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|Chair of the House Oversight Committee|
|Assumed office |
November 20, 2019
Acting: October 17, 2019 – November 20, 2019
|Preceded by||Elijah Cummings|
|Vice Chair of the Joint Economic Committee|
January 3, 2019 – January 16, 2020
|Preceded by||Mike Lee|
|Succeeded by||Don Beyer|
|Member of the|
U.S. House of Representatives
from New York
|Assumed office |
January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Bill Green (Redistricting)|
|Constituency||14th district (1993–2013)|
12th district (2013–present)
|Member of the New York City Council|
January 1, 1983 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Robert Rodriguez|
|Succeeded by||Andrew Sidamon-Eristoff|
|Constituency||8th district (1983–1991)|
4th district (1992–1993)
Carolyn Jane Bosher
February 19, 1946
Greensboro, North Carolina, U.S.
(m. 1976; died 2009)
|Education||Greensboro College (BA)|
Carolyn Bosher Maloney (née Carolyn Jane Bosher, February 19, 1946) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for New York's 12th congressional district since 2013, a Democrat, and previously for New York's 14th congressional district from 1993 to 2013. The district, numbered as the 14th congressional district from 1993 until redistricting in 2013, includes most of Manhattan's East Side, Astoria and Long Island City in Queens, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, as well as Roosevelt Island. She is a member of the Democratic Party.
Maloney was the first woman to represent New York City's 7th Council district (where she was the first woman to give birth while in office). On October 17, 2019, Maloney was chosen by Speaker Nancy Pelosi to become Acting Chair of the House Oversight Committee after the death of Elijah Cummings. She won the election to officially succeed Cummings on November 20.
Early life, education and career
Maloney was born in Greensboro, North Carolina, the daughter of Christine Elizabeth (née Clegg) and Ralph George Bosher. She attended Greensboro College. After graduating, she visited New York City in 1970, and decided to stay.
For several years, she worked as a teacher and an administrator for the New York City Board of Education. In 1977, she obtained a job working for the New York State Legislature, and held senior staff positions in both the State Assembly and the State Senate.
New York City Council
Maloney was elected to the New York City Council in 1982, defeating incumbent Robert Rodriguez in a heavily Spanish-speaking district based in East Harlem and parts of the South Bronx. She served as a Councilmember for 10 years. On the council, she served as the first Chair of the Committee on Contracts, investigating contracts issued by New York City in sludge and other areas. She authored legislation creating the city's Vendex program, which established computerized systems tracking information on City contracts and vendors doing business with the City. Maloney also introduced the first measure in New York to recognize domestic partnerships, including those of same-sex couples. She was the first person to give birth while serving as a City Councilmember, and the first to offer a comprehensive package of legislation to make day care more available and affordable.
U.S. House of Representatives
In 1992, Maloney ran for Congress in what was then the 14th district. She won by a very narrow margin. The district had previously been the 15th, represented by 15-year incumbent Bill Green, a progressive Republican. She narrowly defeated him, taking 51 percent of the vote. The district, nicknamed the "silk stocking district," had been one of the few districts in the city in which Republicans usually did well; in fact, they held the seat for all but eight of the 56 years between 1937 and Maloney's victory. However, it had been made significantly friendlier to Democrats in redistricting. The old 15th had been more or less coextensive with the Upper East Side, but the new 14th now included Long Island City, portions of the Upper West Side, and a sliver of Brooklyn. Maloney also benefited from Bill Clinton's strong showing in the district.
Maloney faced significant opposition from Republican City Councilman Charles Millard in 1994, the year of a Republican tidal wave in the midterm congressional elections. However, she turned back this challenge fairly easily, taking 64 percent of the vote. She has not faced credible opposition since, and has been reelected eight more times by an average of 77 percent of the vote. Indeed, Millard is the last Republican to garner even 30 percent of the vote in the district.
Even as Maloney consolidated her hold on the district, Republicans continued to hold most of the State Senate, Assembly, and City Council seats on Manhattan's East Side for nearly another decade. Since 2002, Democrats have dominated the area, and now hold all of the area's seats in the state legislature and City Council.
