Carolinian (train)

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Carolinian High Point.jpg
Northbound Carolinian pulling in to High Point.
Service typeInter-city rail
LocaleNortheastern United States/Southern United States
First serviceMay 12, 1990
Current operator(s)Amtrak in partnership with the
North Carolina Department of Transportation
Ridership706 (FY18 daily avg.)
Annual ridership256,886 (FY18) [1]
StartPenn Station, New York City
EndCharlotte station, Charlotte, North Carolina
Distance travelled704 miles (1,133 km)
Service frequencyDaily
Train number(s)79/80
On-board services
Class(es)Coach and business class
Seating arrangementsReserved Coach Seat
Catering facilitiesCafe car
Baggage facilitiesChecked baggage available at
selected stations
Rolling stockAmfleet cars
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Track owner(s)Amtrak, CSX, Norfolk Southern/NCRR

The Carolinian is a daily passenger train that runs between Charlotte, North Carolina and New York City. The train began operation in 1990 and is jointly funded and operated by Amtrak and the North Carolina Department of Transportation. A previous iteration operated between 1984-1985. Onboard services include coach, business class, and a cafe car. The train operates over the Northeast Corridor between New York and Washington, D.C. Northbound trains leave Charlotte at breakfast time and arrive in New York in the early evening, while southbound trains leave New York during the morning rush and arrive in Charlotte in the evening.

Intermediate stops in North Carolina include Rocky Mount, Wilson, Selma, Raleigh, Cary, Durham, Burlington, Greensboro, High Point, Salisbury, and Kannapolis. The North Carolina portion of the route runs along the North Carolina Railroad, a state-owned railroad which is leased to Norfolk Southern.

Additional corridor service between Charlotte and Raleigh–the southern leg of the route, largely parallel to Interstate 85–is provided by the Piedmont.

During fiscal year 2018, the Carolinian carried 256,886 passengers, an 8% decrease from FY2017.[2][3] Ridership on the Carolinian has steadily decreased since fiscal year 2013, when the Carolinian carried over 317,550 passengers.[4][5] The line had a total revenue of $19,841,847 during FY2013.[4]

The Carolinian and Piedmont are notable because they allow walk-up checked bicycle transportation at station stops in North Carolina.[6] The two trains are marketed by NCDOT under the NC By Train brand.


The Carolinian departing Raleigh Amtrak station

For most of Amtrak's first two decades, service in North Carolina was limited to long-distance trains, which were not well-suited to regional travel. The Piedmont from Greensboro to Charlotte continued to be served by Southern Railway for much of the 1970s; Southern had been one of the few large railroads to opt out of Amtrak in 1971. However, Southern drastically reduced its remaining service in 1976, including its remaining medium-haul trains going through the state, before handing its remaining service to Amtrak in 1979.

Amtrak first introduced the Carolinian on October 28, 1984, in partnership with the state of North Carolina. It was originally a section of the Palmetto, which ran between New York and Savannah, Georgia. It ran from Charlotte to Raleigh, where it stopped at the old Seaboard Air Line Railroad station. From there, it ran to Henderson to Collier Yard south of Petersburg, Virginia. At Richmond, Virginia, the Carolinian joined the Palmetto for the journey to New York along the Northeast Corridor. The southbound train operated in the reverse direction, splitting from the Palmetto in Richmond while the Palmetto continued to Savannah. North Carolina supported the Carolinian with a $436,000 yearly subsidy from Charlotte to the Virginia line.[7][8] It was the first direct Raleigh—Charlotte service in 30 years and the first North Carolina-specific service in 20 years. An early alternative name for the service was the Piedmont Palmetto.

Amtrak intended the Carolinian to be a one-year pilot project, and was very open to making the route permanent. However, while ridership exceeded expectations, revenues did not: most passengers traveled within North Carolina and did not continue to the Northeast. Amtrak was also hampered by the proliferation of cheap airfares from Charlotte and Raleigh to the Northeast. Amid losses of $800,000, Amtrak discontinued the Carolinian on September 3, 1985 after North Carolina declined to increase its subsidy. Supporters of the Carolinian blamed Amtrak and the state for not marketing the train properly; many passengers were unaware that the train went all the way to New York.[9][10]

Amtrak and North Carolina re-launched the Carolinian on May 12, 1990. Like the original, it was originally a section of the Palmetto, only this time the split occurred in Rocky Mount, North Carolina.[11] This incarnation proved successful enough that in April 1991, Amtrak made the Carolinian a full-fledged day train running from Charlotte to New York.[12] While the Palmetto runs through from Richmond to Alexandria, Virginia; the Carolinian stops at Fredericksburg and Quantico (shared with Northeast Regional trains going to Newport News or Norfolk) before continuing on to Alexandria.

