Carroll Shelby

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Carroll Shelby
Shelby in 2007
BornCarroll Hall Shelby
(1923-01-11)January 11, 1923
Leesburg, Texas
DiedMay 10, 2012(2012-05-10) (aged 89)
Dallas, Texas
Formula One World Championship career
NationalityUnited States American
Active years19581959
TeamsAston Martin, non-works Maserati
Career points0
Pole positions0
Fastest laps0
First entry1958 French Grand Prix
Last entry1959 Italian Grand Prix

Carroll Hall Shelby (January 11, 1923 – May 10, 2012) was an American automotive designer, racing driver, and entrepreneur. Shelby is best known for his involvement with the AC Cobra and Mustang (later known as Shelby Mustangs) for Ford Motor Company, which he modified during the late 1960s and early 2000s. He established Shelby American Inc. in 1962 to manufacture and market performance vehicles, as well as Carroll Shelby Licensing in 1988 which grew into Carroll Shelby International.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Carroll Shelby was born on January 11, 1923 to Warren Hall Shelby, a rural mail carrier, and his wife, Eloise (Lawrence) Shelby in Leesburg, Texas.[2][3] Shelby suffered from heart valve leakage problems by age 7 and experienced health complications from this throughout his life.[4][5] Shelby's education as a pilot began in the military at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center, later known as Lackland Air Force Base, in November 1941.[3]

Shelby was married a total of seven times. Shelby's first wife was Jeanne Fields; they married on December 18, 1943. Their daughter Sharon Anne Shelby was born a year later on September 27, 1944. Shelby and Fields had two more children — Michael Hall (born November 2, 1946) and Patrick Bert (born October 23, 1947). They divorced in February 1960, and by his own admission, Shelby was unfaithful. In 1962, Shelby married actress Jan Harrison before the marriage was annulled the same year.[6] His third marriage, which he entered into as part of a deal with a New Zealand woman to get her into the United States, lasted only a few weeks before ending in divorce. His fourth marriage, to a woman presumably named Sandy, lasted less than a year before ending in divorce.

It was then that Carroll took a 28 year hiatus from marriage and ultimately settled on Cynthia Psaros[citation needed], formally an actress and a Beauty queen.[citation needed] Her father a ret. Marine Full Bird Colonel fighter pilot was quite enjoyable to was during this marriage that Carroll received his long-awaited heart transplant. Their marriage lasted only a few years. Then Lena Dahl, a Swedish woman whom he met in 1968. She died in a car accident in 1997. It was his only marriage which did not end in divorce, annulment, or separation. Shelby married his final wife, Cleo, a British former model who drove rally cars, in 1997, just four months after the death of his sixth wife. She was 25 years his junior. They were in the process of getting a divorce when he died in 2012.[7][8]

Life before racing[edit]

Shelby honed his driving skills with his Willys automobile[9] while attending Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, Texas. He graduated from Wilson in 1940. He was enrolled at The Georgia School of Technology in the Aeronautical Engineering program. However, because of the war Shelby did not go to school and enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps,[10] serving in World War II as a flight instructor and test pilot. He graduated with the rank of staff sergeant pilot.[11] Subsequently, he had short stints as an oil-well roughneck and as a poultry farmer prior to his racing career.

Driving career[edit]

Shelby beside his 1957 Maserati 450S at Virginia International Raceway in 2007.

Starting out as an amateur, Shelby initially raced a friend's MG TC[12] and borrowed Cad-Allards. He later recalled that the combination of the small English Allard and American V-8 power inspired his creation of the AC Cobra. His great success racing the Allards led to invitations to drive for the Aston Martin and Maserati factory teams in the mid-to-late 1950s.

Shelby racing an Aston Martin DBR1/300 at the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1958.

Driving for Donald Healey in a modified, streamlined, and supercharged Austin-Healey 100S, he set 16 U.S. and international speed records at the Bonneville salt flats.

He drove in the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in a specially prepared Ferrari 375 GP roadster, to a record run of 10:21.8 seconds on his way to victory in 1956.[13]

He was Sports Illustrated's driver of the year in 1956 and 1957.[14]

He competed in Formula One from 1958 to 1959, participating in a total of eight World Championship races and several non-championship races.