In 2004, Maloney faced a potential Democratic primary challenge from Robert Jereski, a former Green Party political candidate and unsuccessful candidate for delegate to the 2004 Democratic National Convention on the slate of Dennis Kucinich. Jereski opposed the Iraq War while Maloney had initially voted for the resolution to authorize force; she later forcefully renounced the war, including most memorably at a town hall meeting in her district with antiwar Congressman John Murtha. However, Jereski didn't qualify for the ballot because his petition was found to have invalid signatures, leaving him 4 short of the 1,250 required.
In December 2008, Maloney hired a public-relations firm to help bolster her efforts to be named by Governor David Paterson as Hillary Clinton's successor as a New York Senator. Maloney toured parts of the state, but was overshadowed by Caroline Kennedy's promotional tour for the same seat. Maloney interviewed with the governor for 55 minutes. Public opinion polls placed Maloney's support for the Senate seat in the single digits, trailing the front-runner, then-New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo, although her bid was endorsed by the National Organization for Women Political Action Committee, the Feminist Majority Political Action Committee, The New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof, and other columnists and editorial boards.
Although she had been leading Gillibrand in both the Rasmussen and the Quinnipiac polls, Maloney ruled out a run for the U.S. Senate and instead retained her congressional seat. Years later, Maloney was the sole member of Congress to endorse Gillibrand's 2020 presidential campaign.
In the Democratic primary for Congress on September 14, 2010, Maloney defeated a well-funded opponent, Reshma Saujani, a 34-year-old Indian-American hedge fund lawyer, by a landslide, 62-percentage point margin, racking up more than 81% of the vote to Saujani's 19 percent. Her success was due in large part to a substantial grassroots effort, with volunteers and a motivated field team reaching out to registered voters across the district. That night, Saujani said, "I'm definitely running again", but three months later announced publicly that she would not challenge Maloney again.
In 2012 Maloney's Republican challenger was Christopher Wright, who took a leave of absence from J. P. Morgan to campaign. Maloney won with 80.9% of the total and by a margin of over 120,000 votes.
In 2014 she was challenged by Republican Nicholas Di Iorio who was a "financial contractor with Pfizer." Maloney won with 80% of the vote. In the 2016 Democratic primary, she defeated her challenger Pete Lindner with 90.1% of the vote, and won the general election contest against Republican Robert Ardini with 83.2% of the vote.
In 2018 she was challenged by Republican Eliot Rabin. Maloney won with 86.4% of the vote. In the 2018 Democratic primary, Maloney won a race against progressive candidate Suraj Patel with 59.6% of the vote, 20 percentage points above her challenger.
In the 2020 Democratic primary, Maloney was challenged again by Patel as well as progressive Democrat Lauren Ashcraft, and housing activist Peter Harrison. Erica Vladimer, a co-founder of New York State's Sexual Harassment Working Group, withdrew from the race prior to the primary. By July 29, 2020, it was revealed that Maloney led Patel by about 4 percent and over 3,700 votes. On August 4, 2020, local election officials declared Maloney the winner of the 2020 Democratic primary.
As of January 7, 2021, Maloney is 22nd in seniority in the House.
In 2009, Maloney was ranked in the National Journal's annual ranking as the 114th most-liberal (or 314th most-conservative) member of Congress, with more liberal scores on foreign policy than on economic and social policy. Her score of 75.5 ranked her as modestly more liberal than the New York Congressional delegation as a whole.
In 2011, a Daily News survey found that Rep. Maloney ranked first among New York's 28 representatives for activity with 36 proposed bills, resolutions, and amendments. 
In the 2013 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored her third among House Democrats for "Leadership," third among all representatives for "Powerful Co-sponsors," third-highest in the New York delegation for "Working with the Senate," and fifth-highest among all representatives for "Bills Sponsored." In the midst of the 2014 election cycle, the New York Daily News ran a story that noted "Maloney has proposed more legislation than any other House member, according to records," and calling her "James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, giving compensation to Ground Zero workers who have fallen ill, as big a bill for the New York area as any in the last decade."
