Carnival Cruise Line

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Carnival Cruise Line
Wholly owned subsidiary
IndustryHospitality, travel, and tourism
FoundedMarch 11, 1972; 48 years ago (1972-03-11)
FounderTed Arison
HeadquartersDoral, Florida, United States
Area served
Key people
Christine Duffy, President
Neil Palomba, Chief Operating Officer
ProductsCruise ships
RevenueIncrease US$10.9 billion (FY 2011)
Increase $1.9 Billion (FY 2011)
Total assetsIncrease $35 Billion (FY 2011)
Total equityIncrease $13.4 Billion (FY 2011)
Number of employees
3,900 - Shoreside[1]
33,500 - Shipboard[1]
ParentCarnival Corporation & PLC

Carnival Cruise Line is an international cruise line with headquarters in Doral, Florida. It is a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc. Its logo is the funnel like the funnels found on its ships, with red, white, and blue colors. The funnels are shaped like a whale's tail. Carnival is ranked first on the list of largest cruise lines based on passengers carried annually and total number of ships in fleet.

As of September 2020, Carnival Cruise Line has a fleet of 23 ships.[2]

Company structure[edit]

Carnival is one of ten cruise lines owned by the world's largest cruise ship operator, the American-British Carnival Corporation & plc. In 2018 Carnival Cruise Line was estimated to hold an 8.9% share of cruise industry revenue and 22.0% of passengers.[3] It has 26 vessels and is the largest fleet in the Carnival group.[4] The ships fly flags of convenience: 18 of the ships fly the Panama flag, six that of the Bahamas and two that of Malta. Its headquarters are in Miami, Florida, United States. The North American division of Carnival Corporation has executive control over the corporation and is headquartered in Doral, Florida.[5][6]


Carnival Cruise Line was founded in 1972 by Ted Arison. To finance the venture, Arison turned to his friend Meshulam Riklis, who owned Boston-based American International Travel Service (AITS). Arison and Riklis set up the new company as a subsidiary of AITS. AITS was to market and promote the new venture. In 1974, due to regulatory issues, Riklis sold AITS's interest in the company to Arison for $1, but subject to Arison taking over the substantial company debts.[7] The split enabled Arison to enter into new relationships with independent travel agents. He also promoted his cruises to fun-loving younger people. The format was very successful financially.[7]

1970s: Early years[edit]

Carnival Cruise Line Fleet 1970s

Carnival Cruise Lines commenced sailings from Miami with their first ship the Mardi Gras in 1972, a former transatlantic liner purchased from Canadian Pacific Line. Carnival would adapt and evolve the green Canadian Pacific livery for their new logo, changing the colors to red,white and blue as seen today.[8]

In 1975 acquired another former Canadian Pacific Line ship, renaming it the Carnivale.[7] The success of the two ships led to the acquisition of their third ship in 1978, the TSS Festivale, another former ocean liner. With the success of the three ships, Carnival decided to build new ships to be able to compete with the rival Miami cruise lines.[8]

1980s: First new build ships[edit]

Carnival's first purpose-built new build Tropicale

In 1982 Carnival introduced their first purpose built ship, the Tropicale.[9] This was the first ship where the iconic winged funnel was introduced, designed by Joe Farcus, who would become a longtime Carnival Cruise Line design collaborator, which has since been used on all ships in the fleet.[10]

In 1984 Carnival would introduce a new television marketing campaign during this time, starring Kathie Lee Gifford, who continues to be a longtime collaborator with the line.[11]

1985 built Holiday

Following the success of the Tropicale, and increased competition in Miami with newer ships, Carnival ordered the Holiday in 1985, followed by the Jubilee in 1986 and Celebration in 1987.[10]

1990s: Fleet expansion[edit]

Fantasy-Class ship, Ecstasy

Beginning in 1990, Carnival introduced the popular Fantasy-Class, beginning with the Fantasy, and completed with the eighth in the class Paradise in 1998. When completed, the Fantasy was one of the largest ships at the time and had the largest atrium at sea.[10] After having done design work on all the previous Carnival ships, Joe Farcus continued as the lead designer for the entire class.[10]

In 1993, Carnival began to get rid of their older second hand tonnage, and sold their first ship, the Mardis Gras after 21 years of service with the line. The Carnivale would follow the same year, going to newly created Carnival subsidiary Fiesta Marina Cruises.