The highlight of his race driving career came in 1959, when he co-drove an Aston Martin DBR1 (with Englishman Roy Salvadori) to victory in the 1959 24 Hours of Le Mans. During this race he noted the performance of an English GT car built by AC Cars, known as the Ace. Three years later, the AC Ace would become the basis for the AC Cobra.

Shelby the constructor[edit]

1965 AC Cobra 427 (North America)

After retiring from driving in October 1959 for health reasons,[15] he opened a high-performance driving school and the Shelby-American company.

He obtained a license to import the AC Cobra (often known in the US as the Shelby Cobra), a successful British Sports racing car manufactured by AC Motors of England, which AC had designed at Shelby's request by fitting a Ford V8 to their popular AC Ace sports car in place of its standard AC six, Ford Zephyr or 2-liter Bristol engine. Shelby remained influential with Ford manufactured cars, including the Daytona Coupe, GT40, the Mustang-based Shelby GT350 and Shelby GT500. After parting with Ford, Shelby moved on to help develop performance cars with divisions of the two other Big 3 American companies, Dodge, and Oldsmobile.

Ford provided financial support for AC's Cobras from 1962 through 1965 and provided financial support for the Ford GTs, first with John Wyer's Ford Advanced Vehicles in 1963 and then with Shelby American from 1964 through 1967.

In the intervening years, Shelby had a series of ventures start and stop relating to production of "completion" Cobras — cars that were allegedly built using "left over" parts and frames. In the 1960s, the FIA required entrants (Shelby, Ford, Ferrari, etc.) to produce at least 100 cars for homologated classes of racing. Shelby simply ordered an insufficient number of cars and skipped a large block of Vehicle Identification Numbers, to create the illusion the company had imported large numbers of cars. Decades later in the 1990s, Carroll alleged that he had found the "left over" frames, and began selling cars which were supposedly finally "completed". After it was discovered the cars were built from scratch in collaboration with McCluskey, Ltd., they were re-termed "continuation" Cobras. The cars are still built to this day, known as the current CSX4000 series of Cobras.

He was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1991, the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1992, the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1992, and the Diecast Hall of Fame in 2009. He was also inducted into the SCCA Hall of Fame on March 2, 2013.[16]

In 2003, Ford Motor Co. and Carroll Shelby mended ties and he became technical advisor to the Ford GT project. In that same year, he formed Carroll Shelby International, Inc., based in Nevada.

Shelby partners with Dodge[edit]

Shelby began working with Dodge at the request of Chrysler Corporation chairman, Lee Iacocca.[17] Iacocca had previously been responsible for bringing Shelby to the Ford Mustang. After almost a decade of tuning work, Shelby was brought on board as the "Performance Consultant" on the Dodge Viper Technical Policy Committee made up of Chrysler's executive Bob Lutz, Product Design chief Tom Gale, and Engineering Vice President François Castaing.[18] Shelby was used for his wealth of experience to make the Viper as light and powerful as possible.[18]

The following cars were modified by Shelby and bore his name, but sold under the Dodge marque:

The following cars used Shelby-modified parts, but were not overseen by Carroll Shelby:

The following cars were limited production vehicles and modified at Shelby's Whittier, California, plant, then sold as Shelby's:

Above information citation[19]

Series 1[edit]

Shelby's Series 1 roadster used Oldsmobile's 4.0 L L47 Aurora V8, but was poorly supported by the ailing GM division. Shelby had already built an Aurora-engined sports prototype together with Racefab in 1997, in an attempt to continue his single-make Can-Am series.[20]

The Series 1 is the only car ever produced by Carroll Shelby from a clean sheet of paper, and built from the ground up. All other Shelbys were re-engineered models produced by other manufacturers and then modified by Shelby.

Prior to production of the Series 1, significant costs were incurred in testing and certification required to conform to 1999 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Once completed, a total of 249 production Series 1 cars were constructed by Shelby American as model year 1999 cars.

