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Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Tombusviridae
Genus: Carmovirus
Type Species

Carmovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 19 species in this genus including the type species Carnation mottle virus.[1][2] It is classified under the Baltimore classification system as a group IV virus, having a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.[3]


Proposed at 1987 ICTV meeting as an unassigned genus and assigned to Tombusviridae in 1993,[4] the ICTV recognises 19 species, as of the 2013 release.[3][5]

At the 1987 meeting the following were proposed as members: Carnation mottle virus, Turnip crinkle virus, Galinsoga mosaic virus, Glycine mottle virus, Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), Pelargonium flower break virus, Saguaro cactus virus. Galinsoga mosaic virus and Glycine mottle virus are not currently members.

In addition the following were proposed as tentative members: Bean mild mosaic virus, Blackgram mottle virus, *Cowpea mottle virus, Elderberry latent virus, *Melon necrotic spot virus, Narcissus tip necrosis virus, Plantain 6 virus, Tephrosia symptomless virus. (Taxonomic proposal 30) Only those marked with an *asterisk have been accepted up to the 2013 release.


Group: ssRNA(+)



Viruses in Carmovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 28-34 nm, made up of 32 capsomers. Genomes are linear, around 4-5.4kb in length. Each subunit consists of 180 proteins. By weight, the viron is 80% protein and 20% nucleic acids.[1]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Carmovirus Icosahedral T=3 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription, using the premature termination model of subgenomic rna transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and suppression of termination. The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are mechanical, seed borne, and contact.[1]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Carmovirus Plants None Viral movement; mechanical inoculation Viral movement Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Mechanical: contact; seed


The virus’ natural host is species of Caryophyllaceae, responsible for carnation mottle, but it can infect a far larger range of plants. Symptoms are localised lesions where cell death has occurred. The virus spreads via arthropod vectors carrying infected sap. Although the disease is widespread in carnations, the symptoms are relatively mild and do not pose a major problem. In other plants however, such as the Calla lily, the disease is of more concern, as the plant is of significant economic importance to Taiwan.


  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Unknown author (2004). Carmovirus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 3. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), ICTVdB Management, Columbia University, New York, USA
  5. ^ ICTV Taxonomy History for Carmovirus


External links[edit]