Chase was born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, the son of Captain Charles Chase and Sarah (Currier) Chase. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1817. He was ordained deacon in 1818 and ordained priest in 1820 by Alexander Viets Griswold. After his ordination, Chase moved to Bellows Falls, Vermont and became the rector of Immanuel Church. Not long after arriving in Bellows Falls, Chase married an inhabitant of that town, Harriet Cutler. They would go on to have eight children. He remained at Immanuel until his ordination in 1844, receiving a doctor of divinity during his time there from the University of Vermont.
Bishop of New Hampshire
He was consecrated along with Nicholas Hamner Cobbs and Cicero S. Hawks in Philadelphia on October 20, 1844. After his elevation to the episcopate, he moved to Claremont, New Hampshire, where he also served as rector of Trinity Church. Chase made pastoral visitations to the Episcopal Diocese of New York in 1850, 1851, and 1852 in the midst of difficulties related to the trial and suspension of Bishop Benjamin Treadwell Onderdonk. He died January 18, 1870 and was buried in Claremont.
- Niles, 48
- Batterson, 140
- Lord, 333
- Batterson, 141
- Batterson, Hermon Griswold (1878). A Sketch-book of the American Episcopate. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippencott & Co. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- Lord, Charles Chase (1890). Life and times in Hopkinton, N.H. Concord, N.H.: Republican Press Association. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- Niles, William Woodruff (1906). "Carlton Chase, First Bishop of New Hampshire". Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society IV.
- Documents by Chase from Project Canterbury
- A Memorial of the Right Reverend Carlton Chase, D.D., First Bishop of New-Hampshire, 1844 to 1870, with a Biographical Sketch
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