Carnival Destiny

In 1996, the new Destiny-class was introduced, with the Carnival Destiny. At 101,000 GT , it became the largest passenger ship in the world at the time and first to exceed 100,000 tons. The Destiny-class platform would continued to be used in various iterations all the way to the Carnival Splendor in 2008. The same year the veteran ship Festivale, the last of the original second hand fleet, was retired.

In 1998 the seventh ship in the fantasy-class, the Elation, was the first cruise ship to have the innovative azipod propulsion,[12] now used on most new cruise ships today. The Paradise also debuted in 1998, and was the first completely non smoking cruise when it originally debuted.[13]

2000s: Early modern era[edit]

Panamax built Spirit-Class ships

In 2001, the new panamax size Spirit-Class debuted with the Carnival Spirit, the first of the four ship class within the Carnival fleet.

In 2001, Robert H. Dickinson, then President and CTC, participated in a BBC documentary, Back To The Floor. Dickinson went to work at the lowest crew levels on the MS Imagination in the Caribbean, where he shadowed a Romanian cleaner, Alina.[14] In October 2002, Carnival acquired P&O Princess Cruises for 3.5 billion euro.[15][16]

In 2001, Carnival transferred their first new build, the 1982 built Tropicale to Costa Cruises. Through the rest of the decade, the line would continue to sell, or transfer the other 1980s built ships to other lines, with the Jubilee in 2004, Celebration in 2008, and Holiday in 2009.

In 2004, Carnival Corporation initiated a development program for Carnival's new ships, the Pinnacle Project, calling for a 200,000 GT prototype, which would have been the world's largest cruise ship at the time. The ship was cancelled, but they then developed a project called Next Generation.[17]

In 2009, Carnival released their biggest ship at the time, the Carnival Dream, a new 128,000 GT ship. Carnival Dream entered service on 21 September 2009. After several voyages in the Mediterranean, she was set to offer weekly Caribbean cruises from Port Canaveral from December 5, 2009. A sister ship, Carnival Magic, debuted on May 1, 2011. On December 1, 2009 it was announced that Carnival had placed an order for a third Dream-class vessel.[18] It entered service in June 2012 and its homeport is now Galveston.[19] On May 10, 2010, Carnival selected a name for their new Dream-class vessel in 2012 - Carnival Breeze.[20]


On October 26, 2012, it was announced that Carnival had ordered a new 133,500 GT ship. This ship, built by Fincantieri, was the largest ship they have ever built. The new ship was named Carnival Vista,[21] and sailed her maiden voyage on May 1, 2016 from Trieste, Italy.[22]

In January 2017, Michael Thamm was appointed CEO of Carnival Asia to oversee operations in China and the surrounding region.[23]

A sister to Carnival Vista, Carnival Horizon, joined the fleet with her inaugural voyage from Barcelona, Spain on April 2, 2018. Queen Latifah is the ship's godmother, and christened her May 23, 2018.[24]

Carnival Vista

Carnival Panorama, another sister to Carnival Vista, entered service as the cruise line's flagship on December 11, 2019. She became the first new ship to homeport on the West Coast since MS Paradise (now MS Carnival Paradise) in 1998. Both ships sailed from Long Beach, California.

In February 2018, the company's officials unveiled a major port development project in Ensenada, Mexico.[25]

Reports in late June 2019 stated that Carnival was building their first terminal in Japan, in the port city of Sasebo, to be named Uragashira Cruise Terminal. Local officials were hoping that the terminal would be open by late July 2020.[26]


Carnival has had five Presidents in its nearly 50-year history.

