Carly Fiorina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carly Fiorina
Carly Fiorina by Gage Skidmore 3.jpg
Personal details
Born Cara Carleton Sneed
(1954-09-06) September 6, 1954 (age 61)
Austin, Texas, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Todd Bartlem (1977–1984)
Frank Fiorina (1985–present)
Children Two stepdaughters
Parents Joseph Sneed
Madelon Juergens
Alma mater Stanford University
University of Maryland
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology
Signature
Website Campaign website

Cara Carleton "Carly" Fiorina (née Sneed; born September 6, 1954) is an American businessperson and political candidate. Fiorina is known primarily for her tenure as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Hewlett-Packard (HP).

As the CEO of HP from 1999 to 2005, Fiorina was the first woman to lead a Top-20 company as ranked by Fortune Magazine.[2] In 2002, Fiorina oversaw what was then the largest technology sector merger in history, in which HP acquired their rival personal computer manufacturer, Compaq.[3][4] As the CEO, Fiorina subsequently laid off 30,000 U.S. employees, a decision which supporters say saved the company, preserving the jobs of thousands of employees.[5][6][7] In February 2005, she was fired as the Chairman and CEO after a boardroom disagreement.[8]

Fiorina was an adviser to Republican Senator John McCain's 2008 presidential campaign. In 2010, she won the Republican nomination for the United States Senate in California. She lost the general election to incumbent Democrat Barbara Boxer.[9][10] Fiorina was a major candidate in the 2016 Republican presidential primary, and was briefly the vice-presidential running mate of Ted Cruz, until he suspended his campaign for President on May 3, 2016.[11][12]

Early life and education[edit]

Fiorina was born on September 6, 1954, in Austin, Texas, the daughter of Madelon Montross (née Juergens) and Joseph Tyree Sneed III.[13] The name "Carleton", from which "Carly" is derived, has been used in every generation of the Sneed family since the Civil War.[14] At the time of her birth, Fiorina's father was a professor at the University of Texas School of Law.[15][16][17] He would later become dean of Duke University School of Law, Deputy U.S. Attorney General, and judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.[18] Her mother was an abstract painter.[19] She is mainly of English and German ancestry,[20][21] and was raised Episcopalian.[20] Her paternal great-great-great-grandfather, Joseph P. Sneed, was a Methodist minister and educator in Texas. Her paternal great-great-great-great-uncle built the Constantine Sneed House in Brentwood, Tennessee, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Carly was a Brownie but did not become a Girl Scout due to her family's frequent moves.[22] She attended Channing School, in London. She later attended five different high schools, including one in Ghana,[23] graduating from Charles E. Jordan High School in Durham, North Carolina. At one time she aspired to be a classical pianist.[24] She received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy and medieval history at Stanford University, in 1976. During her summers, she worked as a secretary for Kelly Services.[25] She attended the UCLA School of Law in 1976, but dropped out[26] after one semester. She worked as a receptionist for six months at a real estate firm, Marcus & Millichap, moving up to a broker position. When she married in 1977, she and her husband moved to Bologna, Italy, where he was doing graduate work;[27] there she did English tutoring to Italian businessmen.[20][28]

In 1980, Fiorina received a Master of Business Administration, in marketing, from the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 1989 she obtained a Master of Science, in management, at the MIT Sloan School of Management, under the Sloan Fellows program.[29]

Business career[edit]

AT&T and Lucent[edit]

In 1980, Fiorina joined AT&T as a management trainee, selling telephone services to big federal agencies.[30] In 1990, she became the company's first female officer as senior vice president overseeing the company's hardware and systems division,[31] eventually heading its North American operations.[31][32]

In 1995, Fiorina led corporate operations for Lucent Technologies, Inc., a spin-off from AT&T of its Western Electric and Bell Labs divisions into a new company.[33] In that capacity, she reported to Lucent chief executive Henry B. Schacht.[34] She played a key role in planning and implementing the 1996 initial public offering of a successful stock and company launch strategy.[31][35][36] The spin-off became one of the most successful IPOs in U.S. history, raising US$3 billion.[30][33]

Later in 1996, Fiorina was appointed president of Lucent's consumer products sector.[35] In 1997, she was named group president for Lucent's US$19 billion global service-provider business, overseeing marketing and sales for the company's largest customer segment.[31][37] That year, Fiorina chaired a US$2.5 billion joint venture between Lucent's consumer communications and Royal Philips Electronics, under the name Philips Consumer Communications (PCC).[38][39] In the edition of October 12, 1998, of Fortune magazine, Fiorina was named "The Most Powerful Woman in American Business".[30]

Lucent added 22,000 jobs and revenues grew from US$19 billion to US$38 billion and the company's market share increased in every region for every product.[33][40] According to Fortune magazine, Lucent increased sales by lending money to their own customers, writing that "In a neat bit of accounting magic, money from the loans began to appear on Lucent’s income statement as new revenue while the dicey debt got stashed on its balance sheet as an allegedly solid asset".[40] Lucent's stock price grew 10-fold.[40]

Hewlett-Packard (HP)[edit]

Hiring[edit]

In July 1999, Hewlett-Packard Company named Fiorina chief executive officer, succeeding Lewis Platt and prevailing over the internal candidate Ann Livermore.[41] Matthew Boyle of Fortune magazine said of Fiorina's hiring as HP's first woman CEO that, "Carly Fiorina didn't just break the glass ceiling, she obliterated it, as the first woman to lead a FORTUNE 20 company."[42][43][44]

Writing in Fortune magazine in August 2015, Jeffrey Sonnenfeld described the hiring as the result of "a dysfunctional HP board committee, filled with its own poisoned politics, hired her with no CEO experience, nor interviews with the full board."[45] Fiorina received a larger signing offer than any of her predecessors, including: US$65 million in restricted stock to compensate her for the Lucent stock and options she left behind,[40] a US$3 million signing bonus, a US$1 million annual salary (plus a US$1.25–US$3.75 million annual bonus), US$36,000 in mortgage assistance, a relocation allowance, and permission (and encouragement) to use company planes for personal affairs.[46]

Separating Agilent Technologies from HP and proposed PWC acquisition[edit]

Although the decision to spin off the company's analytical instruments division pre-dated her arrival, one of her first major responsibilities as chief executive was overseeing the separation of the unit into the stand-alone Agilent Technologies.[47] Fiorina proposed the acquisition of the technology services arm of PricewaterhouseCoopers for almost US$14 billion, but withdrew the bid after a lackluster reception from Wall Street.[48] Following the collapse of the dot-com bubble, the PwC consulting arm was acquired by IBM for less than US$4 billion. HP later acquired Electronic Data Systems, another technology services company, which some considered a validation of Fiorina's strategy.[49][50]

Compaq merger[edit]

Fiorina in 2003.

In early September 2001, in the wake of the bursting of the Tech Bubble, Fiorina announced the acquisition of PC maker Compaq with US$25 billion in stock,[51] which, at the time, was the second largest producer of personal computers, after Dell.[51] HP stock traded down by 30% on the news of the merger.[51] The Compaq merger created the world's largest personal computer manufacturer in terms of units shipped.[52][53][54]

Fiorina was frequently at odds with HP's board of directors,[46][55] and she had to fight with the board for the merger. Walter Hewlett (the son of company co-founder William Hewlett) was a source of particularly strong opposition.[55][56] Hewlett originally voted with the other board members to approve the Compaq deal, but he later changed his mind.[51] He launched a proxy fight against Fiorina's efforts which Fiorina won with a "razor-thin margin" of 51.4% of the shareholders, with the institutional shareholders providing the bulk of the support.[51][57] Fiorina was supported in the proxy battle by other board members,[51] including Richard Hackborn, Philip M. Condit,[58] George A. Keyworth, II,[59] and Robert Knowling.[51] Fiorina proceeded to reorganize HP and merge the parts of it that she kept with Compaq.[60]

The merger was met initially with almost universal skepticism.[61] The February 7, 2005 issue of Fortune described her merger plan as "failing" and the prognosis as "doubtful".[62] Business professor Robert Burgelman and former HP executive vice president, Webb McKinney, who led HP's post-merger integration team, analyzed the merger and concluded that it was ultimately successful.[63] In 2008, former acting CEO of Compaq Ben Rosen stated that although Fiorina lacked the skills to run the merged company, her successors made it work.[61] HP was able to integrate Compaq's operations and emerge as the world's largest seller of personal computers. The industry soon fell into decline, leading to further difficulties for the company. HP eventually wrote off US$1.2 billion from the acquisition as the personal computer market declined.[64] Looking back, a 2011 New York Times article described it as "one of the more questionable deals of the time."[65]

Allegations of sales to Iran despite sanctions[edit]

In 1997, prior to Fiorina's joining the company, HP's Dutch subsidiary formed a partnership with a company in Dubai, Redington Gulf, which sold HP's products in Iran.[66] Under Fiorina's leadership at HP, the company sold millions of dollars worth of printers and computer products to Iran through the foreign subsidiary, while U.S. export sanctions were in effect.[67][68] After the story was initially reported by The Boston Globe in 2008,[69] the SEC sent a letter of inquiry to HP, who responded that products worth US$120 million were sold in fiscal 2008[70] arguing that the sales did not violate export sanctions because they were made through a foreign subsidiary.[66] According to former officials who worked on sanctions, HP was using a loophole by routing their sales through a foreign subsidiary.[66] HP ended its relationship with Redington Gulf after the SEC inquiry.[66]

Providing HP servers to the NSA[edit]

In a September 2015 interview with Michael Isikoff, Fiorina said that, in the weeks following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, she received a phone call from Michael Hayden, then the director of the National Security Agency, asking her assistance in providing HP computer servers to the NSA for expanded surveillance.[71] Hayden confirmed that he had made the request for HP servers as part of Stellar Wind, a 2001–2007 NSA warrantless surveillance program, but the details were not revealed to Fiorina at the time.[71] Fiorina "acknowledged she complied with Hayden's request, redirecting trucks of HP computer servers that were on their way to retail stores from a warehouse in Tennessee to the Washington Beltway, where they were escorted by NSA security" to the agency's Fort Meade headquarters. In 2015, Fiorina said: "I felt it was my duty to help, and so we did," adding, "They were ramping up a whole set of programs and needed a lot of data crunching capability to try and monitor a whole set of threats. ... What I knew at the time was our nation had been attacked."[71] Hayden also requested that Fiorina provide advice to the agency "on how the CIA could maintain its undercover espionage mission in a culture of increasing government leaks and demands for greater public accountability and openness." According to Fiorina, she advised the agency to be "as transparent as possible, about as much as possible".[71]

