Carolyn R. Bertozzi

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Carolyn R. Bertozzi
Carolyn Bertozzi IMG 9384.jpg
Born (1966-10-10) October 10, 1966 (age 53)
Alma materHarvard University
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, San Francisco
Known forBioorthogonal Chemistry
AwardsMacArthur Foundation Fellowship (1999)
ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (2001)
Lemelson-MIT Prize (2010)
Heinrich Wieland Prize (2012)
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry
InstitutionsStanford University
University of California, Berkeley
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
University of California, San Francisco
Doctoral studentsMireille Kamariza
InfluencedKristi Kiick
External video
"Carolyn Bertozzi: Chemical Glycobiology", iBiology

Carolyn Ruth Bertozzi (born October 10, 1966) is an American chemist. Bertozzi is known for founding a new field of chemistry: bioorthogonal chemistry.[1] At Stanford University, she holds the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professorship in the School of Humanities and Sciences.[2] Bertozzi is also an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)[3] and is the former Director of the Molecular Foundry, a nanoscience research center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.[4] She received the MacArthur "genius" award at age 33.[5] In 2010, she was the first woman to receive the prestigious Lemelson-MIT Prize faculty award. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (2005), the Institute of Medicine (2011), and the National Academy of Inventors (2013). In 2014, it was announced that Bertozzi would lead ACS Central Science, the American Chemical Society's first peer-reviewed open access journal that offers all content free to the public.[6]

Education and Career[edit]

Carolyn Bertozzi received her B.A. summa cum laude in chemistry from Harvard University, where she worked with Professor Joe Grabowski on the design and construction of a photoacoustic calorimeter.[7] While an undergraduate, she played in various bands, including one with future Rage Against the Machine guitarist Tom Morello.[8] After graduating, she worked at Bell Labs with Chris Chidsey.[9]

Bertozzi completed her Ph.D. in Chemistry at UC Berkeley in 1993 with Professor Mark Bednarski, working on the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharide analogs.[10] While working under Professor Bednarski, she discovered that viruses can bind to sugars in the body.[11] The discovery led her to her current field of research glycobiology. After completing a Ph.D., Bertozzi was a postdoctoral fellow at UCSF with Professor Steven Rosen, where she studied the activity of endothelial oligosaccharides in promoting cell adhesion at inflammation sites.[12][13] While working with Professor Rosen, Bertozzi was able to modify the protein and sugar molecules in the walls of living cells so that the cells accept foreign materials such as implants.[14]

Bertozzi joined the UC Berkeley faculty in 1996.[12] She has been an investigator with HHMI since 2000.[4] In 1999, while working with HHMI and at UC Berkeley, she founded the field of bioorthogonal chemistry and coined the term in 2003.[15][16][17] This new field and technique allows researchers to chemically modify molecules in living organisms and not interrupt the processes of the cell.[18] In 2015, Bertozzi moved to Stanford University to join the ChEM-H Institute.[19]

Bertozzi studies the glycobiology of underlying diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In particular, Bertozzi has advanced the understanding of cell surface oligosaccharides involved in cell recognition and inter-cellular communication. Bertozzi has applied the techniques of bioorthogonal chemistry to study glycocalyx, the sugars that surround the cell membrane. Her discoveries have advanced the field of biotherapeutics.[20] Her lab has also developed tools for research. One such development is creating chemical tools for studying glycans in living systems.[4] Her lab's development of nanotechnologies which probe biological systems lead to the development of a fast point-of-care tuberculosis test in 2018.[21][22] In 2017, due to her lab's discovery of linking the sugars on the surface of cancer cells and their ability to avoid the immune system defenses, she was invited to speak at Stanford's TED talk,[23] giving a talk entitled What the sugar coating on your cells is trying to tell you.