In 1995, the Carolinian was joined with a sister regional train, the Piedmont, which runs along the I-85 Corridor between Raleigh and Charlotte–the southern leg of the Carolinian. The Piedmont was originally due to enter service in 1993, but was delayed when Norfolk Southern insisted that Amtrak build a new wye in Charlotte to turn the Carolinian and Piedmont around. Previously, the southbound Carolinian had to make a time-consuming 10-mile deadhead trip to the nearest wye in Pineville, North Carolina.[13][14]

Until 2004, the Carolinian also had a stop at BWI Marshall Airport Rail Station.

NCDOT subsidizes the Carolinian from Charlotte to the Virginia border. Since 2017, NCDOT has been considering an extension of the Carolinian to New Haven, Connecticut. The extension would reduce or eliminate the need for NCDOT to fund the North Carolina portion of the route, and would provide an earlier southbound train from New Haven than currently operates.[15]

Long-term plans call for restoring a portion of the former Seaboard main line between Raleigh and Richmond, known as the "S-Line," as part of construction of the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor between Charlotte and Washington. The S-Line had been abandoned in 1985, forcing Amtrak to route its trains linking Raleigh and the Northeast through Selma along the NCRR. It is estimated that restoring the S-Line will cut an hour off the train's running time by enabling a more direct route over the Virginia border.[16]

From July 2019 to September 2019, Amtrak truncated the Carolinian to Raleigh from Monday through Thursday to allow CSX to perform track maintenance. The train ran on its normal schedule on Friday, Saturday and Sunday.[17]

In April 2020, NCDOT and Amtrak suspended the Carolinian until May 4 as part of a round of service reductions in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.[18] The suspension was extended through May 17 to allow CSX to perform track maintenance. The train returned on May 18 as a truncated Charlotte-Raleigh service,[19] though state and Amtrak officials hoped to extend the train at least as far as Washington by June. The Piedmont was suspended on the same day the Carolinian returns as a cost-cutting measure, leaving the Carolinian as the only rail link between Charlotte and Raleigh until further notice.[20][21] On May 29, NCDOT announced on Twitter that full service would resume to New York on June 1.[22]

2015 Halifax train crash[edit]

On March 9, 2015, a northbound Carolinian collided with a tractor-trailer that was stuck on the tracks in Halifax County, North Carolina, with 55 people injured. The locomotive landed on its side, while all of the cars remained upright.[23][24]

Route details[edit]

The Carolinian operates over Amtrak, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, and North Carolina Railroad trackage. Since 1871, Norfolk Southern and its predecessors have leased the NCRR from the state.

Two Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach routes connect large swaths of eastern North Carolina to the Wilson station.[25] One route serves Greenville, New Bern, Havelock, and Morehead City; another serves Goldsboro, Kinston, Jacksonville, and Wilmington. A third Thruway Motorcoach route runs from Winston-Salem to High Point.

The train has two seasonal stops in October. A station in Lexington is used during the Lexington Barbecue Festival, while an additional station in Raleigh is used for the North Carolina State Fair.

Before 2019, the northbound Carolinian followed the practice of most medium- and long-distance trains operating in the Northeast and did not allow passengers to travel only between stations on the Northeast Corridor. It only stopped to discharge passengers from Washington northward in order to keep seats available for passengers making longer trips. Starting in 2019, the northbound Carolinian began allowing local travel on the Northeast Corridor on Sundays, Thursdays and Fridays. The southbound Carolinian allows local travel in the Northeast at all times from Trenton southward.


The Carolinian typically operates with 4 Amfleet I coaches, an Amfleet café, an Amfleet business class car, and a Viewliner baggage car. Motive power is provided by a GE P42DC diesel locomotive south of Washington, D.C.. Service between Washington and New York is handled by a Siemens ACS-64 electric locomotive. Maximum seating in such a configuration is 346, split between business class and reserved coach.[26]

Station stops[edit]

