Spoken mostly by the Carolinian people, Carolinian is most closely related to dialects in the Satawalese, Woleaian, and Puluwatese languages.:ix Carolinian has 95% lexical similarity with Satawalese, 88% with Woleaian and Puluwatese; 81% with Mortlockese; 78% with Chuukese, 74% with Ulithian. A 1990 census estimated the number of speakers at about 3,000, currently 5,700. Carolinian is known as Refaluwasch by native speakers. It has 31 characters in its alphabet.