For the 2015 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored Maloney first for "Leadership" among House Democrats, based on sponsoring the most bills. They scored her second among all Representatives for having the most co-sponsors, second among all Representatives for "Working with the Senate" and fourth among House Democrats for having Powerful Cosponsors. She was ranked in the highest 10 percent of all Representatives for bills introduced, noting that "Maloney introduced 26 bills and resolutions in 2015."
As a U.S. Representative, Maloney was a super delegate at presidential conventions. In the 2016 election cycle she was an early supporter of former Secretary of State and New York Senator Hillary Clinton. According to her 2018 GovTrack Report card Maloney ranked in the 80th percentile among all House members for getting bicameral support on the bills she has introduced; she was ranked the sixth top leader compared to all House Democrats.
For her tenure as the chairwoman of the House Oversight and Reform Committee in the 116th Congress, Maloney earned an "A" grade from the non-partisan Lugar Center's Congressional Oversight Hearing Index.
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Maloney worked to ensure that the Bush administration lived up to its promise to "Never Forget" and maintained its commitment to New York's recovery and security efforts. Her efforts prompted Wayne Barrett of the Village Voice to write that Maloney was "like a tiger in the House on every dollar due New York."
On February 25, 2019, she introduced her Never Forget the Heroes Act, HR1327 in the 116th Congress – a bill to establish Permanent Authorization of the September 11 Victim Compensation Fund Act. The $10.2 billion dollar authorization was signed into law, establishing that both the World Trade Center Health Program and September 11 Victim Compensation are effectively permanent, with the WTCHP authorized to operate until 2090 and the VCF until 2092.
National security issues
After the 9/11 Commission published its findings, Maloney co-founded the bipartisan House 9/11 Commission Caucus and helped write and secure the enactment into law of many of its recommendations to reform the nation's intelligence agencies Congressional Quarterly wrote in its annual guide, 2006 Politics in America: "In the 108th Congress, Maloney reached out beyond her usual roles as a liberal gadfly and persistent Bush administration critic, helping win enactment of a sweeping bill to reorganize U.S. intelligence operations."
Following the Dubai Ports World controversy, Maloney helped secure the passage and enactment of her bill to reform the system for vetting foreign investments in the United States. Maloney has supported Scientology's "New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project".
On October 1, 2020, Maloney co-signed a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that condemned Azerbaijan’s offensive operations against the Armenian-populated enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, denounced Turkey’s role in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and criticized "false equivalence between Armenia and Azerbaijan, even as the latter threatens war and refuses to agree to monitoring along the line of contact."
Maloney, who chairs the House Oversight and Reform Committee, called on FBI Director Christopher A. Wray to open a probe into social media platform Parler. She wrote in her letter: "The company was founded by John Matze shortly after he traveled in Russia with his wife, who is Russian and whose family reportedly has ties to the Russian government."
In response to a number of high-profile incidents of gun violence, Maloney sponsored two bills to address the issue. The Gun Trafficking Prevention Act of 2013 would make gun trafficking a federal crime for the first time and substantially stiffen the penalties for "straw buyers" who knowingly help convicted felons, domestic abusers, the violently mentally ill and others, obtain guns. A second bill, reintroduced in 2014 and 2015, would require gun owners to maintain liability insurance, just as most car owners must do.
In 2014, she joined with Senator Ed Markey in sending a letter to President Barack Obama asking him to insert $10 million into the budget for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention to resume research on gun violence and "conduct scientific research on the causes and prevention of gun violence."
In 2008, after reports of corruption among military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, Maloney later secured House passage of her bill to create a database to better monitor all federal contracts, the key provisions of which were later adopted into law as part of the defense budget.
In 2010, the Project On Government Oversight, a government watchdog group, presented Maloney with its Good Government Award for her contributions to government transparency and oversight, including her investigations into corruption and mismanagement in the Minerals Management Service and her support of a Federal Contractor Misconduct Database similar to POGO's.
In 2019, Maloney introduced a bill that would require corporate entities to disclose the identities of beneficial owners to FinCEN, making it harder for bad actors to hide assets and avoid taxes through a series of limited liability companies.