Changes to HP culture[edit]

Fiorina's predecessor at HP had pushed for an outsider to replace him because he believed that the company had become complacent and that consensus-driven decision making was inhibiting the company's growth. Fiorina instituted three major changes shortly after her arrival: replacing profit sharing with bonuses awarded if the company met financial expectations, a reduction in operating units from 83 to 12, and consolidating back-office functions.[51]

Fiorina faced a backlash among HP employees and the tech community for her leading role in the demise of HP's egalitarian "The HP Way" work culture and guiding philosophy,[46][55][72] which she felt hindered innovation.[46][73] Because of changes to HP's culture, and requests for voluntary pay cuts to prevent layoffs (subsequently followed by the largest layoffs in HP's history), employee satisfaction surveys at HP—previously among the highest in America—revealed "widespread unhappiness" and distrust,[46][74] and Fiorina was sometimes booed at company meetings and attacked on HP's electronic bulletin board.[46]

According to The Fiscal Times, Fiorina and others have argued that she "laid the groundwork for some of HP’s progress under her successors", and that she shook the culture at HP so that it could compete in the Internet Age.[75]

iPod+HP[edit]

Main article: iPod+HP

In January 2004, Fiorina announced an agreement with Apple founder Steve Jobs for the iPod+HP—a co-branded iPod sold through HP's retail channels.[76] As part of the agreement, HP was forbidden from selling a competitor to the iPod until August 2006 and HP agreed to pre-install iTunes on every computer sold.[77] Two days before Fiorina announced the HP+iPod, Jobs announced a new product, the iPod mini, catching Fiorina off guard.[78] HP did not sell the newer versions of the iPod in a timely fashion, leaving them to sell an outdated device for several months. In addition, Apple began selling its own iPods through the same retail channels.[77] As a result, at the peak of the program, iPod+HP sales represented only a small portion of total iPod sales.[79] In July 2005, soon after Fiorina resigned as CEO, her successor Mark Hurd ended HP's agreement with Apple, within days of taking office,[80] a "highly symbolic decision" that was well-received as a return to innovation by HP.[81][82]

Steven Levy, writing in 2015 on the agreement, wrote that "Steve Jobs blithely mugged her and HP's shareholders. By getting Fiorina to adopt the iPod as HP's music player, Jobs had effectively gotten his [iTunes] software installed on millions of computers for free, stifled his main competitor, and gotten a company that prided itself on invention to declare that Apple was a superior inventor. And he lost nothing ..."[83]

Layoffs[edit]

In January 2001, HP laid off 1,700 marketing employees.[84] In June 2001, Fiorina asked employees to either take pay cuts or use their allotted vacation time to cut additional costs, resulting in more than 80,000 people signing up and saving HP US$130 million.[85] Despite these efforts from employees, in July Fiorina announced that 6,000 jobs would be cut, the biggest reduction in the company's 64-year history,[86][87] but those cuts would not actually occur until after the Compaq merger was announced.[88] In September 2001, Fiorina said she intended to cut an additional 15,000 jobs in the event of a merger with Compaq.[86][89]

In all, Fiorina laid off 30,000 U.S. employees.[90][91] According to PolitiFact, those 30,000 layoffs were "as a result of the merger with Compaq...."[90] By 2004 the number of HP employees was about the same as the pre-merger total of HP and Compaq combined, and that 2004 number included roughly 8,000 employees of other companies acquired by HP since 2001.[90][92][93] Altogether, under Fiorina's leadership, HP had a net gain of employees, including employees from mergers as well as hires in countries outside the United States.[94]

In 1999, when Fiorina became CEO of HP, the company had 84,800 employees.[93] After the merger with Compaq, the company had a total of 145,000 employees worldwide.[95] At the time of her resignation in 2005, after HP had acquired several other companies, HP had about 150,000 employees.[90]

Forced resignation[edit]

HP's revenue doubled and the rate of patent filings increased due to mergers with Compaq and other companies during Fiorina's stint as CEO.[96][97] In addition, HP's cash flow increased by 40%, to around $6.8 billion.[98][99] However, the company underperformed by a number of other metrics: there were no gains in HP's net income despite a 70% gain in net income of the S&P 500 over this period;[96] the company's debt rose from US$4.25 billion to US$6.75 billion;[96] and its stock price fell by 50%, exceeding declines in the S&P 500 Information Technology Sector index and the NASDAQ.[96][100] By contrast, stock prices for IBM and Dell fell by 27.5% and 3% respectively during this time.[100] The Compaq acquisition was not as transformative as Fiorina and the board had envisioned: in the merger proxy, they had forecasted that the PC division of the merged entities would generate an operating margin of 3.0% in 2003, while the actual figure was 0.1% in that year and 0.9% in 2004.[51]

In 2004, HP fell dramatically short of its predicted third-quarter earnings, and Fiorina fired three executives during a 5 AM telephone call.[46] In early January 2005, the Hewlett-Packard board of directors discussed with Fiorina a list of issues that the board had regarding the company's performance and disappointing earning reports.[51][101][102] The board proposed a plan to shift her authority to HP division heads, which Fiorina resisted strongly.[102] A week after the meeting, the confidential plan was leaked to the Wall Street Journal.[103] According to BusinessWeek's Ben Elgin, directors were also concerned about the board's inability to work effectively with Fiorina.[104]

Less than a month later, the board brought back Tom Perkins and forced Fiorina to resign as chair and chief executive officer of the company.[105] The company's stock jumped 6.9 percent on news of her departure, adding almost three billion dollars to the value of HP in a single day.[106][107]

In her book Tough Choices, she referred to board members' behavior as "amateurish and immature".[108] Larry Sonsini, who investigated the leak related to Fiorina's forced resignation, described the board in his report to Fiorina as being "dysfunctional."[108]

On May 13, 2008, HP, under then-Chief Executive Mark Hurd, confirmed that it had reached a deal to buy Electronic Data Systems, the largest since the Compaq purchase. The price was a reported $12.6 billion.[109] At the time of the announcement, Loren Steffy of The Houston Chronicle suggested that the EDS acquisition after Fiorina's tenure was evidence that her failed plan to acquire part of Pricewaterhouse Coopers was justified.[110]

Under the company's agreement with Fiorina, which was characterized as a golden parachute by Time magazine,[111] and Yahoo! Finance,[112] Fiorina received a severance package valued at US$21 million, which consisted of 2.5 times her annual salary plus bonus and the balance from accelerated vesting of stock options.[51][113] According to Fortune magazine, Fiorina collected over US$100 million in compensation during her short tenure at HP.[45]

Business leadership image[edit]

Fiorina as CEO and Chair of the Board of Hewlett-Packard, São Paulo, Brazil, August 2, 2004.

In 2003, Fiorina was named by Fortune Magazine the most powerful woman in business, a position she held for five years.[51][114][115] In 2004, she was included in the Time 100 ranking of "most influential people in the world today"[116] and named tenth on the Forbes list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women.[117] In 2005, the Wall Street Journal described Fiorina as the epitome of "an alluring, controversial new breed of chief executive officers who combine grand visions with charismatic but self-centered and demanding styles".[118] The same year, Wharton School of Business professor Michael Useem opined, "Fiorina scored high on leadership style, but she failed to execute strategy".[119]

Following her forced resignation from HP, several commentators ranked Fiorina as one of the worst American (or tech) CEOs of all time.[120][121][122] In 2008, InfoWorld grouped her with a list of products and ideas that flopped, declaring that her tenure as CEO of HP was the sixth worst tech flop of all time, and characterizing her as the "anti-Steve Jobs" for reversing the goodwill of "geeks" and alienating existing customers.[123][124] During Fiorina's tenure as CEO, HP leased or purchased five planes, including two Gulfstream IVs, to replace four aging aircraft, only one of which had the range to fly overseas.[125][126] One Gulfstream IV, acquired at a cost of US$30 million and available for Fiorina's "exclusive" use,[127] became a rallying point among HP employees who complained of Fiorina's expensive self-promotion and top-down managerial style during a time of company layoffs.[51][86][126] Jeffrey Sonnenfeld of Yale School of Management said in August 2015 that problems with Fiorina's leadership style were what caused HP to lose half its value during her tenure.[45]

Others have defended her business leadership decisions and viewed the Compaq merger as successful over the long term.[110][128][129][130]

Transition of career and public persona[edit]

Autobiography[edit]

In October 2006, Fiorina published an autobiography entitled Tough Choices, about her career and her views on issues, what constitutes a leader, how women can thrive in business, and the role technology will continue to play in reshaping the world. A review by NPR Books noted that "The book covers Fiorina's rise and fall as America's most powerful female executive."[131]

Earlier books by others about Fiorina's role in the merger at HP included: Backfire, (2003)[132] by Peter Burrows, and Perfect Enough: Carly Fiorina and the Reinvention of Hewlett-Packard, (2003),[133] by George Anders. A 2003 review by The New York Times of these books said, "Two new books about the deal and its main champion—Hewlett-Packard's chair and chief executive officer, Carly Fiorina—show that there is much investors can glean immediately from this merger."[134]

Other organizational involvement[edit]

In October 2007, Fiorina signed with the Fox Business Network as a business commentator.[135]

After resigning from HP, Fiorina served on the board of Revolution Health Group[136] and computer security company Cybertrust in 2005.[137] In 2006, she became a member of the board of directors for chip maker Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC),[138] but resigned from that board on November 30, 2009, with the company saying this was "because she planned to devote her full time and energy" to her Senate campaign.[139] She had attended 17% of the TSMC directors' meetings in 2009 and 20% of TSMC directors' meetings in 2008.[140][141] She served as a member of the MIT Corporation[142][143] from 2004 to 2012. She was a member of the Foundation Board of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2005.[101][144][145] She is an honorary fellow of the London Business School.[146] In July 2012, Governor Bob McDonnell of Virginia appointed her to the James Madison University Board of Visitors.[147][148]

Fiorina is the chair and CEO of Carly Fiorina Enterprises, a business and charitable foundation.[149] A spokesperson described Fiorina Enterprises as "...a nonprofit enterprise that helped Fiorina structure speaking engagements and appearances while providing the public with information about her activities..."[150] The San Francisco Chronicle reported that, as of July 2009, she had "never registered her Carly Fiorina Enterprises to conduct business in California, either with the California secretary of state or the clerk of Santa Clara County, where Fiorina lives."[150]