During production, Venture Corporation purchased Shelby American, Inc. The purchase included the Series 1 model, but not the rights to produce the "Continuation Series" Shelby Cobras.[21] In 2004, after a subsequent bankruptcy by Venture Corporation (unrelated to the acquisition of Shelby American), Carroll Shelby's new company, Shelby Automobiles, Inc., purchased the Series 1 assets for pennies on the dollar. Included in the asset purchase were enough components to produce several more complete Series 1s.

Because the 1999 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards certificate had expired, and the cost to re-certify the car was prohibitive, all Series 1's produced after that date were completed as "component cars" and delivered with no engine or transmission. Those "component car" models built in 2005 are identified with a seven-digit vehicle identification number (VIN) and were designated with a CSX5000 series serial number. The original 249 were production cars with a seventeen-digit VIN.

The Series 1 was produced in both supercharged and normally aspirated versions. Supercharged cars were also outfitted by the factory with larger brakes and a heavy duty clutch. Performance is near "supercar" category with a 0 to 60 mph time at 4.1 seconds for the supercharged version.[22] Nicely optioned, Series 1 had power steering, power disc brakes, factory air conditioning, power windows, and an AM/FM/CD audio system. The convertible top folded away out of sight in a compartment located behind the cockpit. Some component cars were sold as roadsters, with no convertible top.

Ford-Shelby projects[edit]

1965 Shelby Cobra dashboard autographed by Carroll Shelby on display in the Martin Auto Museum

The new contract between Ford Motor Company and Carroll Shelby signaled hope for Shelby products built under Ford. In 2004, a new Ford Shelby Cobra Concept was shown off at U.S. car shows. Built with a retro body mimicking the 1960s Cobras mixed with modern touches, it was based on the Ford GT chassis (reworked for front engine/rear wheel drive) powered with a 6.4 L V10 engine that produced 605 hp (451 kW). It received overwhelmingly positive press reviews and has won the "Best In Show" award at Detroit International Auto Show.

A coupe version of the Shelby Cobra roadster was introduced the following year. The Ford Shelby GR-1 concept car of 2005. While sporting a completely modern design, it showed a nod to the 1960s Shelby Daytona. The GR-1, like the Cobra, is based on the GT's chassis. Press reviews for the GR-1 have been positive. The car was featured on the cover of Motor Trend and Car Magazine. The Ford Shelby GR-1 could possibly be built, taking over the Ford GT's production line after its production comes to an end.

In 2005 Carroll Shelby built his first modern Masterpiece, the CSM #00001 V6 Shelby Mustang CS6, to prove to Ford that he could still build high-performance cars, and that he did, with the V6 putting out 380HP it made the V6 Shelby faster than Ford's V8 300HP. Ford thought the CS6 would hurt Ford Mustang V8 sales, Ford told Shelby to go with the V8 instead. So there were only a few CS6 Shelbys made by Shelby. Now, these are one of the rarest Shelbys in the world.

The Shelby GT500 was revealed at the New York International Auto Show, and became available in the summer of 2006 as part of the model year 2007 lineup. It was powered by a 5.4 Liter Modular V8, with four-valves-per-cylinder heads borrowed from the $150K Ford GT supercar, an Eaton M122 Roots-type supercharger and is rated by Ford at 500 hp (370 kW) and 480 ft⋅lbf (650 N⋅m) of torque. It boasts a Tremec T-6060 manual transmission, reworked suspension geometry, 18-inch wheels, functional aerodynamic body kit, and still retains the solid rear axle. The GT500 starts at an MSRP of $40,930 for the coupe, and $45,755 for the convertible version. Although Carroll Shelby had no hands-on involvement in the design of the car, he did provide Ford and SVT (Special Vehicle Team) input on what would make the car better and convinced Ford to enlist wider rear tires (from 255 mm wide to 285 mm wide).[citation needed]

Shelby, in cooperation with the Hertz Corporation, produced 500 cars named "Shelby GT-H" in 2006. This was a special-edition Ford Mustang GT, available for rental from Hertz. A Ford Racing Performance Group FR1 Power Pack increased the GT's 4.6 L V8 engine to 325 hp (242 kW). The cars included a custom Shelby hood and black and gold body styling, incorporating a gold-plated "Hertz" nameplate on both sides.