She was a leading advocate for the cause of providing federal support for medical monitoring and health care for rescue and recovery workers who were exposed to toxic smoke and dust at the Ground Zero site after the 9/11 attacks. Maloney authored the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act and led the fight for years to push for its passage. In 2010 President Barack Obama signed the bill into law. It provides $4.3 billion in federal funds to provide 9/11 responders and survivors with treatment and compensation for their injuries. In June 2012, it was announced that the program would be expanded to cover care for a variety of cancers of the lung, trachea, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, bladder, kidney, thyroid and breast.
In 2015 when roughly 33,000 responders and survivors were battling an assortment of ailments, Maloney led the effort to extend the bill permanently. After a prolonged and very public push, a total of $8.5 billion in funding was included in the Omnibus Spending bill that was passed in Dec. 2015 and extended the life of the monitoring and health insurance coverage for 75 years. In the 111th Congress, Maloney introduced "The Breastfeeding Promotion Act" to protect breastfeeding in the workplace under civil rights law and make it illegal for women to lose their jobs or otherwise be discriminated against for expressing milk during lunchtime or on breaks. Maloney has advocated for international women's health and family planning programs supported by the United Nations Population Fund.
A co-founder and co-chair of the Congressional Working Group on Parkinson's Disease, she serves on the board of the Michael Stern Parkinson's Research Foundation and served previously as an honorary board member of the Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation, both in New York City.
Maloney has promoted scientifically-discredited claims of a link between vaccines and autism. Maloney has on a number of occasions introduced legislation that would direct the federal government to conduct studies into the alleged links between autism and vaccine. In a 2012 congressional hearing, Maloney equated concerns over a link between autism and vaccines to concerns over a link between smoking and cancer. She said, that it was "common sense that [smoking] was bad for your health... The same thing seems to be here with the vaccinations."
Financial and economic issues
Maloney serves on the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and is the Ranking Democratic member of the Joint Economic Committee. She was previously the Chair of the Democratic Task Force on Homeland Security. From January 2009 to January 2011, Maloney served as Chair of the Joint Economic Committee, the first woman to do so.
Maloney was the author of the "Credit Cardholders' Bill of Rights" or (the Credit CARD Act of 2009) while serving as Chair of the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit, in the 110th Congress. A 2014 study by the Social Science Research Network estimated that since its passage, the CARD Act has saved consumers $11.9 billion per year. The measure was fiercely opposed by credit card companies, but it drew praise from editorial boards and consumer advocates. The bill was passed as the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act by both houses of the 111th Congress, prompting Money magazine to dub Maloney the "best friend a credit card user ever had." President Barack Obama signed the Credit Card Bill of Rights into law in a Rose Garden ceremony at the White House attended by Maloney on May 22, 2009.
Days after voting against cancellation of a $1 billion, 10-year subsidy plan for U.S. sugar farmers within the 2007 U.S. Farm Bill, Maloney hosted a fundraising event that netted $9,500 in contributions from sugar growers and refiners, according to Federal Election Commission records. Maloney's election attorney, Andrew Tulloch, called the timing of the July 31 fundraiser a "pure coincidence." The bill passed the House by a 282-144 vote. The Sunlight Foundation pointed out that among the 435 members of the U.S. House of Representatives, Maloney has the ninth-highest amount of investment in oil stocks. Maloney received a perfect 100 rating from the Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund in 2007, a perfect 100 rating from Environment America in 2008 and a perfect 100 from the League of Conservation Voters in Feb. 2008. And in 2008, Maloney introduced the Minerals Management Service Improvement Act (HR 7211) as a House companion to Integrity in Offshore Energy Resources Act (S. 3543). The legislation would impose dramatically tougher ethics rules for the Minerals Management Service, which was at the center of a major corruption scandal stemming from its employees' relationships with oil company representatives.
