Nissan's board and would be stripped of executive rights at a meeting to be held on 22 November. Saikawa stressed that the dismissal was the result of an internal inquiry by Nissan,[157][154] and alleged that Ghosn and Kelly had under-reported their compensation (a violation of securities law) and used company assets for personal use.[158] While the allegations remained unproven in court, with due legal process pending, at the same news conference, Saikawa "expressed disappointment, indignation, and despair at Ghosn's conduct, which included using company funds for personal investments and misusing corporate assets" and also said, "This is an act that cannot be tolerated by the company... It is sufficient grounds for his dismissal."[158]

Although the company did not provide details, reports in the Japanese media stated that Nissan was paying all or some of the costs at some amount of US$18 million for residences used by Ghosn in Rio de Janeiro, Beirut, Paris and Amsterdam, and that Ghosn charged family vacation expenses to the company.[156] The purchases of some of these residences and the payment of expenses were handled by a shell company named Zi-A Capital BV based in the Netherlands, which Kelly had instructed Nissan's board to set up to make venture investments at the end of 2010 (around the same time as Ghosn's divorce from his first wife and beginning of a relationship with his second wife).[138] Nissan funds were used to purchase Ghosn's Paris apartment in 2005, and Zi-A funds were used to purchase his $5 million beachfront Rio apartment in 2012 and his Beirut mansion, which, with renovations, cost over $15 million.[138] Nissan compliance auditors began trying to track Zi-A activity in 2014 but were stymied at first by the chain of shell companies used in Zi-A investments.[138]

In addition, to avoid reporting the full amount of his compensation in Nissan financials, as required by Japanese law beginning in 2010, Ghosn had Kelly structure complicated deferred payment plans which went unreported under an aggressive interpretation of the disclosure rules which Nissan's outside auditors had not signed off on, and which totaled around $80 million at the time of his arrest eight years later.[138] According to Nikkei reports, Ghosn told investigators that he instructed Kelly to handle the compensation reporting in a legal manner, and Kelly told investigators that he acted on advice from outside law firms and the Financial Services Agency in handling the reporting.[159][160] Leaks to the media said that Ghosn had planned to call a vote to fire Nissan CEO Saikawa and reinstate Kelly (who had semi-retired to the U.S. in 2015) to active service at the scheduled board meeting.[138]

Ghosn was detained at the Tokyo Detention House, under Japanese rules that allow suspects to be detained for up to 23 days without criminal charges being filed.[161] Ghosn and Kelly were reportedly arrested on information provided by an unidentified non-Japanese executive in Nissan's legal department, in the second deal ever struck under Japan's recently introduced plea bargaining system.[156] Charges were filed against Ghosn and Kelly on the underreporting of deferred compensation on 10 December, along with allegations of additional charges that restarted a 10-day holding period without bail.[138] Nissan also took control of the Rio and Beirut properties and changed the locks, which has led Ghosn's family to sue for access.[138]

Continued detention and new charges[edit]

On 21 December 2018, Ghosn was re-arrested on suspicion of shifting to Nissan personal losses of US$16.6 million related to a personal swap contract in October 2008 (during the global financial crisis).[162] The introduction of those charges prevented Ghosn's release on bail later the same day, because the new charges permitted an additional 10–20 days of incarceration prior to a bail hearing.[162] Subsequent reporting linked this charge to Ghosn's dealings with Sheikh Khaled al-Juffali, the vice chairman of one of Saudi Arabia's largest conglomerates and majority owner of a company which owns half of a regional joint venture called Nissan Gulf, with the other half held by a wholly owned Nissan subsidiary.[163] In return for a personal letter of credit from Juffali to Ghosn during the 2008 crisis, which served as bank-demanded collateral for Ghosn's swap contract, Nissan indirectly paid $14.7 million from an internal discretionary fund known as the "CEO Reserve" to a wholly owned Juffali company in four installments between 2009 and 2012, although the internal documentation did not specify the ultimate recipient.[163] According to Tokyo prosecutors, Kelly was not involved in this transaction and so was released on bail on 25 December.[163]

Ghosn made his first public appearance after his arrest at an arraignment on Tuesday, 8 January 2019, where he asserted his innocence, making a statement in response to the main allegations against him; however, his bid to be released from prison on these charges was rejected.[164][165]

Ghosn's imprisonment was set to end on 11 January. That day, Ghosn was indicted on two additional charges: aggravated breach of trust and understating his income, once again extending his imprisonment.[166][167][28] As a result, he could remain in jail for months more before a trial takes place.[165] Two days later, Nissan's investigation allegedly found that, in addition to the underreporting of salary already charged, Ghosn had paid himself an undisclosed $8 million in 2018 from a Netherlands-based joint venture owned by Nissan and Mitsubishi that was set up in 2017, without the knowledge of either company's directors because Ghosn had the sole authority to dispense cash from the venture.[168]

Ghosn again appealed the denial of bail from 8 January and offered to meet greater restrictions and higher guarantees of appearance in return for his release, including wearing an ankle bracelet and posting his Nissan stock as collateral.[169] Additionally, on 14 January Ghosn's wife Carole published a letter that she wrote to Human Rights Watch protesting against his treatment in detainment.[139][170] Nevertheless, on 21 January, the Tokyo district court again denied bail.[171]

The Japanese term hitojichi shihō ("hostage justice") has been brought up in some media reports.[172][173][174] Takashi Takano, one of Ghosn's lawyers stated that the Japanese judicial system is a country risk.[172][175]

Further developments[edit]

On 11 January 2019[176] José Muñoz, Nissan's chief performance officer and head of its China operations, resigned from the company, effective immediately.[177] Muñoz, considered to be a close ally to Ghosn and a possible successor as CEO of Renault and Nissan, had been a "person of interest" in Nissan's internal investigation, with which he was reported to be uncooperative.[177] One of Nissan's three independent directors opined that Nissan may simply eliminate the position of chairman and not replace Ghosn, a route previously taken by other scandal-plagued Japanese companies.[178] The Reuters Japan news service reported that Nissan may file suit against Ghosn personally.[170][179]