A consumer version of the Shelby GT-H was available from Shelby through Ford dealers, called the Shelby GT. There were 5,682 vehicles for 2007 and 2,300 for 2008 were built. They had the same engine as the GT-H, but more suspension, appearance and drivetrain upgrades and was available with either manual or automatic transmission. White and black colors were available for 2007 models and grabber orange or vista blue were available for 2008. A convertible was available in 2008 also. An available upgrade from the Shelby factory in Las Vegas were a few different superchargers. It then was called a Shelby GT/SC. All Shelby GTs are shipped with the Shelby serial number (CSM) on the dashboard badge and in the engine compartment, such as 07SGT0001 or 08SGT0001.

Non-Ford projects[edit]

In his later years, Shelby brought several lawsuits against companies making copies of the Cobra body for use on kit cars – ostensibly for copyright, trademark and patent violations.[citation needed] Despite the litigation, the Cobra kit car industry continues to thrive.[citation needed]

One of the lawsuits involved the Superformance Brock Coupe, a copy of the original Shelby Daytona Coupe. The Superformance Brock Coupe was designed by Pete Brock, who had also designed the original Daytona Coupe for Shelby. Shelby American sued Superformance after Superformance had developed and begun production of the Superformance Brock Coupe. Eventually, the litigation was settled, though the terms of the settlement (if any) have never been released to the public. As a result of the agreement between the two companies, the product is now known as the Shelby Daytona Coupe, despite being neither designed nor built by Shelby American. Nearly 150 of these new Shelby Daytona Coupes have been built as of February 2007.[citation needed]

In 2002, Unique Performance, a company of Farmers Branch, Texas, purchased a license from Carroll Shelby Enterprises to place his name on a series of continuation vintage vehicles. This company specialized in recreating 1960s-style Shelby Mustangs. They purchased used Mustangs and installed updated versions of the Shelby 325-horsepower 302-cubic-inch V8 engine. They also utilize modern five-speed manual transmissions, brakes, steering, suspension, interiors and entertainment systems. Because Shelby's license was purchased, these cars have Shelby serial numbers.[23]

1967 custom Fastback Mustang Eleanor from the 2000 film Gone in Sixty Seconds

In October 2007, Carroll Shelby ended his licensing agreement with Unique Performance due to numerous issues of customer complaints where vehicles were not delivered. Unique Performance was subsequently raided by law enforcement due to VIN irregularities and declared bankruptcy, which effectively ended the Shelby continuation "Eleanor" Mustang production.[24] Shelby was in turn sued by victims of Unique Performance for his involvement in the criminal activity,[25]

The 2000 remake of Gone in 60 Seconds movie highlighted the star car character "Eleanor," a customized 1967 Mustang. Some custom car businesses began to reproduce "Eleanor" looking cars with the trademarked name, causing Denice Halicki to again take legal action to protect the trademark and the copyrighted Eleanor's image. In 2008, Halicki won a case against Carroll Shelby, who was also selling "Eleanor" using the trademark name and copyrighted image.[26][27][28]

Other projects[edit]

Carroll Shelby's name is associated with a chili fixings kit. The kit consists of spices in several packets in a miniature brown paper bag. On the side of the bag is a story related by Shelby about cooking chili during his racing days. On the front of the bag is a depiction of a big western black hat, a trademark piece of clothing for Shelby. He was a founder of the Terlingua International Chili Championship in Terlingua, Texas.[14]

In 1967, Shelby marketed a men's grooming product, the "Carroll Shelby's Pit-Stop ... a Real Man's Deodorant" that was promoted in car magazines.[29]

Shelby was the initial partner of Dan Gurney in establishing Gurney's All American Racers.[30]

Donzi Marine developed the Donzi Shelby 22 GT, a 22-foot (7 m) speedboat based on their Classic line of boats in collaboration with Carroll Shelby.[31]

Carroll Shelby produced a line of eight-spoke alloy wheels for Saab automobiles in the early to mid-1980s. They were available in gold (Goldvane), hammered silver (Silvervane) finish, and a black hammered finish. These wheels were available through Saab dealers and could be fitted to Saab 99 and Saab 900 models manufactured through 1987.[citation needed]

Shelby supported a project with Rucker Performance Motorcycles to manufacture 12 Shelby motorcycles that were designed by William Rucker.[32]

In 2008 Shelby was awarded the 2008 Automotive Executive of the Year Award.