Women's, children's and family issues
Maloney has been active on many other issues involving women, children and families since the beginning of her career. A former Co-Chair of the House Caucus on Women's Issues, she authored and helped secure the enactment into law of a measure to provide federal funding to clear the backlog of rape kits for which evidence had been collected, but never entered into law enforcement DNA databases. It was called "the most important anti-rape legislation ever considered by Congress" by the Rape Abuse and Incest National Network. Maloney's bill, included in the "Justice for All Act of 2005", was named the Debbie Smith Act in honor of Debbie Smith, a rape survivor. The effort to enact the bill was later the subject of a Lifetime Television movie, A Life Interrupted: The Debbie Smith Story, in which Maloney was played by Lynne Adams. Maloney also co-authored and helped secure passage of bipartisan legislation to curb the demand for sex trafficking.
She introduced the Child Care Affordability Act of 2007 to increase access to child care by providing tax credits. Maloney's amendment to a foreign aid bill succeeded in securing $60 million in funding for programs for Afghan women and girls and to help establish an Afghan commission on human rights. She is the chief House sponsor of the Equal Rights Amendment. In 2008 and again in 2009, Maloney authored, and secured House passage of, a bill to provide four weeks of paid parental leave to federal employees.
In 2011, she sponsored the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act, known as the Campus SaVE Act. It became part of the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act of 2013. The measure guarantees counseling, legal assistance, and medical care on campuses for victims of sexual assault, establishes minimum, national standards for schools to follow in responding to allegations of sexual assault and sexual violence, and makes it explicit that schools must provide to both the alleged perpetrator and the alleged victim the same rights, including access to advisers, written notifications, as well as appeals processes during campus disciplinary proceedings.
In Congress, Maloney has placed major focus on infrastructure and helped secure funding for major mass transit projects, resulting in the commitment of billions of federal dollars for New York State.
Maloney has been hailed as a champion of the Second Avenue Subway. MTA data showed that one year later in 2017, the three new stations along Second Avenue combined for over 20 million riders. In December 2006, the federal government signed a full funding grant agreement promising $2.63 billion to New York to complete East Side Access. In November 2007, the federal government signed a full funding grant agreement with New York State, committing to providing $1.3 billion in federal funds for the subway's first phase on Manhattan's Upper East Side from 96th Street station to 63rd Street, which would serve approximately 200,000 daily riders. It opened on January 1, 2017. Maloney also joined with her colleagues early in her tenure, to secure $306.1 million in federal funds for the 63rd Street Connector, a $645 million project that significantly expanded subway capacity between Queens and Manhattan.
She helped secure $670 million in federal funding to replace the deteriorated Kosciusko Bridge, which carries more than 160,000 vehicles each day. The new span will be designed to last for the next 100 years. In the wake of Superstorm Sandy in 2012, Maloney worked with Mayor de Blasio, Senator Schumer, and the entire New York Delegation to secure over $4.9 billion in federal funding to help the MTA recover from the severe flooding, and to harden the area from Montgomery Street to 23rd Street as well as fund the East Side and the East Side Coastal Resiliency Project. The funds will also create new parks and new barriers to prevent the lower East Side from flooding in the future.
Maloney co-sponsored the 2009 reintroduction of the Fair Copyright in Research Works Act (H.R. 801, originally introduced as H.R. 6845 in 2008) as well as the Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) introduced in 2011. Both bills aim to reverse the NIH's Public Access Policy, which mandates open access to NIH-funded research. The Association of American Publishers-backed Research Works Act was criticized by some scientists. In a New York Times op-ed, Michael Eisen described how the bill would force the public to pay $15–$30 per paper to read the results of research they had already paid for as taxpayers. (Such results must now be published in Pubmed Central (PMC) after an embargo period of up to 12 months: this embargo period was imposed to minimize financial harm to publishers who were concerned that their readership would diminish if the results appeared concurrently in PMC, though authors of the paper are required to submit their papers to PMC as soon as their paper gets accepted for publication by a peer-review journal.) Some have suggested that Maloney supports the measure because she is the recipient of campaign contributions from Elsevier, the largest scholarly publishing company. On February 27, 2012, following a boycott of the organization, In a letter to constituents, Maloney noted that "it is important to be mindful of the impact of various industries on job creation and retention. New York State is home to more than 300 publishers that employ more than 12,000 New Yorkers, many of whom live in or around New York City in my district. New York City scientific publishers represent a significant subset of the total, and more than 20 are located in Manhattan, publishing thousands of scientific journals and employing thousands of New Yorkers." Elsevier withdrew their support for the legislation.