Philanthropy and nonprofit work[edit]

Good360[edit]

In April 2012, Fiorina became chair of Good360, a 501(c)(3) nonpartisan nonprofit organization in Alexandria, Virginia, which helps companies donate excess merchandise to charities.[151][152] Good360 has been consistently ranked by Forbes magazine as one of the top 10 most efficient charities,[153] and ranked as the 33rd largest charity in the United States.[154] Fiorina has stated that Good360 is "the largest product donation marketplace in the world. We help companies take excess inventory and then distribute that excess inventory to 37,000 vetted charities around this country."[155] In September 2014, Fiorina led an effort by Good360 to get American corporations "to help combat the Ebola virus in West Africa – by donating specific items."[156] She left the organization when she declared her presidential candidacy in 2015.[157]

One Woman Initiative[edit]

Fiorina served as Fund Chair of One Woman Initiative (OWI), a partnership between the private sector and government agencies including the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United States Department of State (DoS).[158][159] OWI describes itself as "An International Women's Empowerment Fund" that seeks to "support existing initiatives in Muslim majority countries and countries with large Muslim populations" and "focus on key empowerment issues including entrepreneurship, political leadership, and the rule of law."[160] OWI said it would raise funds in order to give grants to achieve these objectives, with contributions managed through a separate section 501(c)(3) designated organization.[160]

In June 2009, USAID announced that OWI grants totaling over US$500,000 had been made to grassroots organizations in Azerbaijan, Egypt, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines.[161]

Opportunity International[edit]

On February 14, 2013, Opportunity International announced a partnership with Fiorina and OWI to provide financial resources, education and training to two million women living in poverty.[162] Fiorina was referred to as Global Ambassador to Opportunity International.[162] On May 4, 2015, Opportunity International announced that Fiorina was resigning from the Board after the announcement of her presidential candidacy.[163]

Fiorina Foundation[edit]

Fiorina is the chair and CEO of the Fiorina Foundation, a charity that has donated to causes including Care-a-Van for Kids, a transportation program to aid seriously ill children, and the African Leadership Academy, an educational institution in South Africa.[150] The foundation 'enables corporations, spokeswomen entrepreneurs and philanthropists alike to address some of the world's most challenging issues,' according to Fiorina's Web site, carlyfiorina.com." [150]

The San Francisco Chronicle reported that "Records also show that her Fiorina Foundation has never registered with the Internal Revenue Service or the state attorney general's charitable trust division, which tax-exempt charities are required to do. A spokeswoman commented that "Fiorina and her staff believed the foundation was not required to file with the IRS because it accepted no outside contributions and donated only her personal wealth to worthy causes."[150]

Political career[edit]

Fiorina has never held public office,[164][165][166] but said that her status as an outsider is a positive, given that in her opinion, professional politicians have failed to deliver to the American people,[164] stating in an interview with Fox News in 2015 that "82% of the American people now think we need people from outside the professional political class to serve in public office."[167]

Republican National Committee fundraising chair and 2008 campaign[edit]

In 2006, Fiorina worked for Republican Senator John McCain's presidential campaign. In early 2008, she was referred to in media sources as a potential vice presidential candidate,[168][169] and The New York Times noted that while she did not want to run, she was an executive who could possibly become a candidate for president.[170] On March 7, 2008, Fiorina was named fundraising chair for the Republican National Committee's "Victory" initiative. She was a "point person" for the McCain campaign on issues related to business and economic affairs.[171] Fiorina's severance package from Hewlett-Packard in 2005 was viewed by some as a political liability during the campaign.[172][173][174]

Earlier that day, she defended the selection of Sarah Palin as McCain's running mate and said that Palin was being subjected to sexist attacks, a charge she repeated a few days later in response to one of the Saturday Night Live parodies of Sarah Palin.[175][176][177]

When asked during a radio interview on September 15, 2008 whether she thought Palin had the experience to run a major company like Hewlett-Packard, Fiorina answered "No, I don't. But that's not what she's running for. Running a corporation is a different set of things." When questioned about her answer, she answered, "I don't think John McCain could run a major corporation." Fiorina further said that none of the candidates on either ticket had the experience to run a major corporation.[178][179][180] After media coverage of Fiorina's comments, she "disappeared from public view" and planned television appearances were cancelled,[181] although she continued to chair the party's fundraising committee.[171][180][182][183][184]

Referring to the McCain campaign, Newsweek described Fiorina as "the most prominent surrogate on economics issues in any of the major campaigns."[185] Political analyst Stuart Rothenberg pointed out Fiorina's downside, as a vice president running mate for McCain, "is rather easy to sketch out" because Fiorina would "become a talking point for Democrats" who would focus on Fiorina's severance package and her management style. Rothenberg concluded that Fiorina was "like a dream come true" for Democratic opposition researchers.[186]

Defense Business Board and Central Intelligence Agency[edit]

Fiorina performed unpaid service on the Defense Business Board, which looked at staffing issues, among others, at The Pentagon.[187]

Fiorina spent two years leading the Central Intelligence Agency's External Advisory Board, from 2007 to 2009,[187] and became chair of that board,[188] when the board was first created in 2007 by then-CIA director Michael Hayden during the George W. Bush administration.[189]

U.S. Senate candidacy for California, 2010[edit]

Fiorina's campaign sign during her candidacy for U.S. Senator from California.

On November 4, 2009, Fiorina formally announced her candidacy in the 2010 Senate election in a bid to unseat incumbent Democrat Barbara Boxer.[190][191][192][193] Fiorina's campaign in the Republican primary for that seat received a number of endorsements, including one from Sarah Palin.[194][195][196] Her campaign ad about Republican rival Tom Campbell featuring a "Demon Sheep"—created by Fiorina advertising consultant Fred Davis III—generated largely negative international publicity.[197][198] After the ad went viral, the California Democratic Party created a parody of the ad depicting Fiorina herself as a demon sheep.[199]

On June 8, 2010, Fiorina won the Republican primary election for the Senate with over 50 percent of the vote, beating Campbell and State Assemblyman Chuck DeVore.[200]

A Los Angeles Times search of public records indicated Fiorina had failed to vote in most elections. Fiorina responded: "I'm a lifelong registered Republican but I haven't always voted, and I will provide no excuse for it. You know, people die for the right to vote. And there are many, many Californians and Americans who exercise that civic duty on a regular basis. I didn't. Shame on me."[201][202]

The Los Angeles Times noted that Fiorina had conservative positions on certain social issues. She personally opposed abortion, except in cases of rape, incest, or endangerment of the mother's life.[203] As a private citizen, she stated that she voted for Proposition 8, which defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman.[204] Following an August 4, 2010, federal court ruling that Proposition 8 was unconstitutional, Fiorina expressed disagreement with the ruling, saying that California voters spoke clearly against same-sex unions when a majority approved the proposition in 2008.[205] She stated that she opposed litmus tests for Supreme Court nominations and did not favor a federal "personhood" amendment.[206] Fiorina had called global warming a "serious issue" but said that the science surrounding it is inconclusive, saying "I think we should have the courage to examine the science on an ongoing basis."[207] In a campaign ad, Fiorina likened Boxer's concerns over global warming to worrying about "the weather."[208] Fiorina accepted contributions from the coal industry[209] as well as Koch Industries.[210] Fiorina opposed the cap-and-trade legislation supported by Boxer, and thought efforts to control greenhouse gases would cost 3 million jobs and are "massively destructive".[211][212]

Fiorina had a major setback with her health due to breast cancer weeks before voting began for the general election. She also lost her stepdaughter Lori to drug addiction earlier that year.[213][214]

In financial disclosures, Fiorina identified her net worth at between US$30 million and US$120 million,[215] and by October 22, Fiorina had contributed a total of US$6.5 million to her own race.[216]

Sarah Palin was set to appear at a GOP fundraiser two weeks ahead of the November 2 election, but neither Meg Whitman nor Fiorina – both big-name Republicans – planned to attend. The prediction was that Palin's primary endorsement would jeopardize her general election candidacy.[217]

Boxer won the general election, defeating Fiorina 52.2% to 42.2%.[218]

"Unlocking Potential Project" PAC[edit]

Fiorina launched and developed a political action committee (PAC) known as "Up-Project" (short for "Unlocking Potential Project")[219] from 2011 to 2014. The stated mission of the organization was "...to engage women with new messages and new messengers by focusing on personal interactions with voters and going beyond the traditional methods of identifying, persuading and turning-out voters…"[220] In November 2014, The Washington Post reported that "Helping Fiorina chart her political future are consultants Frank Sadler, who once worked for Koch Industries, and Stephen DeMaura, a strategist who heads Americans for Job Security, a pro-business advocacy group in Virginia";[221][222] The Up-Project website lists Fiorina as chair.[223]

American Conservative Union Foundation and CPAC[edit]

Carly Fiorina speaking at the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), in National Harbor, Maryland, March 8, 2014.

On October 1, 2013, Al Cardenas, chair of the American Conservative Union (ACU), appointed Fiorina as chair of the American Conservative Union Foundation (ACUF), the ACU's educational arm.[224] The ACU is a conservative 501(c)(4) organization, while the ACUF is its affiliated 501(c)(3) foundation, which organizes the annual Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC).[189][224]

Fiorina was co-chair of CPAC 2014, making a speech at the conference.[189] At CPAC 2015, Fiorina again made a speech at the conference.[188][189][225] It was speculated that Fiorina would announce her candidacy for the Republican nomination for president in that speech,[188][189] but Fiorina did not, instead making her official announcement months later, on May 4, 2015, in a television and promotional video, therein repeating her talking points from CPAC and including an attack on Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton.[226]

Fiorina resigned as ACU Foundation chair in early 2015.[227]

U.S. presidential campaign, 2016[edit]

Carly Fiorina at the 2015 Iowa Growth & Opportunity Party at the Iowa State Fairgrounds in Des Moines, Iowa, October 2015.

