Caroline Haslett

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Caroline Haslett
Caroline Haslett CBE as Director of EAW.jpg
Caroline Haslett c.1924, when she became director of the Electrical Association for Women
Born (1895-08-17)17 August 1895
Worth, Sussex
Died 4 January 1957(1957-01-04) (aged 61)
Bungay, Suffolk
Nationality British
Occupation Electrical engineer; business woman; educator
Known for Feminism; electrifying the home to liberate women from domestic drudgery. She was the leading professional woman of her age.
Title Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire

Dame Caroline Harriet Haslett, DBE, JP, born in 1895 in Worth, Sussex, was an English electrical engineer, electricity industry administrator and champion of women's rights.[1][2]

She was the first secretary of the Women's Engineering Society and the founder and editor of its journal, The Woman Engineer.[3] She was co-founder, alongside Laura Willson and with the support of Margaret, Lady Moir, of the Electrical Association for Women, which pioneered such 'wonders', as they were described in contemporary magazines,[4][5] as the All-Electric House in Bristol in 1935. She became the first director of the Electrical Association for Women in 1925. Her chief interest was in harnessing the benefits of electrical power to emancipate women from household chores, so that they could pursue their own ambitions outside the home.[6] In the early 1920s, few houses had electric light or heating, let alone electrical appliances; the National Grid was not yet in existence.

'Way is being made by electricity for a higher order of women – women set free from drudgery, who have time for reflection; for self-respect. We are coming to an age when the spiritual and higher state of life will have freer development, and this is only possible when women are liberated from soul-destroying drudgery ... I want [every woman] to have leisure to acquaint herself more profoundly with the topics of the day.'

— Caroline Haslett[7]

Early life[edit]

Born in Worth (now part of Crawley, West Sussex), Caroline Haslett was the eldest daughter of Robert Haslett, a railway signal fitter and activist for the co-operative movement, and his wife, Caroline Sarah, formerly Holmes.[1] After attending school in Haywards Heath, she was employed by the Cochran Boiler Company as a clerk and joined the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).[3] Transferring to the Cochran workshops during the First World War, she acquired a basic engineering training in London and in Annan, Dumfriesshire; from that time she became a pioneer for women in the electrical and professional world.

Career[edit]

In 1919 Caroline Haslett left Cochran's to become the first secretary of the Women's Engineering Society (WES) and first editor of The Woman Engineer magazine, which she continued to edit until 1932.[1] In June 1920 she helped to found Atalanta, an engineering firm for women. In November 1924 she co-founded and became the first director of the Electrical Association for Women, of which she remained a director until 1956, when she was obliged to retire because of ill health; from 1924 to 1956 she edited The Electrical Age.

In 1925 WES came to national attention when it organized a special conference at Wembley, in association with the First International Conference of Women in Science, Industry and Commerce.[8] The conference was opened by the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) and was chaired by Nancy, Lady Astor, the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons. This event also introduced Caroline Haslett to a wider public. She remained secretary of WES until 1929, when she became honorary secretary, and she was the society's president from 1940 to 1941.[1]

Haslett was the sole woman delegate to the World Power Conference in Berlin in 1930 and represented Britain at later power conferences. During the next 20 years her public activities were extraordinary, as described by her friend Margaret Partridge, another president of WES: 'She was a member of council of the British Institute of Management 1946–54, of the Industrial Welfare Society, of the National Industrial Alliance, of the Administrative Staff College, and of King's College of Household and Social Science; a governor of the London School of Economics, of Queen Elizabeth College, and of Bedford College for Women; a member of the Central Committee on Women's Training and Employment; a member of council and vice-president of the Royal Society of Arts 1941–55; and president of the British Federation of Business and Professional Women. She was a member of the Women's Consultative Committee and the Advisory Council of the Appointments Department, Ministry of Labour; a member of the Correspondence Committee on Women's Work of the International Labour Office; and the first woman to be made a Companion of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE).'[9]

A blue plaque commemorating the life of Caroline Haslett in Haslett Avenue East, Three Bridges, Crawley, West Sussex