Person Tenure Classes of Ships Introduced Notes
Ted Arison 1972 - 1981 Mardi Gras, Festivale, Carnivale Founder of Carnival Cruise Lines
Micky Arison 1981 - 1993 Tropicale, Holiday, Fantasy Expanded Carnival Cruise Lines. Became Chairman of the parent company - Carnival Corporation in 1993. Led the 1987 IPO and oversaw a number of critical acquisitions.
Robert H. Dickinson 1993 - 2007 Fantasy, Destiny, Spirit, Conquest Expanded Carnival Cruise Lines further through strengthening relationships with travel partners.
Gerald R. Cahill 2007 - 2014 Splendor, Sunshine, Dream Successfully led the cruise line through severe global recession and several high-profile events.
Christine D. Duffy 2014–Present Vista, Excellence Leading an effort to emphasize the brand as "America's Cruise Line"

Effects of COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

In a filing with regulators, the company stated that as of July 31, 2020, it had $7.9 billion in "cash and cash equivalent" available. An industry news item estimated that this would enable Carnival to continue operating for roughly a year in a situation where none of the ships was sailing.[27] A few days earlier, the company confirmed that it had sold the Carnival Fantasy and Carnival Inspiration (which were to be scrapped) and that Carnival Fascination and Carnival Imagination would move to long term layup (storage).[28]

All cruises were cancelled in March 2020 due to the worldwide pandemic and eventually, 55 passengers on ships owned by Carnival Corporation & plc were reported as having died.[29] In September 2020, the corporation (the corporate umbrella of nine cruise ship companies, including Carnival Cruise Line) announced a reduction in its fleet. The company intended to dispose of 18 of its ships, a full 12% of the group's fleet. By that time, several ships had already been scrapped, including the Carnival Fantasy and Carnival Inspiration. In September 2020, Carnival announced that Carnival Fascination and Carnival Imagination had been sold as well. Carnival Corporation also said that it was delaying the delivery of several ships already on order. The adjusted net loss in the third quarter for Carnival Corporation & plc was reported to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as US$1.7 billion.[30][31][32][33][34]

As of September 2020, the no-sail rule by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prohibited cruising in the U.S. until October 31, 2020 at the earliest. Members of the Cruise Lines International Association, including Carnival Cruise Lines, had announced in early August that its members were extending a voluntary suspension until October 31; that applied to cruises that were to depart from the U.S. or planned to stop at U.S. ports of call.[35] On September 16, 2020, Carnival Cruise Lines extended the suspension of four of its ships sailings well beyond October to complete required dry-dock enhancements.[36]

Costa Cruise Lines began new sailings on 6 September 2020 in Italy, initially with two ships, Costa Deliziosa and Costa Diadema, At that time, the line required all passengers to be from Italy. By 27 September 2020, however, "Costa Cruises will be available for all European citizens who are residents in any of the countries listed in the most recent decree from the Prime Minister of Italy" according to a news report. The company had implemented strict health protocols to protect its staff and guests.[37]


In 2012 the company was reportedly paying cruise ship staff basic salaries equivalent to £0.75 per hour.[38] For example, a junior waiter would earn a basic salary of £250 a month for shifts lasting at least 11 hours, seven days a week.[38] In response to this controversy, the general secretary of the Trades Union Congress, Brendan Barber, commented: "It's high time the disgraceful practice of allowing the shipping industry to pay poverty wages to workers who don't live in the UK was stopped. Exploitative rates of pay for those working on British ships have no place in a modern society."[38] In October 2013, Carnival revoked retirement benefits for cruise staff.[39]

Carnival Ecstasy docked in New Orleans

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, three of the Carnival cruise ships were chartered by the United States government for six months to serve as temporary housing until the houses can be rebuilt. After being chartered for six months, their planned voyages were cancelled, and passengers were refunded. Holiday was originally docked in Mobile, Alabama, and later Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Ecstasy and Sensation were docked at New Orleans, Louisiana. The six-month contract cost $236 million. The contract was widely criticized, because the vessels were never fully utilized, and Carnival received more money than it would have earned by using the ships in their normal rotation.[40]

Carnival Cruise Line headquarters in Doral, Florida

Since 2017, Carnival Corporation has been on probation, after having been found to "illegally dumping oil into the ocean from its Princess Cruises ships and lying about the scheme." Carnival Corporation also had to pay a $40 million fine.[41] The Court summary states that "Princess was convicted and sentenced in April 2017, after pleading guilty to felony charges stemming from its deliberate dumping of oil-contaminated waste from one of its vessels and intentional acts to cover it up".[42]