Fiorina ruled out running for the U.S. Senate in 2016,[228] but refused to rule out running for president in 2016 or Governor of California in 2018.[229][230][231][232] In November 2014, The Washington Post reported that Fiorina was "actively exploring" a run for president. Her business background and status as the only CEO and the only woman in a "sea of suited men" were mentioned as positives, with Republican strategists pointing to her disastrous 2010 Senate campaign, unpaid campaign debt and dismissal from HP as "considerable challenges".[233] In March 2015, Fiorina said on Fox News Sunday that there was a "higher than 90% chance" that she would run for president in 2016.[234]

On May 4, 2015, Fiorina announced her candidacy during an interview on Good Morning America, with George Stephanopoulos.[235] Fiorina entered the race with immediate criticism of Hillary Clinton. It was reported that the GOP sees Fiorina as "the tip of the spear" in its attack of the Clinton campaign because she is uniquely positioned to isolate her criticisms of Clinton from claims of gender bias.[236]

Shortly after Fiorina announced her entry into the 2016 presidential race, in a replay of her 2010 senatorial race, the social media and editorial outlets questioned her tenure as HP's CEO as a basis for her run for president, focusing around US job cuts and offshoring that Fiorina directed during her tenure at HP, and contrasting it with the high compensation bonuses she received from the company.[237] Campaign Manager, Sarah Isgur Flores, deflected the job cut criticism saying, Fiorina "worked hard to save as many jobs as possible."[238][239]

On August 6, Fiorina participated in Fox News's first GOP debate. Failing to qualify for one of the Fox News prime-time debate slots, she was relegated to the debate airing earlier the same day.[240] Fiorina's performance led news sources to conclude she had won the early debate.[241][242][243] Following the debate, several pundits correctly predicted that her polling numbers would surge.[244][245] On August 9, Fiorina reported an uptick in fundraising support.[246] In an online poll by NBC and SurveyMonkey on August 10, Fiorina came in fourth of the seventeen Republican contenders with 8% of the sampled Republican primary voters saying they would support her in a primary or a caucus, a gain in support of six points from previous polling data.[247]

The National Review pointed out her role as foil to Hillary Clinton, saying "Carly Fiorina is no doubt getting attention because of her unique background, but more and more people are staying to listen because she has something fresh to say", and that "Fiorina also seems to relish the role of being the most pointed critic of Hillary Clinton…. She contrasts her background as a 'problem solver' with Clinton's record as a professional politician."[248] The Nation commented, "With so-called women's issues poised to play an unprecedented role in the upcoming election, Republicans need someone who can troll Hillary Clinton without seeming sexist."[249] While noting she was named "the most powerful woman in business" by Fortune Magazine in 1998, Steve Deace of the Conservative Review stated, "Fiorina is a cross between Carson and Trump. She has some of Carson's inspirational biography, and some of Trump's business acumen/resume."[250] Meg Whitman, the current CEO of Hewlett Packard, stated that in her opinion Fiorina was not qualified to be President of the United States, stating that a business background is important but that having worked in government is also important, and that "it's very difficult for your first role in politics to be President of the United States".[251][252]

As part of her financial disclosures related to her candidacy, Fiorina reported a net worth of US$59 million, with US$12 million in income in 2013.[253][254] International Business Times estimates Fiorina's net worth between US$30 million and US$120 million.[255]

Her performances in early debates for the Republican primary nomination, particularly her rebukes of front-runner Donald Trump in the September 16, 2015 debate, earned her a significant spike in the polls from 3% to 15% post-debate,[256][257][258] polling numbers dropped to 4% by October,[259] and to 3% in December.[260][261] Polling showed her beating Hillary Clinton nationally, including every swing state, and trailing by single digits in heavily Democratic states such as Illinois.[262][263] On February 10, due to losing traction against her rivals after being kept out of debates, Fiorina announced that her campaign was suspended.[264][265] On March 9, 2016, Fiorina endorsed Texas Senator Ted Cruz for President, saying she was "horrified" by Donald Trump, and that Cruz was the only candidate that could stop him.[266]

Vice presidential campaign[edit]

On April 27, 2016, Cruz announced that, if he were selected as the party's nominee, he would choose Fiorina as his vice presidential running mate,[267] but after losing the Indiana primary six days later, he suspended his campaign,[268] making her vice-presidential candidacy the shortest in modern American history.[269]

Future endeavors[edit]

Reports emerged in August 2016 that Fiorina was quietly laying the groundwork for a run for chairman of the Republican National Committee, for which the next election is in early 2017.[270] She reportedly reached out to state party chairmen to offer her help, and the internet domains CarlyForChair.com and CarlyforRNC.com were registered in July 2016.[271]

Political positions[edit]

Fiorina has held a wide range of political positions, including:

  • Abortion: she is pro-life
  • Climate change: acknowledges that the problem is real but is skeptical that government action can solve the problem
  • Drugs: asserts that drug addiction should not be criminalized
  • Education: has been a critic of the Common Core State Standards
  • Foreign and military policy: hawkish and would direct military buildups
  • Health care: critical of the Affordable Care Act
  • Immigration: supported the DREAM Act
  • LGBT issues: was against same-sex marriage but opposed enforcing the 1993 law banning homosexuals in the military
  • Maternity leave: believes employers should decide whether they should provide paid maternity leave to their employees
  • Minimum wage: has stated that there is no constitutional role for the federal government to be setting minimum wages
  • Net neutrality: opposes net neutrality rules
  • Government regulation: generally believes that reducing government regulations helps to spur the economy
  • Taxes and spending: favors lowering tax rates, simplifying the tax code, and closing loopholes that she says mostly benefit wealthy taxpayers
  • Technology employees: favors expanding the H-1B visa program

Personal life[edit]

Fiorina (then Cara Carleton Sneed) married Todd Bartlem, a Stanford classmate, in June 1977. They divorced in 1984.[272] In 1981, she was introduced to AT&T executive Frank Fiorina,[273] who told her on their third date that she would one day be running the company.[274] She married him in 1985; it was the second marriage for both. Fiorina has said that they wanted to have children together but "that wasn't God's plan".[275][276][277] Frank Fiorina took early retirement from AT&T in 1998[274] at age 48 to travel with and support his wife in her career.[278]

Frank Fiorina had two daughters, Traci and Lori Ann, from his first marriage. Their mother, Patricia, was awarded custody of both children following the divorce.[279] Fiorina helped her husband with raising his daughters. Lori Ann struggled with alcoholism, prescription drug addiction and bulimia. She died in 2009 at age 35.[280][281]

In February 2009, Fiorina was diagnosed with stage II breast cancer. She underwent a double mastectomy[282][283] at Stanford Hospital in March 2009, followed by chemotherapy, which caused her to temporarily lose her hair, and later radiation therapy.[284] She was given "an excellent prognosis for a full recovery."[285][286] In late 2009, during her campaign for the United States Senate seat held by Barbara Boxer, Fiorina humorously told a group of supporters: "I have to say that after chemotherapy, Barbara Boxer just isn't that scary anymore."[287]

According to the financial disclosures filed by Fiorina's campaign in June 2015, she and her husband have a combined net worth of $59 million.[288] Fiorina has released the income tax returns that she and her husband jointly filed in 2013 and 2012; in those years, the Fiorinas reported income of almost $2 million and $1.3 million, respectively.[288]