State Town/City Station Connections
New York New York City Penn Station Amtrak: Acela, Adirondack, Cardinal, Crescent, Empire Service, Ethan Allen Express, Keystone Service, Lake Shore Limited, Maple Leaf, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter
LIRR: Main Line, Port Washington Branch
NJ Transit: North Jersey Coast Line, Northeast Corridor Line, Gladstone Branch, Montclair-Boonton Line, Morristown Line
NYC Subway: 1, ​2, ​3, A, ​C, ​E, B, ​D, ​F, <F>, ​M​, N, ​Q, ​R, and ​W trains
NYC Transit buses: M7, M20, M34 / M34A Select Bus Service, Q32
PATH: Hoboken–33rd Street, Journal Square–33rd Street, Journal Square–33rd Street (via Hoboken)
New Jersey Newark Newark Penn Station Amtrak: Acela, Cardinal, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter
NJ Transit: Newark City Subway, Newark Light Rail, North Jersey Coast Line, Northeast Corridor Line, Raritan Valley Line, 1, 5, 11*, 21, 25, 28*, 29*, 30*, 34, 39, 40, 41* 62, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 78*, 79*, 108, 308*, 319, 361*, 375*, 378*, go25* *Limited service
PATH: Newark–World Trade Center
Coach USA: 31, 44
Trenton Trenton Amtrak: Acela, Cardinal, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter
NJ Transit: Northeast Corridor Line, River Line, 409, 418, 600, 601, 604, 606, 608, 609, 611, 619
SEPTA Regional Rail: Trenton Line
SEPTA Suburban Transit Division: 127
Pennsylvania Philadelphia 30th Street Station Amtrak: Acela, Cardinal, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter
NJ Transit: Atlantic City Line
SEPTA City Transit Division: Market–Frankford Line, SEPTA Subway–Surface Trolley Lines (Route 10, Route 11, Route 13, Route 34, Route 36), 9, 12, 21, 30, 31, 42, 44, 49, 62, LUCY
SEPTA Suburban Transit Division: 124, 125
SEPTA Regional Rail: Airport Line, Warminster Line, Wilmington/Newark Line, West Trenton Line, Media/Elwyn Line, Lansdale/Doylestown Line, Paoli/Thorndale Line, Manayunk/Norristown Line, Cynwyd Line, Trenton Line, Chestnut Hill East Line, Chestnut Hill West Line, Fox Chase Line
Delaware Wilmington Wilmington Amtrak: Acela, Cardinal, Crescent, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter
Greyhound Lines
DART First State: 2, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 28, 31, 33, 35, 40, 45, 47, 47X, 48, 52, 54, 55, 301, 305 (seasonal)
SEPTA Regional Rail: Wilmington/Newark Line
Maryland Baltimore Penn Station Amtrak: Acela, Cardinal, Crescent, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter
MARC Train: Penn Line
MTA Maryland: Light RailLink, 3, 11, 61, 64
Charm City Circulator: Purple Route, Artscape Shuttle
District of Columbia Washington Washington Union Station Amtrak: Acela, Capitol Limited, Cardinal, Crescent, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter, Thruway Motorcoach to Charlottesville, Virginia
MARC Train: Brunswick Line, Camden Line, Penn Line
VRE: Manassas Line, Fredericksburg Line
Metro: Red Line
Metrobus: D3, D6, D8, X1, X2, X8, X9, 80, 96, 97
DC Circulator: Georgetown, Navy Yard
DC Streetcar: H Street/Benning Road Line
MTA Maryland: 903, 922
Loudoun County Transit: Loudoun County
PRTC: Dale City
Virginia Alexandria Alexandria Amtrak: Cardinal, Crescent, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star
VRE: Fredericksburg Line, Manassas Line
Metro: Blue Line, Yellow Line
Metrobus: REX, 28A, 29K, 29N
DASH: AT2, AT5, AT6, AT7, AT8, AT10
Quantico Quantico Amtrak: Northeast Regional
VRE: Fredericksburg Line
PRTC: OmniLink, 1
Fredericksburg Fredericksburg Amtrak: Northeast Regional, Silver Meteor
VRE: Fredericksburg Line
FRED D1, F2, F4, VF1, VS1
Richmond Richmond Staples Mill Road Amtrak: Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Thruway Motorcoach to Charlottesville, Virginia
GRTC: Route 18
Ettrick Petersburg Amtrak: Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star
North Carolina Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Amtrak: Palmetto, Silver Meteor, Silver Star
Greyhound Lines
Tar River Transit: all routes
Wilson Wilson Amtrak: Palmetto, Thruway Motorcoach to Greenville, New Bern, Havelock, Morehead City, Goldsboro, Kinston, Jacksonville, and Wilmington, North Carolina
Selma Selma-Smithfield Amtrak: Palmetto
Raleigh Raleigh Amtrak: Piedmont, Silver Star
GoRaleigh: R-Line, inbound 13,
 outbounds 7, 11
GoTriangle: outbounds 301, 303, 305
Cary Cary Amtrak: Piedmont, Silver Star
GoCary: 3, 4, 5, 6
GoTriangle: 300, 301
Durham Durham Amtrak: Piedmont
GoDurham: all routes except 14, 20, 23
GoTriangle: 400, 405, 700, DRX, ODX
Greyhound Buses
Burlington Burlington Amtrak: Piedmont
Elon BioBus: Downtown/East Burlington Loop
Alamance County Transportation Authority: on demand
Greensboro Greensboro Amtrak: Crescent, Piedmont
GTA: all routes except 12A
PART: 2, 4, 9, 10
Greyhound Buses
High Point High Point Amtrak: Crescent, Piedmont, Thruway Motorcoach.[i]
Hi tran: all routes
PART: 3, 5[i]
Salisbury Salisbury Amtrak: Crescent, Piedmont
Salisbury Transit: all routes
Rowan Transit: Rowan Express
Kannapolis Kannapolis Amtrak: Piedmont
CK Rider: Blue, Brown
Rowan Transit: Rowan Express
Charlotte Charlotte Amtrak: Crescent, Piedmont
CATS: 11
  1. ^ a b Amtrak contracts with PART to provide Thruway service to Winston-Salem. Passage is available via through-ticketing or as a separate fare. Both methods are co-branded as NC Amtrak Connector.