At first the French government and Renault had been reported to be standing behind Ghosn during his imprisonment, on the presumption that Ghosn is innocent until proven guilty.[28] However, France's financial minister Bruno Le Maire stated on 16 January that Renault may seek a new CEO to replace Ghosn due to his continued incarceration.[170][139] Renault possibly worried about Nissan taking the chance to use the power vacuum at Renault to reshape the alliance's balance of power.[139][180] After the French government called for leadership change and his bail requests were rejected by the Japanese courts, Ghosn finally agreed to step down.[29] He resigned as chairman and CEO of Renault on 24 January 2019.[29][31]

On 30 January, Ghosn said the charges were "plot and treason" by executives at Nissan who opposed the relationship with Renault and a future plan that was in the works to integrate Nissan, Mitsubishi and Renault.[181] In mid-February, Ghosn's lead counsel Motonari Otsuru stepped down and was replaced by Jun'ichirō Hironaka, who has a record of success in a number of high-profile cases.[182]

Bail[edit]

In early March, Ghosn was granted a request for bail in a Tokyo court. This was his third bail request, and the first by his new legal team under Hironaka. The court set bail at 1 billion yen (about US$9 million) subject to stringent conditions. He was not allowed to travel abroad, and had to remain at a given address under 24-hour camera surveillance, with no internet access. He was released on 6 March 2019.[183][184]

On 3 April, Ghosn tweeted that he was "ready to tell the truth" and that he would hold a conference on 11 April.[185] He was re-arrested for the fourth time early on 4 April over new suspicions of financial misconduct concerning alleged dealings via Oman.[30] Ghosn released a statement claiming the arrest was "outrageous and arbitrary".[186] Until that point in time he had been held for 108 days since he was first arrested in November 2018.

On 8 April 2019, during an extraordinary shareholders meeting, Nissan shareholders voted to remove Carlos Ghosn from the company board.[187] Shareholders also voted to remove Ghosn's former right-hand man Greg Kelly, and to appoint Renault chairman Jean-Dominique Senard as a director.[31] The next day, Ghosn posted a YouTube video, where he publicly stated that he was "innocent of all the accusations that came around these charges that are all biased, taken out of context, twisted in a way to paint a personage of greed, and a personage of dictatorship". He also claimed that the payments to Juffali were meant to help Nissan fix a dispute with a local distributor, and to open a bank contract to convert his salary from yen to US dollars, in order to avoid currency swings.[188]

The Japanese court rejected an appeal filed by Ghosn's lawyers, and approved an initial 10 days detention for Ghosn, until 22 April.[189] He was released in late April, but confined to strict house arrest, including having no contact with his wife for four months.[32]

Investigations in other countries[edit]

In June 2019 Renault published that in an internal audit they had uncovered 11 million euros in questionable expenses by Ghosn,[190][33][191] which was followed by the French state opening its own investigation into his actions.[192] Prosecutors in the district of Nanterre west of Paris stated that anti-fraud police had searched his residence in the town of L'Étang-la-Ville for evidence.[34] In July Renault's headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt were searched by 20 police personnel in relation to this case.[35] July also saw Carlos Ghosn take action against French mass-media for libel.[citation needed]

In August his wife Carole appealed to President Emmanuel Macron of France to intercede on behalf of her husband with Japanese leader Shinzo Abe at the 45th G7 summit held from 24–26 August[193][194] at the French town of Biarritz.[32]

In September, in one of the first legal accords of the saga, Ghosn settled with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission over claims of failing to disclose more than $140 million in pay to him from Nissan. He was fined $1 million while Nissan was fined $15 million and Greg Kelly $100,000. Although he neither admitted nor denied the SEC's charges, he accepted a ten-year ban from serving as an officer or director of a public company. Kelly accepted a five-year ban under similar terms.[192] According to The New York Times, the settlement all but ended Ghosn's career as a global business executive.[195]

Flight from Japan[edit]

On 30 December 2019, numerous media outlets reported that Ghosn had escaped from Japan and arrived in Beirut, Lebanon.[36][196] Ghosn later confirmed these reports through a statement released by his press representative in New York.[197] In his statement, Ghosn claimed that he would "no longer be held hostage by a rigged Japanese justice system where guilt is presumed, discrimination is rampant and basic human rights are denied."[197]

Ghosn left his Tokyo apartment at around 14:30 on 29 December and joined two men at a nearby hotel.[198] The three then took a bullet train from Shinagawa to Osaka and arrived at a hotel near Kansai International Airport just after 20:00.[198] The team hired to extract him from Tokyo had noticed that Japanese security did not follow Ghosn into hotels, which facilitated his escape.[199] A few hours later, two men left the hotel carrying large containers, including an audio equipment box where Ghosn was hidden.[200] The men then boarded a Bombardier Global Express private jet with Turkish registration TC-TSR. The large box carrying Ghosn was never x-rayed or checked by customs officials, because it was too big to fit inside the x-ray machine;[201] the plane left Kansai Airport at 23:10, landing at Istanbul Atatürk Airport at 5:26 on the morning of 30 December.[202][203][204] Within an hour of the plane's landing, a separate private jet left for Beirut.[202] An employee at Turkish private jet operator MNG Jet admitted to falsifying passenger records, in which two separate planes were leased, one from Dubai to Osaka and then Osaka to Istanbul, while the other from Istanbul to Beirut.[205][206] On 8 May, Turkey charged seven people accused of helping Ghosn flee to Lebanon via Istanbul.[207]

Arrest warrants issued by Japanese prosecutors on 30 January 2020 claimed that the escape operation was orchestrated by former United States Army Special Forces soldier Michael Taylor, a private-security contractor with extensive contacts in Lebanon. The warrants also claimed that Michael was assisted by his son Peter Maxwell Taylor and a third American, George Antoine Zayek.[208][209] Michael Taylor had conducted similar international rescue operations in the past and has also served time in prison in the United States.[210] On 20 May, United States authorities arrested Michael and Peter Taylor on suspicion of helping Ghosn escape. Extradition of the two to Japan is sought.[211][212][213]

Residence in Lebanon[edit]

Following Ghosn's arrival in Lebanon, a Tokyo court granted a request by Japanese prosecutors to revoke his bail.[214] While Japan and Lebanon are both members of Interpol and have had diplomatic relations since 1954,[215] there is no extradition agreement between the two countries.[36] Interpol has issued a red notice for his arrest.[216] Japanese authorities raided Ghosn's Tokyo apartment on 2 January looking for evidence.[217][218] Separately, some Lebanese lawyers want Ghosn prosecuted over his 2008 trip to Israel as the chairman of Renault-Nissan to meet Better Place founder Shai Agassi, which they claim violated the Arab League boycott of Israel.[219]