Shelby established the Carroll Shelby Children's Foundation to cover medical bills of children who have heart disease but are unable to pay for treatment.[33]

Medical problems and death[edit]

Shelby received a heart transplant in 1990, and a kidney transplant in 1996.[34]

Shelby died on May 10, 2012, at the age of 89.[35][36] He had been suffering from a serious heart ailment for decades.[37]

Racing record[edit]

24 Hours of Le Mans results[edit]

Year Team Co-Drivers Car Class Laps Pos. Class
1954 United Kingdom Aston Martin Lagonda Belgium Paul Frère Aston Martin DB3S S
1959 United Kingdom David Brown Racing Dept. United Kingdom Roy Salvadori Aston Martin DBR1/300 S
323 1st 1st

Complete Formula One World Championship results[edit]


Year Entrant Chassis Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 WDC Pts
1958 Scuderia Centro Sud Maserati 250F Maserati 250F1 2.5 L6 ARG MON NED 500 BEL FRA
GER NC 0[39]
Temple Buell POR
1959 David Brown Corporation Aston Martin DBR4/250 Aston Martin RB6 2.5 L6 MON 500 NED

* No points awarded for shared drive with Masten Gregory.

Film adaptations[edit]

A big-budget film about rivalry between Ford and Ferrari at Le Mans auto race is in work at 20th Century Fox and its being directed by James Mangold. In the movie Ken Miles will be portrayed by Christian Bale.[40] His wife and son will be portrayed by Caitriona Balfe and Noah Jupe respectively.[41] The movie is expected to begin shooting in the summer of 2018 and is set for 2019 release. His closest acquaintance Carroll Shelby will be played by Matt Damon.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "About Us". Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  2. ^ "The Official Carroll Shelby Website: History page". Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b "The Life of a Legend through the Years". Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  4. ^ Shav Glick and Jerry Hirsch (12 May 2012). "Legendary car designer Carroll Shelby dies at 89". Chicago Tribune.
  5. ^ Ricci, Dean V. (July 15, 2007). "Carroll Shelby – Living Legend". Shelby American Automobile Club: Motor City Region. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  6. ^ "Carroll Shelby: 1923-2012". Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  7. ^ Levine, Robert. "King of the Road". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  8. ^ "In Death, Carroll Shelby Still Surrounded By Controversy". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  9. ^ "Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, Texas: Class of 1967 Home Page". Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  10. ^ Carroll Shelby, Statements made at the Formula SAE awards ceremony in May of 1993.
  11. ^ Lyons, Pete (15 May 2012). "Carroll Shelby: 1923-2012". Autoweek. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  12. ^ Egan, Peter (August 2012). "Carroll Shelby: An American Original". Road & Track. 63 (12): 80–83.
  13. ^ "Records". climb to the clouds. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  14. ^ a b Blair, Sam (December 29, 2007). "At 84, legendary Shelby keeps pedal to the metal". Los Angeles Times. pp. C1, C6. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  15. ^ "Automobiles", episode about Ford Motor Company, History Channel
  16. ^ Lewandowski, Dave (January 8, 2013). "Notes: Rahal among five elected to SCCA Hall". IndyCar. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  17. ^ Davison, Eric (2004). Snake Bit: Inside Carroll Shelby's Controversial Series 1 Sports Car. MBI Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7603-1781-5. Retrieved January 3, 2011. When Lee Iacocca became president of Chrysler, he called Shelby back to infuse some life into the bland little automobiles that were the backbone of Dodge. Between 1986 and 1989, Shelby responded with a series of Dodge cars that were blindingly fast and performed far beyond anyone's expectations.
  18. ^ a b Young, Tony (2004). Chrysler, Dodge, Plymouth Muscle. BMI Publishing. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7603-3204-7. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