In 1932 the National Safety First Association (the forerunner of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents) extended its activities to home safety, and Caroline Haslett was appointed as chair of the Home Safety Committee, a post she held until 1936. She became the first woman vice-president of the association in 1937.[10]

During the Second World War she was the only woman member (and the only safety expert) on the 20-person committee convened by the IEE to examine the requirements for electrical installations in post-war Britain, part of a larger scheme of Post-War Building Studies.[11] An important part of those recommendations was a new plug and socket standard, the first requirement for which was To ensure the safety of young children it is of considerable importance that the contacts of the socket-outlet should be protected by shutters or other like means, or by the inherent design of the socket outlet. The result was BS 1363.[11]

Haslett became vice-president of the International Federation of Business and Professional Women in 1936 and president of the organization in 1950; and she was the first woman to chair a government working party – the Board of Trade's Hosiery Industry Working Party 1945–46.[9] For many years she was a member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Royal Institution. She was appointed to Crawley New Town Development Corporation 1947–56; and served as vice-president (1948) and first female chairman (1953–54) of the British Electricity Development Association. She represented the UK government on business missions in the USA, Canada and Scandinavia, and after the Second World War she took a leading role in conferences organized for women in Germany by the British and American authorities.[1]

In Margaret Partridge's view, the crowning achievement of Haslett's multifaceted career occurred in 1947, when she was appointed a member of the British Electricity Authority (BEA), later the Central Electricity Authority, which was formed to run the industry under national ownership.[9] The BEA named one of the ships in its collier fleet Dame Caroline Haslett in honour of its first woman member, and the authority set up the Caroline Haslett Trust to provide scholarships and travelling fellowships for its members.[1]

Publications[edit]

Caroline Haslett's publications include The Electrical Handbook for Women (1934); Teach Yourself Household Electricity (in collaboration with E. E. Edwards, 1939); Munitions Girl, A Handbook for the Women of the Industrial Army (1942); and Problems Have No Sex (1949).[6] She was also the author of numerous journal articles and conference papers.

Honours[edit]

In recognition of Haslett's services to women she was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1931, and in 1947, in recognition of her work for the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Labour, she was created a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[9] She was elected a Companion of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) in 1932. From 1950 until her death she was a Justice of the Peace for the County of London. A blue plaque has been erected to honour her memory by Crawley Arts Council and EDF Energy. It is located in a road named after her: Haslett Avenue East, in Three Bridges, Crawley, West Sussex. Caroline Haslett Primary School in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, is also named after her.

Final years[edit]

She retired to live at the home of her sister (and biographer) Rosalind Messenger at Bungay, in Suffolk, where she died from a coronary thrombosis on 4 January 1957.[12] Reportedly, her dying wish was that she be cremated by electricity.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Citrine; Symons, Eleanor (2011) [2004]. "Haslett, Caroline Harriet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33751.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ Haines, Catharine M.C. (2001). "Haslett, Caroline". International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–29. ISBN 1576070905. 
  3. ^ a b 'Dame Caroline Haslett: Outstanding Woman Engineer', The Times, 5 January 1957
  4. ^ "The all-electric house in Bristol". Design for To-Day: 5–8. January 1936. 
  5. ^ "Dame Caroline Haslett". BBC Woman's Hour. 
  6. ^ a b Law, Cheryl (2000), Women, A Modern Political Dictionary, London, UK: I. B. Tauris .
  7. ^ Electricity and women - the EAW in the inter-war years, University of Westminster 
  8. ^ "Engineering Timelines - Caroline Haslett - The Women's Engineering Society". www.engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 2016-10-25. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Death of Dame Caroline Haslett". The Woman Engineer. VIII (4). Spring 1957. 
  10. ^ Messenger, Rosalind (1967), The Doors of Opportunity, A Biography of Dame Caroline Haslett DBE Companion IEE, London, UK: Femina Books, pp. 76–77 
  11. ^ a b "Post-War Building Studies No. 11 Electrical Installations", HMSO, London 1944
  12. ^ Messenger, Rosalind (1967), The Doors of Opportunity, A Biography of Dame Caroline Haslett DBE Companion IEE, London: Femina Books, pp. 197–201 
  13. ^ "Dame Caroline Haslett". BBC - Radio 4 Woman's Hour. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 

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