In April 2019, Carnival Corporation was accused of violating probation rules. The allegations include 800 incidents from April 2017 to April 2018. A federal judge has threatened to impose severe fines which may increase tenfold. The judge also stated that Carnival ships may be temporarily banned from docking in US ports.[43] In early June 2019, Carnival Corp. agreed to pay $20 million in fines in an agreement with federal prosecutors. The proposed settlement documents were signed by Chairman Micky Arison on June 3, 2019.[44] The next day, a Senior US District Judge approved the deal, and confirmed that probation would continue for three years, after CEO Arnold Donald said, "The company pleads guilty. We acknowledge the shortcomings. I am here today to formulate a plan to fix them". The company promised to implement additional audits to check for violations, to provide improved training to staff, to start improved waste management practices and to set up a more effective method for reporting pollution incidents to government agencies.[45]

In June 2019, Carnival Corporation and its Princess subsidiary agreed to pay a criminal penalty of $20 million for further environmental violations that include dumping plastic waste into the ocean. Princess Cruises had already paid $40 million over prior deliberate acts of ocean pollution.[46]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See also Costa Crociere Accidents and incidents for incidents associated with the parent company's other cruise operations.

On September 19, 1999, Tropicale's engine room caught fire en route from Cozumel to Tampa. While disabled in the Gulf of Mexico, the ship was struck by Tropical Storm Harvey. The Tropicale spent two days without propulsion.[47]

On November 8, 2010, a fire broke out in the generator room of Carnival Splendor and the ship lost power. The ship was adrift off the west coast of Mexico until it was towed to San Diego.[48]

On February 10, 2013, Carnival Triumph, with 3,143 passengers aboard, suffered an engine room fire, leaving the ship adrift for four days in the Gulf of Mexico.[49] The engine fire led to a power outage on the ship, which in turn caused raw sewage to back up. The media dubbed the ordeal "The Poop Cruise".[50] The ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama, docking on the evening of February 14.[51][52] In subsequent litigation, Carnival documents were uncovered that revealed multiple generator maintenance problems creating a "disaster waiting to happen." In response, Carnival's court filing stated that the contract that passengers agree to when they buy a ticket "makes absolutely no guarantee for safe passage, a seaworthy vessel, adequate and wholesome food, and sanitary and safe living conditions."[53]

Carnival Cruise Ships in New Orleans, LA

On March 14, 2013, Carnival Dream experienced an emergency generator failure while docked in port at Philipsburg, Sint Maarten. The ship was scheduled to leave port around 5 p.m. ET the day before. The United States Coast Guard said they were notified by Carnival that Carnival Dream was experiencing emergency generator problems. Carnival announced that the passengers would be flown back to Florida rather than completing their scheduled voyage.[54]

On the morning of March 15, 2013, Carnival Legend suffered a mechanical problem with one propulsion pod while at sea. The cruise line cancelled Carnival Legend's scheduled stops in Belize and Grand Cayman, and the ship returned to Tampa, Florida at a reduced speed of 19 knots (22 mph) (Legend has a regular cruising speed of 24 knots).[55][56][57]

On December 27, 2015, an electrician who had been working on the Carnival Ecstasy was crushed to death while working in an elevator.[58] The accident had heavy publicity after a video was posted online.[59]

In February 2018, a series of brawls broke out on the Carnival Legend. Staff were criticized for not containing the brawls and for exercising heavy force against passengers.[60]

On May 3, 2018, a pipe burst in the Carnival Dream's fire suppression system, flooding 50 staterooms.[61]

In November 2018, the Carnival Sunshine experienced a technical issue which caused the ship to list for approximately one minute.[62]

On December 29, 2018, lifeboat number 28 broke loose from the Carnival Dream for unknown reasons and was damaged. Carnival decided to abandon the lifeboat at sea and purchase a new replacement. No one was on board the lifeboat at the time and no injuries were reported.[63]

In the evening on September 20, 2019, while passing through Panama Canal, the former Carnival Fantasy, collided with the lock's wall and sustained damage to the aft superstructure. No injuries were reported. The collision happened while lock's water levels were being lowered. The vessel was not under its own power but assisted/tugged by the Panama Canal's locomotives. The accident occurred during the 10-day Panama Canal cruise.[64]

On October 9, 2019, a 23-year-old passenger fell off a railing where he was sitting onto a lower deck while the Carnival Valor was sailing near Louisiana. He was flown to a New Orleans hospital by helicopter and said to be in critical condition.[65][66]