Fiorina and her husband live in a home in the Washington, D.C. suburb of Mason Neck, Virginia, overlooking the Potomac River.[289][290] The house and grounds were valued at $6.6 million in 2015.[288] At the time of the 2010 Senate election, Fiorina and her husband lived in Los Altos Hills, California, a San Francisco Bay area suburb.[291][292] Between 2005 and 2012, Fiorina and her husband also owned a condominium in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, where they lived for roughly half the year; they sold the condo for $5.3 million.[291][293][294][295]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flores, Reena (June 4, 2015). "How much are Carly Fiorina and Ben Carson worth?". CBS News. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  2. ^ Sellers, Patricia (March 23, 2009). "Behind Fortune's Most Powerful Women". Fortune. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  3. ^ Grocer, Stephen (2007-08-16). "The H-P/Compaq Union, From Controversy to Success". WSJ Blogs – Deal Journal. Retrieved 2015-10-08. 
  4. ^ Bagley, Constance. Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century, p. 599 (Cengage Learning 2015).
  5. ^ "Carly Fiorina: Secretary to CEO". Carly Fiorina: Secretary to CEO. Retrieved 2016-01-06. 
  6. ^ CARLY for America (2015-11-03), HP CEO Meg Whitman: "The Compaq acquisition was the right thing.", retrieved 2016-05-17 
  7. ^ "Citizen Carly | The remarkable story of Carly Fiorina.". www.citizencarly.com. Retrieved 2016-05-17. 
  8. ^ CARLY for America (2015-10-28), Tom Perkins on the HP Board, retrieved 2016-05-17 
  9. ^ "U.S. Senate California". ABC News. Retrieved August 30, 2015. 
  10. ^ McKinley, Jesse (November 3, 2010). "In California, Boxer Wins Senate Race, and Brown Is Leading for Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  11. ^ "Carly Fiorina endorses Ted Cruz". POLITICO. Retrieved 2016-05-17. 
  12. ^ "Exclusive: Carly Fiorina speaks out on joining Cruz ticket". Fox News. 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  13. ^ Fiorina, Carly (2006). Tough Choices: a memoir. Portfolio. p. 1. ISBN 1-59184-133-X. 
  14. ^ Ward, Vicky (June 2002). "The Battle for Hewlett-Packard". Vanity Fair. 
  15. ^ "Court of Appeals Mourns Loss of Senior Circuit Judge Joseph T. Sneed" (PDF). United States Courts for the 9th Circuit. February 13, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  16. ^ Connie Skipitares (February 16, 2008). "Joseph Sneed, judge, father of Carly Fiorina". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  17. ^ Egelko, Bob (February 14, 2008). "Joseph Sneed dies – longtime 9th Circuit judge". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  18. ^ "History of the Federal Judiciary". fjc.gov. 
  19. ^ "Carly Fiorina Fast Facts". CNN. August 20, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 
  20. ^ a b c Bruni, Frank (June 2, 2010). "Carly Fiorina Means Business". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  21. ^ Follers (January 25, 2015). "Carly Fiorina". ethnicelebs.com. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  22. ^ Carly Fiorina, Marilinda J. Garcia, Ovide M. Lamontagne (2016-02-06). Presidential Candidate Carly Fiorina Town Hall Meeting in Goffstown, New Hampshire. C-SPAN. Retrieved 2016-02-06.  (audience member asks whether she'd been a Girl Scout after photography session)
  23. ^ "Carly Fiorina Biography Business Leader, U.S. Representative (1954–)". biography.com. 
  24. ^ Patricia Sellers (May 4, 2015). "How Carly Fiorina got famous". Fortune. Retrieved August 7, 2015. For a time she dreamed of being a classical pianist. 
  25. ^ Naylor, Brian (May 3, 2015). "5 Things You Should Know About Carly Fiorina". NPR. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  26. ^ Fiorina, Carly (June 19, 2004). "HP Carly Fiorina Speech: UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science Commencement Address". Hewlett Packard. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  27. ^ Horowitz, Jason (November 26, 2015). "For Carly Fiorina, Peripatetic Childhood Helped Build Worldview". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
  28. ^ Fiorina, Tough Choices, p. 21.
  29. ^ Merton, Robert C. "Notable Alumni | MIT Sloan MBA". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2015-05-08. 
  30. ^ a b c Sellers, Patricia; Daniels, Cora (October 12, 1998). "The 50 Most Powerful Women In American Business In an age of celebrity, it may surprise you that our No. 1 woman is someone you've never heard of.". Fortune. New York. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d Peter Burrows, Peter Elstrom (August 2, 1999). "HP's Carly Fiorina: The Boss". Bloomberg Businessweek. New York. Retrieved August 14, 2015. Fiorina managed the highly successful spin-off of Lucent in 1996. 
  32. ^ Henneberger, Melinda (April 30, 2015). "What Brought Carly Fiorina Down at HP Is Her Greatest 2016 Asset". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c "Carly Fiorina Biography Business Leader (1954–)". bio. Newark, New Jersey. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 
  34. ^ "Systems and technology company headquarters, top execs announced" (Press release). November 20, 1995. 
  35. ^ a b Lucent Technologies (October 15, 1996). "Fiorina to Head Consumer Products Business for Lucent Technologies". EETimes (Press release). Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  36. ^ "AT&T announces board members, SEC filing for new company" (Press release). February 5, 1996. 
  37. ^ "Lucent Technologies appoints chief operating officers, organizes business around fastest growth opportunities" (Press release). October 23, 1997. 
  38. ^ Burrows, Peter (2013). Backfire: Carly Fiorina's High-Stakes Battle for the Soul of Hewlett-Packard. Wiley. p. 103. ISBN 0471267651. 
  39. ^ "Philips And Lucent Complete PCC Joint Venture" (Press release). PR Newswire. October 1, 1997. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Carly Fiorina's troubling telecom past". Fortune. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  41. ^ Wharton School (October 18, 2006). "An Interview with Carly Fiorina". Knowledge@Wharton. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  42. ^ Boyle, Matthew (October 24, 2007). "Former Hewlett-Packard CEO Carly Fiorina speaks out". CNN. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  43. ^ Carroll, Jon (August 12, 2009). "The Fiorina Perplex – SFGate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  44. ^ Greenfield, Karl Taro (August 2, 1999). "What glass ceiling? Carly Fiorina takes over Hewlett-Packard, becoming the first woman CEO of a Dow 30 firm". Time: 72. 
  45. ^ a b c Sonnenfeld, Jeffrey. "Carly Fiorina as a boss: The disappointing truth". Fortune. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Johnson, Craig (November 2008). "The rise and fall of Carly Fiorina: an ethical case study". Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. SAGE Publications. 15 (2): 188–196. doi:10.1177/1548051808320983. 
  47. ^ DiCarlo, Lisa (May 4, 2000). "Agilent Ready To Leave Hewlett-Packard's Nest". Forbes. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  48. ^ Trainor, Tim (November 14, 2000). "Hewlett-Packard to Pricewaterhouse: "Never Mind"". CoStar. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  49. ^ Steffy, Loren (May 14, 2008). "With merger, HP adopts Fiorina's strategy". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  50. ^ Haff, Gordon (May 13, 2008). "HP, EDS, and the ghost of Carly". CNET. Retrieved October 11, 2015. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Leadership Challenges at Hewlett-Packard: Through the looking Glass" (PDF). Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Topics | ZDNet". Zdnetasia.com. August 20, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  53. ^ Clark, Andrew (October 20, 2006). "Hewlett-Packard overtakes Dell as top PC maker | Business". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  54. ^ Norr, Henry (October 18, 2002). "HP loses No. 1 spot in sales to Dell / Rivals' worldwide figures competitively close amid signs of stronger market". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  55. ^ a b c Ed Eduljee. "HP Hewlett Packard's Corporate Governance Woes Part 1". heritageinstitute.com. 
  56. ^ Tam, Pui-Wing (February 11, 2002). "Walter Hewlett's H-P Plan Excludes Carly Fiorina, Emphasizes Printers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  57. ^ Kawamoto, Dawn (March 13, 2002). "Walter Hewlett speaks out". CNET. 
  58. ^ PHILIP (PHIL) M. CONDIT, Former Chair and Chief Executive Officer, The Boeing Company, Boeing, October 10, 20014.
  59. ^ Pimentel, Benjamin (September 6, 2006). "HP pushing out veteran member of board". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 25, 2006. 
  60. ^ Vries, Lloyd (February 10, 2005). "The Rise & Fall Of Carly Fiorina". CBS News. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  61. ^ a b Ben Rosen (April 9, 2008). "The Merger That Worked: Compaq and Hewlett-Packard". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
  62. ^ Loomis, Carol (February 7, 2005). "Why Carly's big bet is failing (Fortune Classics, 2005)". Fortune. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  63. ^ Alice LaPlante (June 1, 2007). "Compaq and HP: Ultimately, the Urge to Merge Was Right". Stanford Business School – Insights by Stanford Business. Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
  64. ^ Pete Carey (November 20, 2012). "HP's acquisition misstep far from the first". San Jose Mercury News. 
  65. ^ Michael J. De la Merced (August 18, 2011). "Hewlett-Packard's Rocky Deal History". The New York Times. 
  66. ^ a b c d "Fiorina's HP Earned Millions From Sales in Iran". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  67. ^ "Carly Fiorina & H.P. Thwarted U.S. Sanctions, Sold $120 Million In Product To Iran". Headline and Global News. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  68. ^ "Report: HP sells printers in Iran with third party". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  69. ^ Stockman, Farah (December 29, 2008). "HP uses third party to sell printers in Iran Calif. firm's sales soar in embargo". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  70. ^ "Fiorina faces questions over HP sales in Iran". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  71. ^ a b c d Michael Isikoff, Carly Fiorina defends Bush-era torture and spying, calls for more transparency, Yahoo News (September 28, 2015).
  72. ^ "The rise and fall of the HP Way (April 10, 2002)". paloaltoonline.com. 
  73. ^ "Fiorina, Hurd: no practitioners of The HP Way?". Reuters. August 9, 2010. 
  74. ^ Elsbach, Kimberly; Stigliani, Ileana; Stroud, Amy (July–September 2012). "The building of employee distrust: a case study of Hewlett-Packard from 1995 to 2010". Organizational Dynamics. Elsevier. 41 (3): 254–263. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2012.03.003. 
  75. ^ Rosenberg, Yuval (May 5, 2015). "Carly Fiorina's Real Record at HP: Is She Presidential Material?". The Fiscal Times. Archived from the original on August 22, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2015. 
  76. ^ Steven Levy, The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness (Simon & Schuster: 2006), pp. 98–99.
  77. ^ a b "How Steve Jobs Fleeced Carly Fiorina — Backchannel". Medium. Retrieved 2015-10-08. 
  78. ^ Charles Arthur, Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet (2d ed.: Kogan Page, 2014), p. 122.
  79. ^ Steven Levy, The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness (Simon & Schuster: 2006), p. 100.
  80. ^ David Goldman, Carly Fiorina has a long history of talking about Steve Jobs, CNN Money (September 17, 2015).
  81. ^ Mark Morgan, Raymond E. Levitt & William A. Malek Executing Your Strategy: How to Break it Down and Get it Done (Harvard Business School Press, 2007), p. 107.
  82. ^ Alex Pham & Joseph Menn, Hewlett-Packard Unplugs Its IPod Deal: The company says it will no longer sell Apple's music player. Is a new CEO behind the shift?, Los Angeles Times (July 30, 2005).
  83. ^ Benjamin Snyder, How Steve Jobs totally tricked Carly Fiorina: The story of the ill-fated iPod+HP, Fortune (October 1, 2015).
  84. ^ "HP to cut 6,000 jobs as revenues fall short". 3000 News Wire. August 2001. Retrieved September 25, 2015. 
  85. ^ Swartz, Jon (December 4, 2001). "Many H-P employees oppose deal with Compaq". USA Today. Retrieved September 25, 2015. 
