During his time at the University of North Carolina, Baskerville experimented with thorium and published his results in 1901. He reported having separated thorium into three fractions with slightly different chemical properties: the known thorium and two new elements, carolinium (symbol Cn) and berzelium (symbol Bz).
The names derived from two sources:
- the first element was named for the State in which the university was located at which the experiments were done, North Carolina, and
- the other element was named after Jöns Jakob Berzelius, a renowned Swedish chemist and discoverer of silicon, selenium, cerium and thorium.
- Baskerville, Charles (1901). "On the Existence of a new Element associated with Thorium". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 23 (10): 761–764. doi:10.1021/ja02036a004.
- Baskerville, Charles (1904). "Carolinium, Berzelium, Thorium". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 26 (8): 922. doi:10.1021/ja01998a003.
- Brauner, Bohuslav; Baskerville, Charles (June 1904). "The Complex Nature of Thorium". Science. 19 (493): 892–893. Bibcode:1904Sci....19..892B. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17770214. doi:10.1126/science.19.493.892.
- Meyer, Richard Joseph; Gumperz, A. (1905). "Zur Frage der Einheitlichkeit des Thoriums". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 38: 817–825. doi:10.1002/cber.190503801140.
- Wells, H. G. (1914). "2". The World Set Free.
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