Caroline Townshend, 1st Baroness Greenwich (née Campbell, 17 November 1717 – 11 January 1794) was a British peeress, the daughter and eldest child of John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, and his wife, the former Jane Warburton. She was a sister of the diarist Lady Mary Coke.
On 2 October 1742, she married Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith (a son of the 2nd Duke of Buccleuch), and took the courtesy title of Countess of Dalkeith. They became parents of Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch (1746–1812). Henry was styled Lord Scott of Whitchester after his brother's death, and Earl of Dalkeith after his father's death and succeeded his grandfather as Duke of Buccleuch in 1751. Their other children were:
- Caroline Scott (1743–1753)
- John Scott, styled Lord Scott of Whitchester (1745–1749)
- Campbell Scott (1747–1766)
- James Scott (1748–1758)
- Frances Scott (1750–1817), who married, as his second wife, Archibald Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas, and had children, including the novelist Caroline Lucy Scott
Francis died in 1750; on 15 August 1755, Caroline married Charles Townshend (a son of the 3rd Viscount Townshend). They had one child, Anne Townshend (1756 – after 1786), who married twice and had children.
On 28 August 1767, Caroline was created Baroness Greenwich (a nod to her deceased father's title, Duke of Greenwich) in her own right, with a special remainder to her male issue by Townshend. As there were no surviving sons from her second marriage, the title became extinct upon her death in 1794, aged 76.
- Marshall, Rosalind K. (2004). "Townshend [née Campbell], Caroline, suo jure Baroness Greenwich [other married name Caroline Scott, countess of Dalkeith]". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/64081. Retrieved 29 January 2018. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Record for Caroline Campbell, Baroness Greenwich at www.thepeerage.com
- G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors. The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 368.
- Edinburgh and London, Scottish Academic Press, 1985
- "Thomas Bardwell". National Galleries Scotland. Retrieved 29 January 2018.