On December 20, 2019, the Carnival Glory and Carnival Legend collided while in the port of Cozumel, Mexico; The Carnival Glory's stern superstructure was damaged and one person received minor injuries.[67][68][69][70]


Current fleet[edit]

Ship In service for Carnival Gross tonnage Flag Notes Image
Fantasy class
Carnival Ecstasy 1991–present 70,367  Panama
  • Design derived from the now-retired Holiday-class
  • Originally named Ecstasy
  • Oldest vessel in Carnival fleet as of July 2020
Carnival Ecstasy Apr 7 2018.png
Carnival Sensation 1993–present 70,367  Bahamas Originally named Sensation Carnival Sensation Nassau 12-23-11.jpg
Carnival Elation 1998–present 71,909  Panama Carnival Elation In Jacksonville 2.jpg
Carnival Paradise 1998–present 71,909  Panama Originally named Paradise Carnival Paradise docked in Havana, Cuba (cropped).jpg
Spirit class
Carnival Spirit 2001–present 88,500  Malta
  • Ships of this class each have a funnel with a built-in skylight for the atrium
  • Despite being the lead ship of her class, Carnival Spirit was preceded by her sister Costa Atlantica
  • Built to Panamax form factor
  • This class of ships also offers the most balcony cabins.
Carnival Pride 2002–present 88,500  Panama
  • Built to Panamax form factor
  • Former flagship of Carnival
US-port-canav-carnival-pride (recropped).jpg
Carnival Legend 2002–present 88,500  Malta Built to Panamax form factor CarnivalLegendCoz.JPG
Carnival Miracle 2004–present 88,500  Panama Built to Panamax form factor Carnival Miracle April 5 2017.png
Conquest class
Carnival Conquest 2002–present 110,000  Panama Design derived from Destiny-class Carnival Conquest 3.jpg
Carnival Glory 2003–present 110,000  Panama Carnival Glory in Belize, 12-2014 (recropped).JPG
Carnival Valor 2004–present 110,000  Panama Carnival Valor Cruise Ship (3) (21009123989).jpg
Carnival Liberty 2005–present 110,000  Panama Carnival Liberty George Town, Grand Cayman (4401394568).jpg
Carnival Freedom 2007–present 110,000  Panama George Town - Carnival Freedom (5756470231).jpg
Splendor (Concordia) class
Carnival Splendor 2008–present 113,323  Panama Carnival Splendor 2009.jpg
Dream class
Carnival Dream 2009–present 128,250  Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Magic Carnival Dream Bow.png
Carnival Magic 2011–present 128,048  Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Breeze Carnival Magic in Venedig.JPG
Carnival Breeze 2012–present 130,000  Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Vista Carnival Breeze (ship, 2011) 001 (cropped).jpg
Sunshine (Destiny/Triumph) class
Carnival Sunshine 2013–present 102,853  Bahamas
  • Originally operated as Carnival Destiny 1996-2013
  • World's largest passenger ship when built.
  • First-ever cruise ship to exceed 100,000 GT. The first ship in the fleet to receive all Funship 2.0 amenities.
Carnival Sunshine Curacao 2014.jpg
Carnival Sunrise 2019–present 101,509  Bahamas
  • Originally operated as Carnival Triumph 1999-2019
  • On February 14, 2013 the ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama for repairs after an engine room fire and resumed service on June 13, 2013
Carnival Triumph Half Moon Cay.jpg
Carnival Radiance 2021- 101,509  Panama
  • Originally operated as Carnival Victory 2000-2020
  • Was originally scheduled to return to service April 29, 2020, but renovations came to a halt due to the COVID-19 pandemic
Carnival Victory2.jpg
Vista class
Carnival Vista 2016–present 133,596  Panama Carnival Vista docked in Valletta hnapel 01.jpg
Carnival Horizon 2018–present 133,596  Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Panorama [71] Carnival Horizon of the coast of Grand Turk.jpg
Carnival Panorama 2019–present[72][73] 133,868  Panama
  • The flagship of Carnival Cruise Line
  • Largest ship ever built by Fincantieri
  • Originally planned to sail for P&O Cruises Australia.[74]
Carnival Panorama docked in Puerto Vallarta 1-8-2020 (cropped).jpg