  86. ^ a b c "Many H-P employees oppose deal with Compaq". USA Today. December 4, 2001. Retrieved August 15, 2015. While Fiorina travels aboard a US$30 million Gulfstream IV, employees joke they can't order books and supplies. 
  87. ^ "HP at Cultural Crossroads". IBS Center for Management Research. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
  88. ^ Richtel, Matt. "Can Hewlett-Compaq Succeed Beyond PC's?", The New York Times (September 5, 2001): "The new company would have 135,000 employees, a figure that includes 15,000 job cuts, in addition to 11,000 previously announced cutbacks (5,000 at Compaq and 6,000 at Hewlett-Packard) that have yet to take place."
  89. ^ Williams, Molly (September 5, 2001). "H-P's Fiorina Takes On Hefty Job In Turning Around Merged Giant". The Wall Street Journal. 
  90. ^ a b c d Farley, Robert. "Ad from Sen. Barbara Boxer attacks Carly Fiorina for layoffs at HP", Politifact (September 17, 2010): "According to SEC filings, HP had 84,400 employees worldwide in 2001, the year before the merger. In 2001, Compaq had 63,700 full-time employees. That comes to a total of 148,100 workers. In 2005, just after her departure, HP's worldwide workforce reached 150,000. Net gain? In the Los Angeles Times story, reporter Robin Abcarian said that statement is dubious, because 'in that same period, HP bought more than a dozen other U.S. companies with at least 8,000 employees, according to company filings, press releases and news reports.'….It's clear that Fiorina laid off 30,000 workers as a result of the merger with Compaq, as she said in the interview with InformationWeek. And it's clear that by October 2005 the merged company employed more workers than the two separate companies had pre-merger (Fiorina had been forced out seven months earlier in February 2005). But some of those jobs may have resulted from acquisitions, and some may have been abroad."
  91. ^ Rushe, Dominic (March 29, 2015). "Ex-HP chief Carly Fiorina sets sights on Clinton as she nears presidential run". The Guardian. 
  92. ^ Abcarian, Robin. "Profits may not equal success", Los Angeles Times (May 20, 2010): "According to HP's government filings, the company had 84,400 employees worldwide in 2001, the year before the merger. In 2001, Compaq had 63,700 full-time employees. Together the two companies would have a total workforce of 148,100. But in that same period, HP bought more than a dozen other U.S. companies with at least 8,000 employees, according to company filings, press releases and news reports. And in 2005, when Fiorina was fired, the company reported a worldwide workforce of 150,000."
  93. ^ a b Kessler, Glenn. "Carly Fiorina's misleading claims about her business record", The Washington Post (May 8, 2015): "[T]he number of [HP] employees was 84,800 in 1999 and 151,000 in 2004, according to the 10-K reports. On paper, that certainly looks like an increase in jobs. But before the merger with Compaq, HP had 86,200 employees and Compaq had 63,700 employees. That adds up to 149,900. HP’s filings show that the combined company had 141,000 employees in 2002 and 142,000 employees in 2003. By 2005, the number was 150,000. In other words, the number of employees barely budged from the pre-merger total–and people lost jobs as a result. The Los Angeles Times, evaluating Fiorina’s record when she ran for the Senate in 2010, noted that during her tenure HP also acquired more than a dozen other companies with at least 8,000 employees. Indeed, Fiorina has acknowledged firing more than 30,000 workers in the wake of the Compaq merger."
  94. ^ Goldman, David. "Behind Carly Fiorina's 30,000 HP layoffs", CNN (September 21, 2015): "She has also noted – correctly — that despite bruising layoffs, she hired more people than she fired. HP and Compaq had a combined 148,100 employees just before she was hired in 1999, and 150,000 by the time she was fired in 2005."
  95. ^ "Hewlett-Packard and Compaq agree to merge, creating $87 billion global technology leader". Hewlett-Packard. September 3, 2001. Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  96. ^ a b c d President Fiorina? How Carly did at HP, USA Today (May 4, 2015).
  97. ^ Carly Fiorina's misleading claims about her business record, The Washington Post (May 8, 2015).
  98. ^ Sellers, Patricia (September 18, 2015). "Why Carly Fiorina will likely be the Republican VP nominee". Fortune. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  99. ^ Gandel, Stephen (September 17, 2015). "Fact check: Carly Fiorina didn't have a great run as CEO of Hewlett-Packard". Fortune. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  100. ^ a b Analysts: Carly Fiorina long on vision, fell short on execution at HP, San Jose Mercury News (April 20, 2010).
  101. ^ a b Tam, Pui-Wing (February 10, 2005). "H-P's Board Ousts Fiorina as CEO". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 9, 2015. Ms. Fiorina's ouster reflects increasingly clear strategic problems at H-P. The company faces fierce competition from Dell Inc. in personal computers, and International Business Machines Corp. in computer services and corporate computing. 
  102. ^ a b Burrows, Peter; Elgin, Ben (March 14, 2005). "The Surprise Player Behind The Coup At HP". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  103. ^ Tam, Pui-Wing (January 24, 2005). "Hewlett-Packard Board Considers A Reorganization; Management Moves Stem From Performance Concerns; Helping Fiorina Succeed'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  104. ^ Irwin, Tim (October 23, 2012). "Derailed: Five Lessons Learned from Catastrophic Failures of Leadership". 
  105. ^ Hewlett-Packard (February 9, 2005). "HP Chair and CEO Carly Fiorina Steps Down" (Press release). Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  106. ^ La Monica, Paul R. (February 10, 2005). "Fiorina out, HP stock soars". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  107. ^ Reeves, Scott (October 31, 2004). "Fiorina Is Out At HP". Forbes. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  108. ^ a b Fiorina, Tough Choices, Chapter 30.
  109. ^ Paul, Franklin (2008-05-13). "HP to buy EDS for $12.6 bln in challenge to IBM". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-11-20. 
  110. ^ a b Steffy, Loren. With merger, HP adopts Fiorina's strategy 8 years later, San Francisco Chronicle (May 14, 2008) (opinion).
  111. ^ Suddath, Claire (October 8, 2008). "Carly Sneed Fiorina: Biggest Golden Parachutes". Time. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  112. ^ Task, Aaron (September 30, 2011). "Another Corporate Outrage: 'Golden Parachutes' for Failed CEOs". Yahoo!. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  113. ^ TAM, PUI-WING (February 10, 2005). "H-P's Board Ousts Fiorina as CEO". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 26, 2015. 
  114. ^ Sellers, Patricia (October 12, 1998). "The 50 Most Powerful Women in American Business". Fortune. Retrieved July 15, 2008. 
  115. ^ "HP's Fiorina leads Fortune's most powerful women's list – Sep. 29, 2003". CNN. September 29, 2003. 
  116. ^ Scardino, Marjorie (April 26, 2004). "The 2004 Time 100: Our list of the most influential people in the world today". Time. Time Inc. p. Builders & Titans, Carly Fiorina. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  117. ^ MacDonald, Elizabeth; Schoenberger, Chana R. (August 20, 2004). "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
  118. ^ Anders, George (February 10, 2005). "How CEO's Traits Helped, Hurt". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  119. ^ HP After Carly: What Went Wrong?, "Knowledge@Wharton", Wharton School (March 30, 2005).
  120. ^ Tobak, Steve (April 27, 2012). "America's worst CEOs: Where are they now?". CBS News. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  121. ^ Maney, Kevin (February 16, 2005). "Can Fiorina trump competition for 'worst tech CEO' title?". USA Today. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  122. ^ "Portfolio's Worst American CEOs of All Time". CNBC. April 30, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2015. Rankings By: Portfolio.com 
  123. ^ McAllister, Neil (January 21, 2008). "Tech's all-time top 25 flops". InfoWorld.com. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  124. ^ Abcarian, Robin (May 12, 2015). "Carly Fiorina's imaginary race against Hillary Clinton". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 23, 2015. 
  125. ^ Farley, Robert (September 17, 2010). "Fact-checking Sen. Barbara Boxer's attack ad on Carly Fiorina's record at HP". PolitiFact. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  126. ^ a b Harwell, Drew; Paquette, Danielle (September 26, 2015). "Fiorina's record at HP defines her candidacy — which could be a problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  127. ^ Abcarian, Robin (September 24, 2015). "At Hewlett-Packard, Carly Fiorina snuffed out a beloved tech culture". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  128. ^ Zapler, Mike. "Analysts: Carly Fiorina long on vision, fell short on execution at HP", San Jose Mercury News (April 20, 2010).
  129. ^ Barrett, Craig. "History straightens out facts; Carly Fiorina positioned HP for success", San Jose Mercury News (April 4, 2010) (opinion).
  130. ^ Brilliant, or Blunder? A Rashomon Roundtable on Carly Fiorina's Compaq Acquisition, Bloomberg News (May 4, 2015).
  131. ^ Zarroli, Jim (October 15, 2006). "'Tough Choices,' the Rise and Fall of Carly Fiorina". NPR Books. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  132. ^ Burrows, Peter (2003). Backfire: Carly Fiorina's high-stakes battle for the soul of Hewlett-Packard. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471267651. 
  133. ^ Anders, George (2003). Perfect Enough: Carly Fiorina and the Reinvention of Hewlett-Packard. New York, NY: Portfolio. ISBN 1591840031. 
  134. ^ Preston, Holly Hubbard (May 17, 2003). "Book Report : Perfect Enough". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  135. ^ Learmonth, Michael (October 10, 2007). "Fox cabler signs Fiorina". Daily Variety. p. 4. 
  136. ^ "Fiorina joins Case's company". CNN. September 9, 2005. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  137. ^ "Carly Fiorina Joins Cybertrust Board of Directors" (Press release). PR Newswire. October 27, 2005. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  138. ^ Nystedt, Dan (April 6, 2006). "Carly Fiorina joins board of chip maker TSMC". Network World. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  139. ^ "TSMC Annual Report 2009 Corporate Governance" (PDF document). tsmc.com. 2009. pp. 24–31. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  140. ^ "TSMC Annual Report 2009" (PDF document). tsmc.com. 2009. p. 29. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  141. ^ "TSMC Annual Report 2008" (PDF document). tsmc.com. 2009. p. 28. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  142. ^ "FutureBoston – National panelists". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  143. ^ "Former Corporation Members". MIT Corporation. 
  144. ^ Lu, Alicia (May 5, 2015). "What Was Carly Fiorina's Job After Leaving Hewlett-Packard? A Look At Her Journey From HP To The 2016 Presidential Race". Bustle. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  145. ^ World Economic Forum (June 30, 2005). "Annual Report" (PDF). weforum. Retrieved May 10, 2015. The Foundation Board [not to be confused with the Managing Board] is responsible for inspiring business and public confidence by ensuring a flawless standard of governance. Board members are individuals with unique leadership experience from business, politics, academia and civil society. 
  146. ^ "TSMC Says Carly Fiorina Agrees to Join Board of Directors as Independent Member" (Press release). TSMC. April 6, 2006. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  147. ^ "Gov. McDonnell Makes Appointments to JMU Board of Visitors" (Press release). James Madison University. July 9, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  148. ^ Brust, Amelia (May 5, 2015). "Fiorina Resigns From JMU Board Of Visitors" (Archive Search Results). Harrisonburg (Virginia, USA): nl.newsbank.com. Daily News-Record (Harrisonburg, VA). Retrieved May 8, 2015. Before announcing her bid Monday for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, Carly Fiorina resigned from James Madison University's board of visitors. A replacement will likely be chosen next month, according to Brian Coy, a spokesman for Gov. Terry McAuliffe. Coy confirmed that Fiorina notified the governor's office of her resignation as vice rector in a March 27 letter saying, "her current activities preclude her ability to give this board the time and... 