An additional station in Lexington operates during the Lexington Barbecue Festival in October.

The NCDOT offers free transit passes which allow detraining Piedmont passengers to get one free bus ride and one transfer on the same day of travel. Passes are honored by 13 participating transit systems along its route.


  1. ^ "Amtrak General and Legislative Annual Report & FY2020 Grant Request" (PDF). Amtrack. March 19, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  2. ^ "Amtrak General and Legislative Annual Report & FY2020 Grant Request" (PDF). Amtrack. March 19, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  3. ^ "Amtrak General and Legislative Annual Report & Fiscal year 2019 Budget Request" (PDF). Amtrack. February 15, 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Amtrak Sets Ridership Record And Moves The Nation's Economy Forward - America's Railroad helps communities grow and prosper" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak. October 14, 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
  5. ^ "Amtrak fact sheet: Carolinian service" (PDF). Rail Passengers Association. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  6. ^ "Walk-Up Checked Bike Service on the Carolinian Train | Amtrak". Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  7. ^ Foreman, Jr., Tom (October 27, 1984). "'Carolinian' makes trial run". Times-News. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  8. ^ "Raleigh-Charlotte run shouldn't businessmen". The Robesonian. October 9, 1984. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  9. ^ Waggoner, Martha (September 3, 1985). "The 'Carolinian' Makes Its Last Run". The Dispatch. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  10. ^ Flesher, John (August 13, 1985). "Amtrak talks about scraping Charlotte-to-Raleigh service". Times-News. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  11. ^ "Charlotte-Rocky Mount train back on track". Morning Star. May 12, 1990. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  12. ^ "Change to cut Carolinian's run by 40 minutes". The Charlotte Observer. March 15, 1991. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  13. ^ "More delays put second Tar Heel passenger train service off track". Times-News. March 11, 1993. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  14. ^ "New train won't start on schedule". Morning Star. November 28, 1994. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  15. ^ "Rail Division" (PDF). North Carolina Department of Transportation. March 22, 2017. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  16. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Service Adjustments Due to Coronavirus" (Press release). North Carolina Department of Transportation. 2020-04-03. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  19. ^ "Palmetto, Carolinian and Silver Star Schedule Changes" (Press release). Amtrak. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  20. ^ "Piedmont Passenger Rail Service Suspended". North Carolina Department of Transportation. May 13, 2020.
  21. ^ Richard Stradling (May 14, 2020). "NCDOT suspends Piedmont train service between Raleigh and Charlotte to save money". The Charlotte Observer. The News & Observer.
  22. ^ @NC_By_Train (May 29, 2020). "Greetings, passengers. Starting Monday, June 1, Carolinian trains 79 and 80 will resume service between Charlotte and New York" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  23. ^ Cho, Diane (March 9, 2015). "Amtrak train en route to D.C. slams into truck in North Carolina; 40 hurt". WJLA-TV ABC7. Sinclair Broadcast Group. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  24. ^ "Dozens of Amtrak passengers injured as train smashes into truck that had stalled on North Carolina tracks and flips over". Daily Mail. Associated Press. March 9, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  25. ^ Fitzgerald, Eddie (October 2, 2012). "Amtrak shuttle service debuts in the East". New Bern Sun Journal. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  26. ^ "National Railroad Passenger Corporation and the State of North Carolina: Agreement for the Provision of Carolinian and Piedmont Rail Passenger Services" (PDF). October 1, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2013-07-07.

External links[edit]