Planned future ships[edit]

Ship Build
Will sail for
Gross tonnage Flag Notes Image
Excellence class
Mardi Gras 2020 February 6, 2021 183,900  Panama
  • Name erroneously announced as Carnival Mardi Gras on December 5, 2018 episode of Wheel of Fortune
  • First LNG-powered cruise ship based in North America; to become largest ship ever built for Carnival[75]
  • Will feature the first roller coaster at sea.
  • Part of Carnival's Excellence-class
Carnival Celebration 2022 Fall 2022 183,900  Panama
  • Sister ship to the Mardi Gras[76]
  • Scheduled to sail out of PortMiami in late 2022, after the cruise line's 50th anniversary[77]
  • Name announced on August 21, 2020, which includes "Carnival" prefix

Former fleet[edit]

Ship In service for Carnival Gross tonnage Flag Notes Image
Empress class
Mardi Gras 1972–1993 27,284
registered as 18,261
 Panama Also known as Empress of Canada, Olympic, Star of Texas, Lucky Star, Apollo, and Apollon. Scrapped in 2003. MV Mardi Gras - Montreal, 1979.jpg
Carnivale 1975–1993 31,500  Panama Also known as Empress of Britain, Queen Anna Maria, Fiesta Marina, Olympic, and The Topaz. Sold for scrap in 2008. "Carnivale" - Miami, 1984.jpg
Festivale class
Festivale 1977–1996 32,697  Panama Also known as Transvaal Castle, S.A. Vaal, Island Breeze, and Big Red Boat III. Sold for scrap in 2003. SS Festivale in Barbados - 1987-02-26.jpg
Tropicale class
Tropicale 1982–2001 36,674  Panama Carnival's first purpose-built ship. Also known as Costa Tropicale, and Pacific Star. Now known as Ocean Dream in May 2008. It has been operating for Peace Boat since 2012.
Holiday class
Holiday 1985–2009 46,051 Madeira,  Portugal In 2009, the Holiday became the Grand Holiday for Iberocruceros. It last sailed with Cruise & Maritime Voyages as the Magellan until summer 2020. It is currently laid up. Carnival Holiday docked in Cozumel 03-2004.jpg
Jubilee 1986–2004 47,262  Liberia In 2004, the Jubilee became the Pacific Sun for P&O Cruises Australia and later operated as the Henna for HNA Tourism Cruise from 2012 to 2015. Sold for scrap in 2017. CarnivalJubilee.jpg
Celebration 1987–2008 47,262 Madeira,  Portugal In 2008 the Celebration became the Grand Celebration for Iberocruceros. It was transferred to Costa in late-2014 as the Costa Celebration but never saw service. It was sold and currently operates for Bahamas Paradise Cruise Line as the Grand Celebration since February 2015. Carnival Celebration, Nassau (cropped).jpg
Fantasy class
Carnival Fantasy 1990–2020 70,367  Panama 'Carnival Fantasy' Docked at Charleston (SC) July 2012.jpg
Carnival Fascination 1994–2020


70,367  Bahamas
  • Originally named Fascination
  • Sold to an unnamed buyer September 2020[82]
Carnival Fascination 2011.jpg
Carnival Imagination 1995–2020


70,367  Bahamas
  • Originally named Imagination
  • Sold for scrap in August 2020,[84] officially announced in September 2020[82]
Carnival Inspiration 1996–2020 70,367  Bahamas
  • Originally named Inspiration
  • Sold for scrap in July 2020.[78][80][85]
Carnival Inspiration 01 (recropped).jpg