Ghosn later addressed reports that his family, including his wife Carole, may have played a role in his departure from Japan, stating that "such speculation is inaccurate and false."[220] On 7 January, prosecutors in Japan issued an arrest warrant for Carole Ghosn on suspicion of giving false testimony during a court hearing in April 2019.[221]

Carlos Ghosn held his first press conference since leaving Japan on 8 January 2020, in which he described his imprisonment conditions, pleaded innocence and named Nissan executives who plotted his demise.[222] He claimed that when he left Japan, "I fled injustice and political persecution.[195] The next day, Judge Ghassan Ouiedat, a Lebanese prosecutor, imposed a travel ban on Ghosn.[223] After his escape from Japan, Carlos Ghosn's Japanese lawyer and seven other members of his defense resigned. His lawyer, Junichiro Hironaka, said his escape was a "complete surprise".[224]

On 10 February, Ghosn hired former Disney president Michael Ovitz, co-founder of the Creative Artists Agency, as his Hollywood agent.[225] On 12 February, Nissan launched a $90 million lawsuit against Ghosn for alleged “corrupt” actions,[226] and on 29 February, Japan's financial regulators fined Nissan 2.42 billion yen ($22 million) for underreporting remuneration of former Chairman Ghosn and other executives for years.[227] On 8 July, The Nikkei reported that $862,500 was paid from a Paris bank account related to Ghosn to Promote Fox, a company managed by Peter Taylor, an ex-Green Beret who helped him flee to Lebanon.[228]

Personal life[edit]

Ghosn's first marriage was to Rita Kordahi, who came originally from Rayfoun, Lebanon, and whom he met in France in 1984. Together they had four children: Caroline, Nadine, Maya and Anthony.[229] They divorced in 2012.[138] In May 2016, Ghosn married Lebanese-American[230] Carole Nahas and, a few months later in October, threw a large-scale Marie Antoinette-themed party at the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, in the outskirts of Paris, to celebrate both the wedding and Carole's 50th birthday.[231][232] He is reported by several Japanese media to have six private residences: in Tokyo, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Amsterdam, Beirut and New York.[233][234]

Ghosn, whom Forbes magazine called "the hardest-working man in the brutally competitive global car business",[56] as of 2006 was splitting his time between Paris and Tokyo and logging roughly 150,000 miles (241 400 km) in airplanes per year.[56] Japanese media called him "Seven-Eleven" ("work very hard from early in the morning till late at night").[84] He holds Brazilian, French, and Lebanese citizenships.[229] He has been noted for his direct, no-nonsense, results-oriented and execution-oriented style in business strategy meetings,[56] but also for his interest in resolving problems from within a company by listening to workers and by cross-functional and cross-cultural team groupings.[81]

Ghosn is multilingual, speaking four languages fluently: French, Portuguese, English, and Arabic, and he has also studied Japanese.[59][235] He is a partner in Ixsir, a winery in the northern coastal town of Batroun, Lebanon.[236] In 2012 he was named to the Honorary Board of the American Foundation of Saint George Hospital in Beirut.[237][238]

Ghosn was hailed as a potential presidential candidate in Lebanon.[when?][239][240] In a June 2011 survey by life-insurance company Axa, Ghosn was ranked No. 7 in a random poll asking Japanese people, "Which celebrity do you want to run Japan?" (Barack Obama was No. 9, and Prime Minister Naoto Kan was No. 19.)[241][242][243] He has so far declined such overtures, saying he has "no political ambitions".[239]

Ghosn's lawyers have stated he has chronic kidney disease which they claim was worsened by his lack of access to proper treatment while imprisoned.[244]

In the media[edit]

Beginning in November 2001, Ghosn's life story was turned into a superhero comic book series in Japan, titled The True Story of Carlos Ghosn, in the manga comic book Big Comic Superior.[245] The series was published as a book in 2002.[84][246] His face has been reproduced both in Lebanese postage stamps and in bento boxes in Japanese restaurants.[247]

Ghosn is the subject of a number of books in English, Japanese, and French. In English, he wrote a best-selling business book called Shift: Inside Nissan's Historic Revival.[248] He was the subject of another business book called Turnaround: How Carlos Ghosn Rescued Nissan by David Magee.[249] He also provided strategic business commentary and on-the-job lessons to aspiring managers in a book called The Ghosn Factor: 24 Inspiring Lessons From Carlos Ghosn, the Most Successful Transnational CEO by Miguel Rivas-Micoud.[250]

Awards and recognition[edit]

As a result of his achievements, Ghosn has had numerous awards and honors bestowed upon him. Some of these include:

See also[edit]

General sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Millikin, John P.; Fu, Dean (2005). "The Global Leadership of Carlos Ghosn at Nissan" (PDF). Thunderbird International Business Review. 47 (1): 121–137. doi:10.1002/tie.20043.
  2. ^ "Nissan ex-chair Ghosn released from Japanese detention". msn.com. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  3. ^ Wiley, Melissa. "Fugitive former Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn is holed up in a blush-colored mansion in one of Beirut's most expensive districts after his 'easy' escape from Japan, according to reports. Here's what Achrafieh is like". Business Insider. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Fugitive Carlos Ghosn Escaped House Arrest By Walking Out, Not In Box, Officials Say". NPR.org.
  5. ^ Maynard, Micheline (2003). The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-0-385-51152-0.
  6. ^ CNN. "The Gaijin with two jobs". CNN. 7 December 2006.
  7. ^ CNN. "Lebanon put Carlos Ghosn on its postage stamps. His downfall has stunned Beirut". CNN. 23 November 2018.
  8. ^ Donnelly, Tom; Donnelly, Tim; Morris, David. "Renault 1985–2000: From bankruptcy to profit". Caen Innovation Marché Entreprise, IAE CAEN Basse-Normandie, 2004.
  9. ^ a b Litterick, David. "'Le Cost Killer' faces toughest test". The Telegraph. 4 July 2006.
  10. ^ Fonda, Daren (19 May 2003). "Motor Trends: Le Cost Killer". Time.
  11. ^ a b Taylor III, Alex. "Awards". Fortune. 18 February 2002.
  12. ^ a b "Ghosn forecasts record Nissan profit for FY 2001". Kyodo News International. 25 February 2002.
  13. ^ a b Loomis, Carol J. "The 25 most powerful people in business". Fortune. 11 August 2003.
  14. ^ a b Ali, Arif. "Nissan Opens Largest Showroom in Oman". Arab News. 5 June 2005.
  15. ^ Gaspar, et al. Introduction to Business. Houghton Mifflin, Cengage Learning, 2008. p. 258.
  16. ^ "The World's Most Respected Leaders: Do You Agree?". Fast Company. 23 November 2004.
  17. ^ Brooke, James. "Nissan chief staying put". The New York Times. 20 November 2005.
  18. ^ Mackintosh, James. "Carlos Ghosn: superstar car executive". Financial Times. 19 November 2004.
  19. ^ Mackintosh, James. "A superstar leader in an industry of icons". Financial Times. 16 December 2004.
  20. ^ Berfield, Susan (21 February 2008). "Career Advice from a Comic Book". Bloomberg.com. Businessweek.com. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  21. ^ a b c Soblefeb, Jonathan. "Carlos Ghosn, Executive Who Revived Nissan, Will Step Aside". The New York Times. 22 February 2017.
  22. ^ AlAraby. "Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn has been arrested in Japan, over alleged financial misconduct". Alaraby. 19 November 2018.
  23. ^ Rich, Motoko; Ewing, Jack (19 November 2018). "Nissan Chairman, Carlos Ghosn, is arrested over financial misconduct allegations". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Carlos Ghosn: Nissan sacks chairman over cash scandal". BBC. 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  25. ^ McCurry, Justin (22 November 2018). "Nissan board sacks chairman Carlos Ghosn after "serious misconduct" claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  26. ^ a b Reuters (26 November 2018). "Mitsubishi ousts Ghosn as chairman after Nissan firing". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  27. ^ Rich, Motoko (26 November 2018). "Carlos Ghosn is removed as chairman of Mitsubishi Motors". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  28. ^ a b c Kottasová, Ivana (11 January 2019). "Oil price rally; Carlos Ghosn indicted again; Fed worries". CNN. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  29. ^ a b c Jolly, Jasper (24 January 2019). "Renault names new chairman and CEO after Carlos Ghosn quits". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Carlos Ghosn, Former Nissan Chairman, Is Arrested on New Allegations". The Wall Street Journal. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  31. ^ a b c "Carlos Ghosn: Nissan ousts former boss from its board". BBC. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  32. ^ a b c Business, Michelle Toh, CNN. "Carlos Ghosn's wife asks Macron to help her husband". CNN. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Renault uncover €11mn in questionable expenses linked to ex-CEO Ghosn". France24. 5 June 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  34. ^ a b "Ex-Nissan chief Ghosn's French home searched in Versailles wedding probe". France24. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  35. ^ a b Keohane, David; Lewis, Leo (3 July 2019). "Renault headquarters searched by police in Carlos Ghosn probe". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  36. ^ a b c "Nissan's ex-head Carlos Ghosn flees Japan to Lebanon". bbc.com. BBC. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  37. ^ "Interpol issues notice for Carlos Ghosn arrest". 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  38. ^ a b كارلوس غصن اللبناني. lahamag.com (in Arabic). 9 December 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  39. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. 1–2.
  40. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 3.
  41. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 4.
  42. ^ a b c d Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 5.
  43. ^ "Carlos Ghosn's Father Killed a Pastor for Arab Singer Sabah". istanbulpost.com. 10 January 2020.
  44. ^ "INFO OBS. La tragédie familiale que Carlos Ghosn a toujours occultée". L'Obs (in French). 7 January 2020.
  45. ^ "Carlos Ghosn's father 'jailed for killing priest in Lebanon'". The Times. 10 January 2020.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Renault Nissan. Carlos Ghosn: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Renault–Nissan Alliance Archived 24 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. IE University. IE.edu. 3 March 2011.
  47. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT: Inside Nissan's Historic Revival. Crown Publishing Group, 2006. Chapter 1 (excerpt).
  48. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 9.
  49. ^ Carlos Ghosn. LinkedIn.
  50. ^ Carlos Ghosn: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. NissanUSA.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  51. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. 18–23.
  52. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 24.
  53. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 27.
  54. ^ a b Kase, Kimio; Sáez-Martinez, Francisco J.; Riquelme, Hernán. Transformational CEOs: Leadership and Management Success in Japan. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. p. 125.
  55. ^ a b Inoue, Kae (28 March 2005). "Carlos Ghosn, After Fixing Nissan, Faces Renault's Rising Costs". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g Muller, Joann. "The Impatient Mr. Ghosn". Forbes. 12 May 2006.
  57. ^ "Carlos Ghosn Promotes Diversity in Business" Archived 3 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. AUBulletin Today. American University of Beirut. October 2007, Vol. 9 No. 1.