  149. ^ Ehley, Brianna (May 4, 2015). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Carly Fiorina". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 
  150. ^ a b c d e Williams, Lance (July 10, 2009). "Fiorina failed to register business, foundation". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  151. ^ Clabaugh, Jeff (April 18, 2012). "Carly Fiorina joins Good360". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved October 12, 2012. 
  152. ^ Heim, Joe (October 28, 2014). "Just Asking: Carly Fiorina of Good360". Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  153. ^ Hackman, Tom (January 14, 2014). "Alexandria non-profit Good360 wins national award, will do more good". The Washington Post. 
  154. ^ "The 50 Largest U.S. Charities". Forbes. December 2014. 
  155. ^ Mathai, Raj (September 13, 2013). "The Interview: Carly Fiorina". NBC. 
  156. ^ Dolan, Kerry (October 8, 2014). "Carly Fiorina's Latest Quest: Rallying Corporate America To Help Fight Ebola". Forbes. 
  157. ^ Cheney, Kyle. "Is Carly the real deal?". Politico. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  158. ^ "One Woman Initiative Fund for Women's Empowerment". state.gov. 
  159. ^ Casserly, Meghan (February 14, 2013). "Carly Fiorina's New Gig: Changing The World One Microloan (And Woman) At A Time". Forbes. Retrieved May 14, 2015. 
  160. ^ a b United States Department of State (DoS) (May 12, 2008). "The One Woman Initiative — A Women's Empowerment Fund For Justice, Opportunity, Leadership" (PDF document). U.S. Department of State (state.gov/documents). Retrieved May 14, 2015. Documents 2001–2009, organizations. 
  161. ^ Gina Jackson (June 3, 2009). "'One Woman Initiative' Announces First Grants to Women's Organizations in Five Nations" (Press release, reference no. 202-712-4320) (Press release). United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Retrieved May 14, 2015. Year-Old USAID/State Department/Private Sector Initiative Unveils Initial Aid to Local Groups; Chair Carly Fiorina, USAID's Lisa Chiles, and CAFAmerica's Saxon-Harrold Report on Progress 
  162. ^ a b Opportunity International (February 14, 2013). "Opportunity International Joins Forces with Carly Fiorina's One Woman Initiative; Fiorina to Serve as Global Ambassador to Opportunity" (Press Release). Oak Brook, IL: Opportunity.org. Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  163. ^ Opportunity International (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Steps Down as Global Board Chair of Opportunity International; US Board Chair Mark Thompson to Assume New Role Effective Immediately" (Press Release). (opportunity.org). Oak Brook, IL: Opportunity International, a 501(c)3 nonprofit. Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  164. ^ a b Jackson, David (May 4, 2015). "Fiorina jumps into GOP presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved August 26, 2015. 
  165. ^ Rucker, Philip (November 25, 2014). "Carly Fiorina actively explores 2016 presidential run but faces GOP critics". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2015. But Fiorina, 60, has considerable challenges, chiefly that she has sought but never held public office. 
  166. ^ "Carly Fiorina will run for president as a successful tech CEO. Silicon Valley says that's a fantasy". The Guardian. Fiorina, 60, has never held public office. 
  167. ^ Pengelly, Martin (May 31, 2015). "Carly Fiorina highlights outsider role: most in US 'have never heard my name". The Guardian. 
  168. ^ Jacoby, Mary (April 22, 2008). "Carly Fiorina Gets a Plug for VP Job". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  169. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (Jan 23, 2008). "McCain Outlines Economic Plans". The Trail. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  170. ^ Zernike, Kate (May 18, 2008). "She Just Might Be President Someday". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  171. ^ a b Carpenter, Amanda (March 7, 2008). "RNC Merges with McCain". Townhall.com. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  172. ^ Corn, David (June 13, 2008). "Why Is Carly Fiorina – a Symbol of Corporate Excesses – McCain's Favorite CEO?". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  173. ^ Parker, Jennifer (September 17, 2008). "McCain Economic Adviser Carly Fiorina's Golden Parachute". ABC News. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  174. ^ Weiner, Rachel (October 23, 2008). "McCain Defends Fiorina's Golden Parachute". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  175. ^ Fiorina, Carly (2008). "Remarks As Prepared for Delivery: Carly Fiorina". Republican National Committee. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  176. ^ Ostrom, Mary Anne (September 3, 2008). "Former valley tech leaders Fiorina, Whitman tout McCain, his economic plan". Mercury News. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  177. ^ Mooney, Alexander (September 15, 2008). "Fiorina calls SNL impersonation of Palin 'sexist'". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  178. ^ "CBS NEWS' FACE THE NATION (transcript)" (PDF). CBS News. August 31, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  179. ^ Marinucci, Carla (September 17, 2008). "Fiorina: Candidates not CEO Material". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  180. ^ a b King, John (September 16, 2008). "Fiorina's comment called 'Biden-like'". CNN. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  181. ^ Swaine, John (September 18, 2008). "John McCain's economic adviser Carly Fiorina hidden away after gaffes". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  182. ^ Christopher, Tommy (September 16, 2008). "Will Carly Fiorina 'Disappear' Like Gramm?". AOL News. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  183. ^ Orr, Jimmy (September 16, 2008). "Is Fiorina finished? Two big mistakes get Carly in trouble". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  184. ^ "McCain camp disappears Fiona". Countdown with Keith Olbermann. September 17, 2008. 
  185. ^ "Why Carly Fiorina Is So Important to John McCain". Newsweek. New York City. May 13, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2015. I'm talking about Carly Fiorina, the former chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard, being sent out to reassure business-class voters on behalf of John McCain. Fiorina has emerged as the most prominent surrogate on economics issues in any of the major campaigns, and her alliance with McCain suggests both his strength and his weakness on the subject. 
  186. ^ Rothenberg, Stuart (June 30, 2008). "Is Carly Fiorina the Answer to McCain's Prayers for a VP?". RealClearPolitics. Chicago. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  187. ^ a b Williamson, Elizabeth (May 4, 2015). "Fiorina's Time at H-P Gets a Close Look After launching bid for president, ex-CEO defends 'tough choices' at computing giant". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
  188. ^ a b c Geraghty, Jim (May 5, 2015). "The CEO and the CIA". National Review. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
  189. ^ a b c d e Kucinich, Jackie (February 25, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Is Getting a CPAC Upgrade". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
  190. ^ Linkins, Jason (September 22, 2009). "Carly Fiorina Launches 'Worst Political Website Ever'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  191. ^ Sharp, Joshua (February 21, 2009). "Carly Fiorina "Considering" Bid to Oust Barbara Boxer in 2010". Politics Daily. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  192. ^ Ebright, Olsen (September 25, 2009). "The Splash Page Mocked Across the Internet: Carly Fiorina's website gets its online comeuppance". NBC San Diego. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
  193. ^ Rubin, Richard (February 15, 2005). "Marin Voice: Boxer appears ready for 2010 re-election battle". Marin Independent Journal. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
  194. ^ "Palin backs Fiorina in California". POLITICO. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  195. ^ Barr, Andy (May 6, 2010). "Facebook turns on Sarah Palin". Politico. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  196. ^ Travis, Shannon (May 11, 2010). "Conservative gives the candidate he backs in California an ultimatum". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  197. ^ Garofoli, Joe (February 5, 2010). "'Demon sheep' ad may be bad move, experts say". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  198. ^ snu (April 28, 2010). "Wackelnder demokratischer Senatssitz" [Uncertain democratic senate seat]. Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). Zurich. p. 9. Sie dürfte sich indes mit ihren filmtechnisch stümperhaften, inhaltlich dümmlichen Werbespots gegen ihren innerparteilichen Widersacher Tom Campbell komprimittiert haben. Darin zeichnet Fiorina den allgemein als kompetent und freundlich geltenden Abgeordneten als gefährlichen Wolf im Schafspelz. 
  199. ^ Feldmann, Linda (May 7, 2010). "Demon Sheep: the sequel, starring Carly Fiorina". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  200. ^ Shih, Gerry (June 8, 2010). "Fiorina Eyes Boxer After Primary Win". The Bay Citizen. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  201. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (November 5, 2009). "Carly Fiorina's Senate campaign an uninspiring product launch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  202. ^ Lin, Judy (November 5, 2009). "Fiorina: 'Shame on me' for not voting more". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  203. ^ Strasser, Max (October 7, 2010). "What Is Carly Fiorina's Position on Abortion?". Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  204. ^ Mehta, Seema (January 15, 2010). "Tom Campbell leaves California governor's race, enters Senate contest". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  205. ^ Bolcer, Julie (August 5, 2010). "Fiorina Opposed to Prop 8 Ruling". The Advocate. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  206. ^ Zapler, Mike (September 29, 2010). "Fiorina, Boxer clash in radio debate". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  207. ^ Zapler, Mark (November 18, 2009). "Fiorina faces the D.C. press corps, but offers few specifics". San Jose Mercury-News. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  208. ^ Koch, Wendy (June 6, 2010). "Carly Fiorina calls climate change the "weather"". USA Today. Retrieved June 7, 2010. 
  209. ^ Williams, Lance (July 27, 2010). "Fiorina backed by coal-mining firms". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  210. ^ Rutten, Tim (September 25, 2010). "Fiorina's Billionaire Backers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  211. ^ Stein, Sam (March 13, 2010). "Demon Sheep Ad Man Strikes Again, Morphs Boxer Into a Blimp (VIDEO)". The Huffington Post. 
  212. ^ Marinucci, Carla; Garofoli, Joe (March 14, 2010). "Lots of tough talk at state GOP convention". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 17, 2010. 
  213. ^ "Fiorina hospitalized for infection related to breast cancer surgery". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  214. ^ "Carly Fiorina's Daughter Passes Away, Age 35". TPM. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  215. ^ Rucker, Philip (November 25, 2014). "Carly Fiorina actively explores 2016 presidential run but faces GOP critics". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  216. ^ "Fiorina adds US$1 million for final push in Senate race". CBS News. October 22, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  217. ^ Wood, Daniel B. (October 8, 2010). "'Toxic' touch? Why Carly Fiorina and Meg Whitman shy from Sarah Palin.". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  218. ^ Reston, Maeve (November 4, 2010). "Barbara Boxer overcame several hurdles to defeat Carly Fiorina in Senate race". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  219. ^ Fiorina, Carly. "Unlocking Potential Project". Up Project. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  220. ^ Sadler, Frank; Fiorina, Carly. "Unlocking Potential Project". UP-Project.org. p. Our Mission. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  221. ^ Rucker, Philip; Gold, Matea (November 25, 2014). "Carly Fiorina actively explores 2016 presidential run but faces GOP critics". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  222. ^ Jager, Elliot (November 26, 2014). "Carly Fiorina May Test Her Luck as GOP 2016 Hopeful". Newsmax.com. Newsmax Media, Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  223. ^ "Carly Fiorina Chair, Unlocking Potential Project". Unlocking Potential Project. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  224. ^ a b Rigas, Laura (September 23, 2013). "ACU Announces Carly Fiorina as New Chair of Foundation". American Conservative Union (ACU) (conservative.org). Washington, DC: American Conservative Union (ACU). Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  225. ^ Berenson, Tessa (February 26, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Slams Hillary Clinton at CPAC". Time magazine (time.com). Time Inc. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
