Carnivoraformes

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Carnivoraformes
Temporal range: 63.8–0 Ma early Paleocene to present
Carnivora portraits.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Mirorder: Ferae
Clade: Pan-Carnivora
Clade: Carnivoramorpha
Clade: Carnivoraformes
Flynn, 2010[1]
Subgroups
[see classification]
Life reconstruction of Tapocyon robustus

Carnivoraformes ("carnivora-shaped") is a clade of placental mammals that includes the modern order Carnivora and its extinct stem-relatives.

Classification and phylogeny[edit]

Classification[edit]

In 2010 Flynn, Finarelli & Spaulding named a new clade Carnivoraformes within Carnivoramorpha, containing carnivorans and "miacids" but not viverravids.[1] The authors defined Carnivoraformes as the clade containing Carnivora and all taxa that are more closely related to Carnivora (represented by Canis lupus) than to viverravids (represented by Viverravus gracilis).

Phylogenetic tree[edit]

The phylogenetic relationships of Carnivoraformes are shown in the following cladogram:[2][1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

 Carnivoramorpha 
 †Viverravidae 

Viverravoidea

 ? 

†Carnivoramorpha sp. (UALVP 50993 & UALVP 50994)

 ? 

Ravenictis

 sensu lato 
 ? 

†Carnivoramorpha sp. (UALVP 31176)

 ? 

†Carnivoramorpha sp. (USNM 538395)

 ? 

"Sinopa" insectivorus

 Carnivoraformes 

Neovulpavus

 ? 

carnivoraform undet. Genus A (UCMP 110072)

Lycarion

Lycarion/Neovulpavus clade
 ? 

carnivoraform undet. Genus B (SDSNH 56335)

 ? 

Ceruttia

Dormaalocyon

"Miacis" exiguus

Vassacyon

Vulpavus

"Miacis" deutschi

Vulpavus clade

Miocyon

Simamphicyon

Zodiocyon

Uintacyon

 ? 

"Miacis" boqinghensis

 ? 

"Miacis" lushiensis

 ? 

"Miacis" thailandicus

 ? 

"Miacis" invictus

Uintacyon clade

Miacis Miacis restoration.jpg

carnivoraform sp. (PM 3868)

Dawsonicyon

 ? 

Africtis

"Miacis" petilus

"Miacis" latidens

 ? 

"Miacis" hookwayi

Paroodectes

Paramiacis

Eogale

Gracilocyon

Oodectes

Gracilocyon/Oodectes clade

Prodaphaenus

 ? 

Walshius

 Carnivora 

Feliformia Stamp-russia2014-save-russian-cats-(snow leopard).png

Caniformia Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

 sensu stricto 
 (Carnivora [sensu lato]) 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c John J. Flynn; John A. Finarelli; Michelle Spaulding (2010). "Phylogeny of the Carnivora and Carnivoramorpha, and the use of the fossil record to enhance understanding of evolutionary transformations". In Anjali Goswami; Anthony Friscia (eds.). Carnivoran evolution. New views on phylogeny, form and function. Cambridge University Press. pp. 25–63. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139193436.003. ISBN 9781139193436.
  2. ^ Bryant, H.N., and M. Wolson (2004) “Phylogenetic Nomenclature of Carnivoran Mammals.” First International Phylogenetic Nomenclature Meeting. Paris, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle
  3. ^ Michelle Spaulding; John J. Flynn; Richard K. Stucky (2010). "A new basal Carnivoramorphan (Mammalia) from the 'Bridger B' (Black's Fork member, Bridger Formation, Bridgerian Nalma, middle Eocene) of Wyoming, USA". Palaeontology. 53 (4): 815–832. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00963.x.
  4. ^ Susumu Tomiya (2011). "A new basal caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans". PLOS One. 6 (9): e24146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024146. PMC 3173397. PMID 21935380.
  5. ^ Solé, Floréal; Smith, Richard; Coillot, Tiphaine; de Bast, Eric; Smith, Thierry (2014). "Dental and tarsal anatomy of Miacis latouri and a phylogenetic analysis of the earliest carnivoraforms (Mammalia, Carnivoramorpha)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.793195. ISSN 0272-4634.
  6. ^ Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhaoqun (2015). "Phylogenetic analysis on Palaeogale (Palaeogalidae, Carnivora) based on specimens from Oligocene strata of Saint-Jacques, Nei Mongol". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 53 (4): 310–334.
  7. ^ Solé, Floréal; Smith, Thierry; De Bast, Eric; Codrea, Vlad; Gheerbrant, Emmanuel (2016). "New carnivoraforms from the latest Paleocene of Europe and their bearing on the origin and radiation of Carnivoraformes (Carnivoramorpha, Mammalia)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 36 (2): e1082480. doi:10.1080/02724634.2016.1082480. ISSN 0272-4634.
  8. ^ Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack (2016). "Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene 'Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)". Royal Society Open Science. 3 (10): 160518. Bibcode:2016RSOS....3p0518T. doi:10.1098/rsos.160518. ISSN 2054-5703. PMC 5098994. PMID 27853569.
  9. ^ Solé, F. & Ladevèze, S. (2017). "Evolution of the hypercarnivorous dentition in mammals (Metatheria, Eutheria) and its bearing on the development of tribosphenic molars." Evolution & Development, 19(2), 56–68.
  10. ^ Prevosti, F. J., & Forasiepi, A. M. (2018). "Introduction. Evolution of South American Mammalian Predators During the Cenozoic: Paleobiogeographic and Paleoenvironmental Contingencies"