- Committee on Financial Services
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (Chair)
- As Chairwoman of the full committee, Maloney may serve as an ex officio member of all subcommittees.
- Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis
- Joint Economic Committee (Vice Chair)
- House 9/11 Commission Caucus
- House Caucus on Women's Issues
- United States Congressional International Conservation Caucus
- Congressional Arts Caucus
- Americans Abroad Caucus - founder and co-chair
- Congressional Progressive Caucus.
- House Baltic Caucus
- Co-Chair, Congressional Hellenic Caucus
- Afterschool Caucuses
- Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
- U.S.-Japan Caucus
- Medicare for All Caucus
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. (October 2019)
When Maloney proposed her Credit Card Holders Bill of Rights, she was widely criticized by credit card issuers. Among the many claims that were leveled against the bill: "credit cards would be more difficult to get, limits would be lower, and interest rates would be higher for everyone." However a study by the Pew Foundation two years after the bills passage found that: "Credit card holders are seeing stabilized interest rates, the elimination of overlimit penalty charges, a reduction in late fees charged by banks and minimal changes in annual fees since the Credit CARD Act of 2009 took effect."
A 2013 study by the Social Science Research Network found that the CARD Act may have saved credit cardholders over $20 billion annually since its implementation and that there was no evidence of an increase in interest charges or reduction in access to credit.
Maloney's initiative to implement firearm liability insurance has been met with widespread criticism from pro-gun advocates. Some experts in insurance law state liability insurance would not deter gun violence, as criminal activity and suicides—comprising 97% of firearm deaths—do not fall under liability policies. Russ Roberts of the Hoover Institution has theorized that the main motivation of advocates of firearm liability laws is to discourage gun ownership by raising the cost of owning a gun.
On July 20, 2009, Maloney apologized after using the word "nigger" in repeating a critical comment made by a third party about Senator Kirsten Gillibrand. Maloney was quoted by the City Hall News:
I got a call from someone from Puerto Rico, [who] said Gillibrand went to Puerto Rico and came out for English-only (education). And he said, 'it was like saying nigger to a Puerto Rican'.
Maloney married Clifton Maloney, a millionaire investment banker, in 1976. The couple had two daughters, Christina and Virginia. Her husband, who ran the New York City Marathon 20 times, was believed to be, at the time, the oldest American ever to summit an "eight-thousander", the world's 14 mountains that surpass 8,000 meters in altitude. He died on a climbing expedition on September 25, 2009, after descending over 4,000 feet from the summit of the world's sixth-tallest peak, Cho Oyu in Tibet. Saying, "I've just climbed a beautiful peak," these were apparently his last words as he went back to sleep and never woke up. Maloney is a member of The Junior League of the City of New York.
Scores by interest groups
Maloney's current ratings by various interest groups include the following:
- The American Association for University Women gives her a 100.
- NARAL Pro-Choice America gives her a 100.
- Drug Policy Action gives her an A for 2015/2016.
- Planned Parenthood gives her a 100.
- The Human Rights Campaign gives her a 100.
- The Alliance for Retired Americans gives her a 100.
- The League of Conservation Voters gives her a 96 for 2013 and 95 lifetime.
- The Children's Defense Fund gives her a 90 for 2011.
- The National Education Association gives her an A.
- The American Public Health Association gives her a 100.
- AFSCME gives her a 100.
- The AFL-CIO gives her a 100.
- The Humane Society gives her a 100+.
- The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence gives her a 100.
- The NRA gives her an F.
- The Gun Owners of America give her an F.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carolyn B. Maloney.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Congresswoman Carolyn B. Maloney official U.S. House website
- Carolyn Maloney for Congress
- Carolyn Maloney at Curlie
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| Member of the New York City Council
from the 8th district
Adam Clayton Powell IV
| Member of the New York City Council
from the 4th district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 14th congressional district
| Chair of the Joint Economic Committee
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 12th congressional district
| Chair of the House Oversight Committee|
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Eddie Bernice Johnson
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