  226. ^ Chozick, Amy (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Announces 2016 Presidential Bid, Citing Years Leading Hewlett-Packard" (Text and video). The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
  227. ^ Andrew J. Tobias, Here are 6 Cleveland venues that are hosting watch parties for the GOP debate on Thursday, Cleveland Plain Dealer (August 4, 2015).
  228. ^ Marinucci, Carla (September 24, 2014). "Carly Fiorina won't rule out run for White House". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 26, 2014. 
  229. ^ Catanese, David (July 28, 2014). "A Female Republican for President in 2016?". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  230. ^ "Carly Fiorina Running For President?". AOL. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  231. ^ Quigley, Bernie (March 14, 2014). "Carly Fiorina: A "True West" conservative at CPAC 2014". The Hill. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  232. ^ Cupp, S.E. (June 30, 2014). "Carly Fiorina slams Dems' 'War on Women' campaign". CNN. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  233. ^ Rucker, Philip; Gold, Matea (November 25, 2014). "Carly Fiorina actively explores 2016 presidential run but faces GOP critics". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 26, 2014. 
  234. ^ Knowles, David (March 29, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Says Chances of Running Are 'Higher Than 90 Percent'". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  235. ^ Gass, Nick (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina: 'Yes, I am running for President'". Politico. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  236. ^ Glueck, Katie (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina steps into White House race, swinging at Hillary Clinton". Politico. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  237. ^ Lee, MJ (May 5, 2015). "Carly Fiorina's HP record clouds her campaign launch". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  238. ^ Beres, Damon (May 4, 2015). "Presidential Candidate Carly Fiorina Didn't Register carlyfiorina.org, And It's Coming Back To Haunt Her". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  239. ^ Dunham, Will; Hay, Andrew (May 5, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Defends Tenure At Hewlett-Packard After Criticism Over Layoffs". Reuters. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  240. ^ "Republicans Face Off In First GOP Debate Of 2016 Election". The Huffington Post. August 6, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  241. ^ "Carly Fiorina shines in first GOP debate". CNN. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  242. ^ Cillizza, Chris (August 6, 2015). "Carly Fiorina won the 'Happy Hour' debate. By a lot.". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  243. ^ Capehart, Jonathan (August 7, 2015). "Marco Rubio and Carly Fiorina win the Republican debate". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  244. ^ Johnson, Jenna; Williams, Vanessa (August 6, 2015). "Carly Fiorina looks to break out after a shining performance in the undercard debate". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  245. ^ "Good debate: Is Carly ready for more spotlight?". CNBC. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  246. ^ "How Carly Fiorina plans to capitalize on the presidential debate buzz; Sen. Rand Paul fires back at Donald Trump's jabs". Fox News Channel. August 9, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
  247. ^ "Donald Trump Still in the Lead After Debates: New NBC News/Survey Monkey Poll". Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
  248. ^ Fund, John (April 19, 2015). "Fiorina Has Hillary Defenders Worried". National Review. nationalreview.com. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  249. ^ Goldberg, Michelle (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Is Running to Be 2016's Sarah Palin". The Nation. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  250. ^ Deace, Steve (March 5, 2015). "2016 Scouting Report: Carly Fiorina". Conservative Review (conservativereview.com ). CRTV LLC. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  251. ^ "HP head Meg Whitman: Carly Fiorina needs more than CEO experience". CNN. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  252. ^ "HP CEO Says That Carly Fiorina Is Not Qualified To Be President". The Huffington Post. November 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-02. 
  253. ^ "Carly Fiorina reveals personal net worth of US$59 million". Politico. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
  254. ^ Ballhaus, Rebecca (June 3, 2015). "Carly Fiorina and Her Husband Have $59 Million Net Worth". The Wall Street Journal. New York. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Republican presidential candidate Carly Fiorina and her husband have a net worth of $59 million, her campaign said late Wednesday, making her one of the wealthiest candidates in the race so far. 
  255. ^ "Carly Fiorina Leadership: Former Hewlett-Packard CEO's Net Worth, Why She Was Fired As First Female Executive Of Fortune 500 Company". International Business Times. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  256. ^ "Poll: Carly Fiorina Wins CNN Debate, Leads Donald Trump in NH". Breitbart. 2015-09-19. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  257. ^ "Poll: Fiorina rockets to No. 2 behind Trump in GOP field". CNN. September 21, 2015. 
  258. ^ "Poll: Fiorina rockets to No. 2 behind Trump in GOP field". September 21, 2015 – via CNN. 
  259. ^ "Carly Fiorina's Numbers Plunge in Latest CNN Poll". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2015. The numbers were bad news for Mrs. Fiorina, the former chief executive of Hewlett-Packard, who stood up to Mr. Trump during the last Republican debate and won accolades for her crisp, forceful performance. However, her bounce in the polls appears to have been ephemeral, and her support has dropped to just 4 percent, from 15 percent in September, the poll showed. 
  260. ^ "GOP poll: Trump ahead, Carson down, Rubio and Cruz gaining". USA Today. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  261. ^ "Bump For Trump As Carson Fades In Republican Race, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Clinton, Sanders Surge In Matchups With GOP Leaders". Quinnipiac University. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  262. ^ Washington Free Beacon (2015-10-05), MSNBC: Fiorina beating Clinton by 14 points in Iowa, retrieved 2016-05-18 
  263. ^ "Montly Electoral Map". Montly Electoral Map. August 2015. 
  264. ^ "Carly Fiorina: Why Is the Only Woman Being Kept Out of GOP Debate?". www.mediaite.com. Retrieved 2016-05-18. 
  265. ^ Allen, Cooper (February 10, 2016). "Carly Fiorina suspends GOP presidential bid". USA Today. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 
  266. ^ Manchester, Julia (March 9, 2016). "Carly Fiorina Endorses Ted Cruz, 'horrified' by Donald Trump.". CNN. Cable News Network,. Retrieved March 12, 2016. 
  267. ^ Kopan, Tal. "Ted Cruz names Carly Fiorina as VP pick". CNN. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  268. ^ "Ted Cruz Drops Out Of The 2016 Presidential Race". The Huffington Post. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  269. ^ Phillips, Amber (May 3, 2016). "Carly Fiorina and the shortest vice presidential candidacy in modern history". Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  270. ^ GOP buzzing about Fiorina as RNC head (Politico)
  271. ^ Carly Fiorina eyes major political position (AOL)
  272. ^ Fiorina, Tough Choices, Ch. 6, Choices of the Heart.
  273. ^ Collins, Laura (July 14, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: White House hopeful Carly Fiorina's claims of motherhood and 'secretary to CEO' rise to the top come under fire as ex-husband ridicules her as 'calculating' and tragic stepdaughter's mom says: 'Lori was MY daughter'". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  274. ^ a b Raftery, Erin (June 19, 2015). "The better halves: Your guide to 2016 candidate spouses". USA Today. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  275. ^ Fiorina, Tough Choices, pp. 88, 93–96, Chapter 12: Confrontation and Understanding.
  276. ^ Lublin, Joann S.; Blumenstein, Rebecca (July 22, 1999). "In the Upscale Fiorina Family, She's the CEO and He's Home but She Enjoys the Simple Life". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 23, 2003. 
  277. ^ "Potential VP Bios: Republicans". CBS. June 16, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2009. 
  278. ^ Henneberger, Melinda (April 30, 2015). "What Brought Carly Fiorina Down at HP Is Her Greatest 2016 Asset". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  279. ^ Collins, Laura (July 14, 2015). "Carly Fiorina's claims of motherhood and amazing rise under fire". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  280. ^ Johnson, Jenna (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina: 'Drug addiction shouldn't be criminalized.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  281. ^ Berenson, Tessa (May 3, 2015). "Carly Fiorina Gets Personal in Her New Book". Time. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  282. ^ Geraghty, Jim (August 17, 2015). "The Less-Known Side of Carly Fiorina's Life". National Review. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  283. ^ "Carly Fiorina Is Hospitalized". The New York Times. October 26, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  284. ^ Marinucci, Carla; Garofoli, Joe (November 7, 2009). "Fiorina comes out swinging – at her cancer". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  285. ^ Marinucci, Carla (March 3, 2009). "Carly Fiorina has surgery for breast cancer". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  286. ^ Musil, Steven (March 2, 2009). "Carly Fiorina treated for breast cancer". CNET. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  287. ^ Zapler, Mike (November 4, 2009). "Fiorina takes fight to Boxer in Senate campaign kickoff". Mercury News. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  288. ^ a b c Rebecca Ballhaus, Carly Fiorina and Her Husband Have $59 Million Net Worth, The Wall Street Journal (June 3, 2015).
  289. ^ Jenna Johnson, Nine things to know about Carly Fiorina, The Washington Post (May 4, 2015).
  290. ^ Nancy Cook, Carly Fiorina's Audacious Sales Pitch, National Journal (February 13, 2015).
  291. ^ a b Robin Abcarian: Profits may not equal success Carly Fiorina's business experience is a mixed blessing in political realm, Los Angeles Times (May 20, 2010).
  292. ^ Scott Gold, Fiorina presents a sharp contrast in images, Los Angeles Times (October 22, 2015).
  293. ^ Mary Clare Glover, Luxury Homes: September 2005: Tech star Carly Fiorina buys $3.6-million condo, Washingtonian (September 1, 2005).
  294. ^ Nice Digs: Top Home Sales of 2012, Washingtonian (January 14, 2013).
  295. ^ Yuki Noguchi, Fiorina Uses Book Tour to Recast Her Image: Fiorina hasn't ruled out politics, The Washington Post (October 14, 2006).

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Business positions
Preceded by
Lew Platt
President of Hewlett-Packard
1999–2005
Succeeded by
Mark Hurd
Chief Executive Officer of Hewlett-Packard
1999–2005
Succeeded by
Robert Wayman
Preceded by
Richard Hackborn
Chair of Hewlett-Packard
2000–2005
Succeeded by
Pat Dunn
Party political offices
Preceded by
Bill Jones
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from California
(Class 3)

2010
Vacant