  58. ^ Carlos Ghosn on Diversity on YouTube. Interview clip with TBWA creative director Rob Schwartz. 2009.
  59. ^ a b "Carlos Ghosn Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  60. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 34.
  61. ^ a b "Carlos Ghosn headed Michelin North America before turning around Nissan" Archived 10 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. GreenvilleRoots.com.
  62. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. 38–43.
  63. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 59.
  64. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. xvii.
  65. ^ Renault–Nissan Allance, December 2005 (handbook). Nissan-Global.com. p. 40.
  66. ^ Kase, Kimio; Sáez-Martinez, Francisco J.; Riquelme, Hernán. Transformational CEOs: Leadership and Management Success in Japan. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. p. 122.
  67. ^ Alliance Facts & Figures 2008. Nissan-Global.com. 2008.
  68. ^ Thornton, Emily and Kathleen Kerwin. "Nissan Is Back In The Mud". Businessweek (International Edition). 1 November 1998.
  69. ^ Thornton, Emily. "The Debt That's Dragging Nissan Downhill". Businessweek (International Edition). 4 April 1999.
  70. ^ "Nissan triples loss forecast". CNNMoney. 16 April 1999.
  71. ^ "Renissant?". The Economist. 18 March 1999.
  72. ^ a b NISSAN REVIVAL PLAN. Nissan-Global.com. 18 October 1999.
  73. ^ The Nissan Revival Plan: Success Ahead of Schedule. Nissan Annual Report 2001. Nissan-Global.com. 2002.
  74. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. 120–121.
  75. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. xix, 123.
  76. ^ Simison, Robert L. and Norihiko Shirouzu. "Nissan to Close Five Plants, Cut Staff By 14% as Part of Restructuring Plan" Archived 15 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Wall Street Journal. 19 October 1999.
  77. ^ "Nissan Motor Corporation, Japan". Automotive Intelligence. AutoIntell.com. 2000.
  78. ^ Mas, Isabelle. "Renault: Le précédent: quand Ford a débarqué au Japon pour sauver Mazda". L'Expansion. 23 September 1999.
  79. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. "Saving the Business Without Losing the Company – Breaking with Tradition in a Foreign Land". Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. 18 March 2002.
  80. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. 153.
  81. ^ a b Snyder, Bill. "Carlos Ghosn: Five Percent of the Challenge Is the Strategy. Ninety-five Percent Is the Execution". Stanford Graduate School of Business. 9 July 2014.
  82. ^ Nezu, Risaburo (19 October 1999). "Carlos Ghosn: cost controller or keiretsu killer?". OECD Observer. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  83. ^ Shirouzu, Norihiko. "Nissan's Plan for Jump-Start Faces Formidable Obstacles" Archived 15 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Wall Street Journal. 18 October 1999.
  84. ^ a b c Nakae, Koji. Cultural Change: A Comparative Study of the Change Efforts of Douglas MacArthur and Carlos Ghosn in Japan Archived 7 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. MIT Sloan School of Management (MBA thesis). June 2005.
  85. ^ Thornton, Emily. "Remaking Nissan: A long, hard day with Carlos Ghosn, the foreigner remaking Japan's giant" Archived 13 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BusinessWeek (International Edition). 15 November 1999.
  86. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. pp. 161–163.
  87. ^ "Nissan Announces Record Results For FY 2000". Scoop. 31 May 2001.
  88. ^ "Nissan reports an operating profit of 82.6 billion Yen, a net loss of 684.4 billion Yen for Fiscal Year 1999 ended March 31, 2000 and forecasts a net profit of 60 billion Yen in Fiscal Year 2000" Archived 1 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Nissan Press Release. Nissan-Global.com. 19 May 2000.
  89. ^ Shirouzu, Norihiko (7 July 2006). "What Alliance With Mr. Ghosn Could Bring GM". The Wall Street Journal.
  90. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. SHIFT. p. xix.
  91. ^ Verburg, Robert; Ortt, J. Roland; Dicke, Willemijn M. Managing Technology and Innovation: An Introduction. Routledge, 2006. p. 301.
  92. ^ NISSAN 180: Ready and Positioned for Growth. Nissan Annual Report 2001. Nissan-Global.com. 2002.
  93. ^ Bhatia, Monish K. "'Nissan 180' complete, annual sales reach 3.67 million". LeftLane.com. 6 October 2005.
  94. ^ Kase, Kimio; Sáez-Martinez, Francisco J.; Riquelme, Hernán. Transformational CEOs: Leadership and Management Success in Japan. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. p. 136.
  95. ^ Annual Report Year Ended March 31, 2003. Nissan-Global.com.
  96. ^ NISSAN 180 Update and FY2003 Financial Results, Apr.26, 2004 Nissan-Global.com. 26 April 2004.
  97. ^ Ibison, David. "Nissan sees modest growth after record profit". Financial Times. 25 April 2005.
  98. ^ "Strong global sales boost Nissan's profit". Associated Press. 28 October 2005.
  99. ^ "Nissan reaches vehicle sale growth target". Associated Press. 6 October 2005.
  100. ^ Taylor III, Alex (10 July 2006). "How would Ghosn fix GM?". CNN.
  101. ^ "Kirk Kerkorian Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  102. ^ Sabatini, Jeff. "Book: Ghosn would've taken top spot at Ford, but only if named CEO and Chairman". Autoblog.com. 12 March 2012.
  103. ^ "Ford book: Bill fumed over Focus; Ghosn eyed the crown". Automotive News. 12 March 2012.
  104. ^ Moffett, Sebastian. "Nissan, Renault Place a Big Bet On Electric Cars". The Wall Street Journal. 14 September 2009.
  105. ^ a b Squatriglia, Chuck. "Q&A: Renault–Nissan CEO Pledges $5.6 Billion for EVs". Wired. 16 June 2011.
  106. ^ David Welch (26 May 2010). "Nissan's Ghosn gambles big on electric cars". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  107. ^ "Renault–Nissan and Project Better Place prepare for first mass marketed electric vehicles" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (Press release) Nissan-Global.com. 21 January 2008.
  108. ^ Chambers, Nick. "Nissan & Oregon Team Up to Bring Electric Cars to the Masses". Gas2.org. 20 November 2008.
  109. ^ "Electricity and Cars". World Nuclear Association. October 2014.
  110. ^ "Renault–Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn: 'Now Is the Time for the Electric Car' – Knowledge@Wharton". Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  111. ^ de Courson, Roland. "Nissan Unveils 'Leaf' Electric Car". IndustryWeek. 2 August 2009.
  112. ^ NISSAN UNVEILS "LEAF" – THE WORLD'S FIRST ELECTRIC CAR DESIGNED FOR AFFORDABILITY AND REAL-WORLD REQUIREMENTS Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Nissan Motor Corporation. 2 August 2009.
  113. ^ "Nissan delivers first LEAF cars in Japan". International Business Times. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  114. ^ Schmitt, Bertel. "Renault–Nissan Alliance Trounces Tesla 2:1 (Or Worse.)". Forbes. 7 April 2017.