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Carnival Cruise Lines Fact Sheet. Carnival Cruise Lines. Retrieved 31 May 2010
  2. ^ "Carnival Cruise Line - Ships by Class" (PDF). August 2020.
  3. ^ "2018 World Wide Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. 2018-01-05.
  4. ^ "The fleet and home ports of Carnival Cruise Line, by the numbers". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  5. ^ "Corporate Address." Carnival Cruise Line. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  6. ^ "Map of the City of Doral Archived 2011-08-09 at the Wayback Machine." City of Doral. Retrieved on January 9, 2010
  7. ^ a b c The Cruise Ship Phenomenon in North America (2001), by Brian J. Cudahy, ISBN 9780870335297, page 44ff.
  8. ^ a b Peter, Bruce. (2017). Cruise ships. A design voyage. Narberth: Ferry Publications. ISBN 978-1-911268-08-6. OCLC 1003587263.
  9. ^ Dawson, Philip S. (2000). Cruise ships : an evolution in design. London: Conway Maritime. ISBN 0-85177-660-4. OCLC 43419400.
  10. ^ a b c d Farcus, Joseph (2018). Design on the high seas : setting the scene for entertainment architecture aboard cruise ships. Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia. ISBN 978-1-86470-756-4. OCLC 1016152521.
  11. ^ "Carnival Celebrates Longstanding Relationship with Kathie Lee Gifford, Giving Cruises to the Audience during Her Final Today Show Appearance – Carnival Cruise Line News". Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  12. ^ "Elation Fantasy Class Cruise Liner". Ship Technology. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  13. ^ "Throwback Thursday: Do You Remember Carnival's Non-Smoking Cruise Ship?". TravelPulse. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  14. ^ "BBC - Adam Curtis - We're all in the same boat — aren't we?". 31 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  15. ^ "Carnival to go global with Princess merger: Travel Weekly". Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  16. ^ Clark, Andrew; correspondent, transport (2002-10-25). "Carnival wins P&O Princess". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  17. ^ Fincantieri signs a five ship, 2.6 billion dollar agreement with Carnival Group. Press Release. Fincantiei. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2010
  18. ^ "Wärtsilä to power new cruise vessel of Carnival Corporation".
  19. ^ "New 128,000-ton Cruise Ship Ordered for Carnival Corporation & plc's Carnival Cruise Line Unit". Retrieved 2009-12-01.
  20. ^ "Carnival Cruise Lines' new 128,000-ton ship to be named Carnival Breeze". Cruise Industry News. May 10, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
  21. ^ Sloan, Gene (July 20, 2013). "Next Carnival ship to be called Carnival Vista". USA Today. Retrieved Aug 4, 2013.
  22. ^ "Carnival Cruise Lines and Holland America Line Order New Ships - Cruise Industry News | Cruise News". Cruise Industry News. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2013-03-02.
  23. ^ Staff, C. I. N. (2017-01-20). "Thamm Expands Role to Oversee Carnival Asia as CEO". Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  24. ^ Queen Latifah to christen giant new Carnival ship Gene Sloan, USA TODAY; March 1, 2018
  25. ^ Staff, CIN (2018-02-10). "Carnival to Develop New Port in Ensenada". Retrieved 2018-02-12.
  26. ^ "Construction Underway on New Carnival Terminal in Japan". 2019-06-29. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  27. ^ "Carnival Has $7.9 Billion of Cash On Hand; 12 Months of Liquidity". Cruise Industry News. 2020-08-14. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  28. ^ "Carnival Sells Two Ships and Two Enter Long Term Layup". Talking Cruise. 2020-07-23. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
  29. ^ "Carnival selling 18 cruise ships amid financial struggles and U.S., Canada no-sail orders". National Post per Washington Post. September 17, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020. Fifty-five passengers died of COVID-19 on Carnival-operated ships during the early days of the pandemic, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  30. ^ "Carnival Corp. to Further Downsize Fleet, Disposing of 18 Ships". Travel Pulse. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020. The filing reported a U.S. GAAP net loss of $2.9 billion for the quarter ending Aug. 31 and an adjusted net loss of $1.7 billion.
  31. ^ "Carnival Corp. Sells More Cruise Ships". Cruise Radio. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020. Carnival Cruise Line — one of the brands under the Carnival Corporate umbrella — still plans to begin sailing in November
  32. ^ "Carnival to ditch 18 ships in total as U.S. cruises remain banned amid COVID-19 pandemic". Miami Herald. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020. The company is also slowing down the delivery schedule of its new ships, now expecting only five of the nine ships originally scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2021.
  33. ^ "CLIA Further Extends Suspension of U.S. Cruises Until At Least October 31: Cruise Lines Follow Suit". LA Times. September 10, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020. The company is also slowing down the delivery schedule of its new ships
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