  19. ^ "Shelby Dodges and Dodge Shelbys". Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  20. ^ "One-of-One – The 1997 Shelby Aurora V8 Can-Am Prototype". Silodrome. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-03.[not in citation given]
  22. ^ "Shelby Series 1" (PDF). Car and Driver. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  23. ^ "Muscle Cars Reborn".
  24. ^ Johnson, Merritt (November 6, 2007). "Unique Performance raided by local police – Autoblog". Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  25. ^ "Unique Performance victims sue Carroll Shelby". April 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  26. ^ Business Wire (November 13, 2008). "Ninth Circuit Court Hands Winning Victory to Denice Halicki in Dispute with Carroll..." (Press release). Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  27. ^ "Recent Win: Ninth Circuit reverses judgment against GMSR's clients in copyright/trademark case concerning "Eleanor" from "Gone In 60 Seconds"". Greines, Martin, Stein & Richland. November 12, 2008. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  28. ^ Smith, Jonny (April 9, 2009). "1967 Ford Mustang 'Eleanor' recreation". The Times. London. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
  29. ^ Bowers, Jesse (January 19, 2010). "1967 Carroll Shelby Advertising of Pit Stop deodorant, sad, Really sad". Just a Car Guy. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  30. ^ Bornhop, Andrew (May 2012). "Celebrating 50 Years of Shelby". Road & Track. 63 (9): 52–61.
  31. ^ Laban, Brian (2015). Shelby and AC Cobra. Crowood Press. ISBN 9781785000041. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  32. ^ Neil, Dan (July 2000). "Shelby Series 1 Titan Motorcycle". Car and Driver. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  33. ^ Glick, Shav; Hirsch, Jerry (12 May 2012). "Carroll Shelby dies at 89; cult classic car designer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  34. ^ "Shelby was racer, automaker, heart transplant recipient". May 11, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  35. ^ Box, Terry (May 11, 2012). "Legendary racer, car-builder Carroll Shelby dies in Dallas at 89". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  36. ^ "Legendary car designer Carroll Shelby dies". Associated Press. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  37. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. (14 May 2012). "Carroll Shelby Dead at 89". The Detroit Bureau. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  38. ^ "All Results of Carroll Shelby". Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  39. ^ no points awarded for shared drive in the 1958 Italian Grand Prix
  40. ^ "James Mangold to Direct Ford vs. Ferrari Film as 'Logan' Follow-Up". Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  41. ^ "'Outlander' Star Caitriona Balfe, 'Quiet Place' Breakout Noah Jupe Join Ford vs. Ferrari Movie". Retrieved May 23, 2018.
Shelby Cobra and Ford GT Racing
  • Carroll, William (1964). Ford Cobra Guide. Sports Car Press. ISBN 0-87112-066-6. An inside look at early Cobra racing 1962 through 1963.
  • Shelby, Carroll (1965). The Cobra Story. Motorbooks. ISBN 978-0-87938-019-9. Shelby's story of his life and racing through 1964.
  • Shelby, Carroll (1967). The Carroll Shelby Story. Pocket Books. A revised and enlarged version of "The Cobra Story," covering the Cobra's successes in 1965 and 1966, as well as including technical specifications for the 289 and 427 Cobras.
  • Shoen, Michael L. (1990). The Cobra-Ferrari Wars 1963–1965. Cfw Guidebooks. ISBN 978-0-9625093-0-8. Covers Cobra and Ferrari racing through 1965.
  • Levine, Leo (2001). Ford, the Dust and the Glory: A Racing History, 1901–1967. Society of Automotive Engineers. ISBN 978-0-7680-0663-6. Ford racing programs through 1967.

External links[edit]

Sporting positions
Preceded by
Olivier Gendebien
Phil Hill
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
1959 with:
Roy Salvadori
Succeeded by
Olivier Gendebien
Paul Frère