  115. ^ Schmitt, Bertel (17 May 2011). "With Nissan's Carlos Ghosn Near Fukushima. A Glowing Report". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  116. ^ Nishimura, Koji; Nomura, Shu; Komori, Atsushi. "Nuclear crisis overshadows manufacturers' restoration efforts" Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Asia & Japan Watch. 30 March 2011.
  117. ^ "Ghosn vows to reopen Iwaki plant in April". Japan Times. 30 March 2011.
  118. ^ a b "Carlos Ghosn interview on "World Business Satellite" – TV Tokyo". Facebook. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  119. ^ Zulovich, Nick. "Nissan & Toyota Celebrate More Production Restoration" Archived 5 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Auto Remarketing. 19 May 2011.
  120. ^ Kim, Chang-Ran (17 May 2011). "UPDATE 1-Nissan working to restore full production before Oct-CEO". Reuters.
  121. ^ Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn Iwaki Visit (Full Version). (video) Uploaded 19 May 2011.
  122. ^ "現場に甘えぬ経営者 震災対応第2幕、問われる決断". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 5 June 2011.
  123. ^ March 29, 2011 broadcast 23:00 to 23:58 (broadcast notes). TV Tokyo.
  124. ^ "Ghosn visits affected Nissan factory to encourage employees". News24.jp. 17 May 2011.
  125. ^ Kitamura, Makiko and Yuki Hagiwara. "Ghosn Says Suppliers Recovering From Quake". Bloomberg. 12 May 2011.
  126. ^ Thompson, Jennifer; Betts, Paul (17 March 2011). "Focus on Ghosn after spy scandal". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  127. ^ Ruddick, Graham; Russell, Jonathan (14 March 2011). "Renault chief Carlos Ghosn sorry over spying allegations". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  128. ^ "The composition of the Board of Directors of AVTOVAZ since June 28, 2012". Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  129. ^ Jolley, David (29 June 2013). "Ghosn becomes chairman of Russian carmaker AvtoVAZ". europe.autonews.com. Automtive News Europe. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  130. ^ Co, Brent. "Russian carmaker Avtovaz names Carlos Ghosn Chairman". AutoIndustriya.com. 29 June 2013.
  131. ^ Avtovaz OAO: Directors & Officers – Carlos Ghosn. Financial Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  132. ^ "Renault's Ghosn cedes Avtovaz chairmanship to Rostec exec". Reuters. 18 April 2016.
  133. ^ Carlos Ghosn Archived 3 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine. NissanNews.com. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  134. ^ RENAULT AND AVTOVAZ CONFIRM THEIR STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Renault (press release). 29 February 2008.
  135. ^ "Renault–Nissan to take control of Lada-owner Avtovaz". BBC News. 3 May 2012.
  136. ^ Ostrouk, Andrey. "Renault, Nissan Buy Majority Stake in Russia's Avtovaz". The Wall Street Journal. 27 June 2014.
  137. ^ McLain, Sean; Sylvers, Eric. "Renault–Nissan's Carlos Ghosn Sees Paris as Hurdle to Auto Merger". The Wall Street Journal. 23 February 2017.
  138. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McLain, Sean; Dvorak, Phred; Schechner, Sam; Kowsmann, Patricia (16 December 2018). "The Fall of the House of Ghosn". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  139. ^ a b c d Alderman, Liz (16 January 2019). "French Government Calls for Carlos Ghosn to Be Replaced as Renault's Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  140. ^ Ma, Jie; Horie, Masatsugu. "Nissan Seals $2.3 Billion Mitsubishi Motors Stake Acquisition". Bloomberg News. 19 October 2016.
  141. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors". BBC News. 12 May 2016.
  142. ^ Greimel, Hans. "Nissan takes control of Mitsubishi with Ghosn as chairman". Automotive News Europe. 20 October 2016.
  143. ^ "Itaú Unibanco forms International Advisory Board". Banco Itaú. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  144. ^ "Organizational Structure". Itaú. Itaú. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  145. ^ "First Nissan-Tsinghua Lecture on Renault–Nissan Alliance". Tsinghua University. 4 June 2012.
  146. ^ "Carlos Ghosn tells students to embrace diversity" Archived 5 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. American University of Beirut News. 28 August 2007.
  147. ^ The Secretary General's High-Level Group on Sustainable Energy for All: Carlos Ghosn Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations. UN.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  148. ^ "Carlos Ghosn elected ACEA President". ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  149. ^ "Carlos Ghosn re-elected President of ACEA for 2015". ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  150. ^ "Dieter Zetsche elected ACEA President for 2016". ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  151. ^ "Carlos Ghosn – Chairman and Chief Executive Officer". Renault. Renault. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  152. ^ Ma, Jie (27 November 2018). "Ousted chairman Ghosn accused of making Nissan pay for his personal investment losses". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  153. ^ Le Point. "'Du côté des autorités japonaises et françaises, un seul mot d'ordre: la stabilité de l'alliance' Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Motors". Le Point. 20 November 2018.
  154. ^ a b "Nissan boss Carlos Ghosn arrested over 'misconduct'". BBC. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  155. ^ 日本放送協会. "東京地検 日産本社を捜索 金融商品取引法違反の疑い – NHKニュース". nhk.or.jp. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  156. ^ a b c Reidy, Gearoid (19 November 2018). "Ghosn's Downfall Sparks Questions on Links to Property, Expenses". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  157. ^ "The Chairman of Nissan Has Been Arrested in Tokyo. Here's Why". Fortune. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  158. ^ a b Ma, Jie (19 November 2018). "Nissan's Ghosn Arrested in Japan, Threatening Three-Way Alliance". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  159. ^ "Ghosn says he told staff to handle pay reporting legally". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  160. ^ "Experts said pay reporting unnecessary, Ghosn aide says". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  161. ^ "Ghosn scandal puts spotlight on Japan's judicial system". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  162. ^ a b McLain, Sean (20 December 2018). "Carlos Ghosn Re-Arrested on Suspicion of Shifting Personal Losses to Nissan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  163. ^ a b c Shirouzu, Norihiko (27 December 2018). "Nissan sources link latest Ghosn allegations to Khaled Al-Juffali, vice chairman of one of Saudi Arabia's largest conglomerates". The Japan Times Online. Reuters. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  164. ^ AFP (8 January 2019). "Carlos Ghosn: The allegations and the rebuttals in the case of the ex-Nissan chairman". straitstimes. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  165. ^ a b Atiyeh, Clifford (9 January 2019). "Ex-Nissan Chairman Carlos Ghosn Says He's "Wrongly Accused" of Financial Misconduct; Appeal for Release Pending Trial Rejected". Car and Driver. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  166. ^ "Carlos Ghosn: Ex-Nissan chair faces two new charges". BBC News. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  167. ^ Kageyama, Yuri (11 January 2019). "Former Nissan Chairman Carlos Ghosn Charged With Breach of Trust". TIME. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  168. ^ McLain, Sean (13 January 2019). "Ghosn Received $8 Million From Nissan-Mitsubishi Entity, Nissan Probe Alleges". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  169. ^ LeBeau, Phil (20 January 2019). "Ex-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn makes new request for bail, offering up passports and Nissan stock as collateral". CNBC. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  170. ^ a b c Atiyeh, Clifford (17 January 2019). "The Japanese are Mistreating Ousted Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn in Jail, Says His Wife". Car and Driver. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  171. ^ Landers, Peter (21 January 2018). "Carlos Ghosn's Revised Bail Request Rejected by Tokyo Court". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  172. ^ a b Inc, Sankei Digital (18 March 2019). "【環球異見】ゴーン被告保釈 英紙「司法制度がカントリーリスク」 仏紙「国際的圧力の作用は確実」". 産経ニュース.
  173. ^ Carlos Ghosn autorisé à sortir de prison, trois mois après son arrestation – Le Figaro (in French)
  174. ^ Ripley, Will (21 January 2019). "The Carlos Ghosn case is putting Japan's system of 'hostage justice' under scrutiny". CNN. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  175. ^ "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". ft.com.
  176. ^ "Ghosen – Japan's Biggest Plea Bargaining Case". The Asahi Shimbun – www.asahi.com.
  177. ^ a b "Nissan top executive resigns amid broadened investigation of ex-Chairman Ghosn". Reuters. Reuters. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  178. ^ Inoue, Kae; Horie, Masatsugu (17 January 2019). "Nissan May Scrap Chairman Role as It Rebuilds, Director Says". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  179. ^ "Nissan might sue ousted chairman Carlos Ghosn". AlphaStreet. 16 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  180. ^ Ma, Jie; Inoue, Kae (23 November 2018). "Nissan Pushes for More Power in Post-Ghosn Alliance". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 21 January 2019. "According to Japanese corporate law, Renault's voting rights [in Nissan] could be canceled if Nissan raises its shareholding to more than 25 percent in the French carmaker. Under French rules, if Renault lowered its stake in Nissan below 40 percent, then it will help the Japanese carmaker get voting rights in the French company."
  181. ^ "Exclusive interview: Ghosn says 'plot and treason' led to arrest". Nikkei Asian Review. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  182. ^ Nishimura, Karyn (17 February 2019). "With legal team shake-up, Ghosn seeks punchier defense". Japan Today. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  183. ^ "Nissan ex-boss Ghosn released after 108 days". BBC News. 6 March 2019 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  184. ^ "Ghosn's bail conditions from surveillance cameras to no internet access". The National, Abu Dhabi.
  185. ^ "Ousted Nissan Chairman Ghosn says on Twitter he's 'ready to tell the truth'". CNBC. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  186. ^ "Tokyo prosecutors rearrest Carlos Ghosn on alleged aggravated breach of trust: reports". The Japan Times. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  187. ^ "Bloomberg – Are you a robot?". bloomberg.com.
  188. ^ Atiyeh, Clifford (9 April 2019). "Ousted Nissan Chief Carlos Ghosn Fires Back in Video Claiming Conspiracy and Backstabbing". Car and Driver. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  189. ^ Kyodo (13 April 2019). "Supreme Court rejects appeal from Carlos Ghosn's lawyers over latest detention". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  190. ^ "Communication of the board of directors on the findings of the joint RNBV audit". Renault. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  191. ^ Abellan Matamoros, Cristina (5 June 2019). "Former Renault CEO Carlos Ghosn could face legal action in France, says finance minister". Euronews. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  192. ^ a b Robinson, Matt; Dawson, Chester (23 September 2019). "Nissan, Ghosn Fined Over Claims They Hid $140 Million in Pay". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  193. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (24 August 2019). "Biarritz in lockdown as G7 summit descends on French resort". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  194. ^ "Macron expected to raise Carlos Ghosn case with Abe at G7". Japan Today. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  195. ^ a b Ben Dooley; Michael Corkery (9 January 2020). "Carlos Ghosn defends his legacy". The New York Times.
  196. ^ "Assigné à résidence à Tokyo, Carlos Ghosn a quitté le Japon pour Beyrouth". lesechos.fr (in French). Les Echos. 30 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  197. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  198. ^ a b https://www.bbc.com/news/world-509640406
  199. ^ Matthew Campbell (14 January 2020). "The Tokyo Job: Inside Carlos Ghosn's Escape to Beirut". Bloomberg.
  200. ^ Gauthier-Villars, david; Maremont, Mark. "WSJ News Exclusive | Carlos Ghosn Sneaked Out of Japan in Box Used for Audio Gear". WSJ. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  201. ^ "Inspectors Skipped X-Ray Checks for Ghosn Jet, NHK Says". Bloomberg News. 6 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  202. ^ a b Denyer, Simon; Kashiwagi, Akiko (3 January 2020). "Carlos Ghosn walked out of his home alone, security camera footage shows". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  203. ^ "TC-TSR Live Flight Tracking and History (Owner: Unknown Owner) ✈ 29-Dec-2019 ✈ KIX / RJBB – ISL / LTBA". flightaware.com. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  204. ^ "Data suggests Ghosn's possible flight route". nhk3.or.jp. NHK World-Japan. 4 January 2020.
  205. ^ "Turkish private jet company says rogue employee helped Carlos Ghosn flee Japan". CNN. 3 January 2019.
  206. ^ "Ghosn's Escape Jet From Japan Used Illegally, Operator Says". Bloomberg.com. 3 January 2019.
  207. ^ "Carlos Ghosn: Turkey charges seven over escape from Japan". BBC. 8 May 2020.
  208. ^ "Japan Seeks Arrests of 3 Americans Accused of Helping Ghosn Escape". New York Times. 30 January 2020.
  209. ^ "Wanted: 3 men accused of helping Carlos Ghosn escape Japan in a case". CNN. 30 January 2020.
  210. ^ "Behind Ghosn's escape, an-Ex Green Beret With a Beef About His Own Time in Jail – WSJ". Wall Street Journal.
  211. ^ "Carlos Ghosn: US ex-Green Beret and son arrested over escape from Japan". BBC. 20 May 2020.
  212. ^ "U.S. Arrests Former Green Beret, Son, in Connection with Carlos Ghosn Escape From Japan". The Wall Street Journal. 20 May 2020.
  213. ^ "Two Massachusetts men arrested in plot to smuggle former Nissan chief Ghosn from Japan". CNN. 20 May 2020.
  214. ^ "Tokyo court grants prosecutors' request to revoke Ghosn's bail". Mainichi Daily News. The Mainichi. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  215. ^ "Japan-Lebanon Relations (Basic Data)". mofa.go.jp. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  216. ^ "Carlos Ghosn: Interpol issues 'red notice' for Nissan ex-boss's arrest". bbc.com. BBC News. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  217. ^ "Interpol issues wanted notice to Lebanon for ex-Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn". cbsnews.com. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  218. ^ "Prosecutors Search Ghosn's Tokyo Residence". nippon.com. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  219. ^ "Lebanese lawyers want ex-chief of Nissan prosecuted over 2008 Israel trip". The Times of Israel. 2 January 2020.
  220. ^ "'I escaped alone': Carlos Ghosn clears family of helping Japan escape". euronews. 31 December 2019.
  221. ^ Business, Sherisse Pham, CNN. "Japan issues arrest warrant for Carole Ghosn. A friend calls it intimidation". CNN.
  222. ^ Wearden, Graeme (8 January 2020). "Carlos Ghosn insists he is innocent over fraud charge 'plot' – business live" – via www.theguardian.com.
  223. ^ "Ghosn 'very comfortable' after Lebanon questioning: lawyer". Reuters. 9 January 2020.
  224. ^ "Carlos Ghosn's Japanese lawyer and seven other members of defense team quit". CNN. 16 January 2020.
  225. ^ Lucas Shaw; Ania Nussbaum (10 February 2020). "Ghosn Hires Legendary Agent Michael Ovitz for TV, Film Deals". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  226. ^ "Nissan launches $90m lawsuit against former chairman Carlos Ghosn". The Guardian. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  227. ^ "Nissan slapped with ¥2.4 billion fine over Ghosn compensation scandal". The Japan Times. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  228. ^ "Ghosn wired $860,000 to alleged escape helper, say prosecutors". Nikkei Asian Review. 8 July 2020.
  229. ^ a b "The Gaijin with two jobs". CNN. 7 December 2006.
  230. ^ "Who is Carole Ghosn? How did she pull off sensational escape of Carols Ghosn?". International Business Times. 7 January 2020.
  231. ^ "The flight of a car-industry megastar shocks Japan". The Economist. 2 January 2019.
  232. ^ Kim, Leena (3 March 2017). "Carole and Carlos Ghosn Threw a Wedding Fit For a King and Queen". Town & Country.
  233. ^ Dumaine, Brian. "Renault–Nissan: Can anyone succeed Carlos Ghosn?". Fortune. 29 December 2014.
  234. ^ "Are you a robot?". bloomberg.com.
  235. ^ "The True Story of Carlos Ghosn". CNN. 16 June 2008.
  236. ^ Karam, Michael. "Lebanon reluctant to recognise a big local success story" Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The National. 20 October 2011.
  237. ^ Saint George Hospital – Our Mission Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Saint George Hospital. StGeorgeFoundation.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  238. ^ Mosalli, Irène. "Pour sa capacité à « faire la différence », Carlos Ghosn honoré par la Fondation américaine de l’Hôpital Saint-Georges" Archived 9 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine. L'Orient-Le Jour. 19 November 2012.
  239. ^ a b Sami Moubayed (1 July 2009). "Man behind the wheel". Forward Syria. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  240. ^ "Nissan chief Ghosn shrugs off Lebanon politics career". Agence France-Presse. 17 July 2014.
  241. ^ "Japan chooses Kitano Takeshi in Axa Life Survey" Archived 28 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Kyodo News. 47news.jp. 27 June 2011.
  242. ^ Schmitt, Bertel. "With Carlos Ghosn Down By The Waterfront". TheTruthAboutCars.com. 16 July 2011.
  243. ^ "Survey after the earthquake": 10,000-person survey. (Japanese) Axa Life. axa.co.jp. 27 June 2011. p. 9.
  244. ^ Kelly, Tim (11 April 2019). "Exclusive: Ghosn, suffering from kidney failure, was arrested illegally – defense document". Reuters. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  245. ^ Zaun, Todd. "Nissan's Carlos Ghosn Becomes Unlikely Star of Japanese Comic". Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007. The Wall Street Journal. 27 December 2001.
  246. ^ "Winding up 2002" Archived 14 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Big Comic Superior Newsletter. 18 January 2003.
  247. ^ Kollewe, Julia; Jolly, Jasper (31 December 2019). "Who is Carlos Ghosn?". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  248. ^ Ghosn, Carlos. Shift: Inside Nissan's Historic Revival. Crown Business, 2006.
  249. ^ Magee, David. Turnaround: How Carlos Ghosn Rescued Nissan. HarperBusiness, 2003.
  250. ^ Rivas-Micoud, Miguel. The Ghosn Factor: 24 Lessons the World's Most Dynamic CEO. McGraw-Hill, 2006.
  251. ^ Staff, Time (3 December 2001). "Global Influentials 2001". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  252. ^ "The Gaijin with two jobs - CNN.com". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  253. ^ "La promotion de Pâques". Le NouvelObs. 2 April 2002. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  254. ^ Chozick, Amy; Rich, Motoko (30 December 2018). "The Rise and Fall of Carlos Ghosn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  255. ^ "Nissan's Ghosn to be registered in Automotive Hall of Fame". Kyodo News International. 28 October 2004.
  256. ^ "カルロス・ゴーン(Carlos Ghosn)氏 略歴". Japan Automobile Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  257. ^ "Car maker turnaround king Ghosn now a knight". Reuters. 24 October 2006.
  258. ^ Most Respected CEOs Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. CEO Quarterly. 2010.
  259. ^ Bagchee, Deepanshu. "Carlos Ghosn Named Asia Business Leader of the Year" Archived 27 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. CNBC. 24 November 2011.
  260. ^ Matin, Le. "Le Matin – S.M. le Roi préside la cérémonie d'inauguration de l'usine Renault-Nissan Tanger, mobilisant des investissements de 1,1 milliard d'euros". Le Matin.
  261. ^ Japan Society 2012 Annual Dinner Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Japan Society. 7 June 2012.
  262. ^ "Ghosn wins 'lifetime achievement' award from Strategic Management Society" Archived 19 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Renault–Nissan Alliance. 8 October 2012.
  263. ^ Ghosn: by royal appointment". Renault–Nissan Alliance. 29 October 2012.
  264. ^ List of Fellows Archived 26 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Academy of Engineering. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  265. ^ "A collectable stamp honoring Carlos Ghosn unveiled". Retrieved 10 August 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]