Biotechnology Startups[edit]

In addition to her academic work, Bertozzi works actively with biotechnology start-ups. She has served on the research advisory board of GlaxoSmithKline. In the early 2000s, Bertozzi and Steve Rosen co-founded Thios Pharmaceuticals the first company to traget sulfation pathways. In 2008, Bertozzi founded a startup of her own: Redwood Bioscience of Emeryville, California.[24] Redwood Bioscience is a biotechnology company that uses SMARTag, a site-specific protein modification technology that allows small drugs to attach to sites on the proteins and can be used to help fight cancers.[11][25] Redwood Bioscience was acquired by Catalent Pharma Solutions in 2014. Bertozzi remains a part of the advisory board for the biologics sector of the company.[25] In 2014, she co-founded Enable Biosciences which focuses on biotechnologies for at-home diagnoses for type 1 diabetes, HIV, and other diseases.[15][26] Bertozzi became a co-founder of Palleon Pharma of Waltham, Massachusetts in 2015.[27] Palleon Pharma focuses on investigating glycoimmune checkpoint inhibitors as a potential treatment for cancer.[28] In 2017, Bertozzi helped found InterVenn Biosciences, which uses mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence to enhance glycoproteomics for target and biomarker discovery, ovarian cancer diagnostics, and predicting the successes and failures of clinical trials.[15][29] She co-founded Grace Science Foundation in 2018. The foundation focuses on curing NGLY1 deficiency through developing therapeutics that are efficient and inexpensive.[30] In 2019 she co-founded both OliLux Biosciences and Lycia Therapeutics. OliLux Biosciences develops new methods for tuberculosis detection.[15][31] The founding of Lycia Therapeutics occurred when Bertozzi's group discovered lysosome-targeting chimeras (LYTACs). The new molecule class may be able to degrade some cardiovascular disease and cancer targets.[32] Lycia Therapeutics focuses on developing technology which utilizes lysosome-targeting chimeras (LYTACs).[15]

Significant Papers and Publications[edit]

Bertozzi has over 600 publications on Web of Science, listed below are the most cited:

  • Sletten, EM; Bertozzi, CR (2009). "Bioorthogonal Chemistry: Fishing for Selectivity in a Sea of Functionality". Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. In English). 48 (38): 6974–98. doi:10.1002/anie.200900942. PMC 2864149. PMID 19714693.
  • Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Kiessling, Laura L. (2001). "Chemical Glycobiology". Science. 291 (5512): 2357–64. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.2357B. doi:10.1126/science.1059820. PMID 11269316.
  • Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (2000). "Cell Surface Engineering by a Modified Staudinger Reaction". Science. 287 (5460): 2007–10. Bibcode:2000Sci...287.2007S. doi:10.1126/science.287.5460.2007. PMID 10720325.
  • Agard, Nicholas J.; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (2005). "A Strain-Promoted [3 + 2] Azide−Alkyne Cycloaddition for Covalent Modification of Biomolecules in Living Systems". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 126 (46): 15046–15047. doi:10.1021/ja044996f. PMID 15547999.
  • Dube, DH; Bertozzi, CR (2005). "Glycans in cancer and inflammation--potential for therapeutics and diagnostics". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (6): 477–88. doi:10.1038/nrd1751. PMID 15931257.

Awards and Honors[edit]

Carolyn Bertozzi, receiving the Emanuel Merck Lectureship in 2011

Personal life[edit]

Carolyn Bertozzi grew up in Lexington, Massachusetts. She has two sisters, one of whom, Andrea Bertozzi, is on the mathematics faculty at UCLA.[52] Her father, William Bertozzi, was a physics professor at MIT.[53][54] Carolyn Bertozzi now has a wife and three children.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Carolyn R. Bertozzi". HHMI.org. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  2. ^ Adams, Amy. "Stanford chemist explains excitement of chemistry to students, the public". Stanford News. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Carolyn Bertozzi honored by GLBT organization". UC Berkeley News. 27 February 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  4. ^ a b c "Carolyn Bertozzi". HHMI. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  5. ^ "Carolyn Bertozzi, Organic Chemist". MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  6. ^ Wang, Linda. "Carolyn Bertozzi To Lead ACS Central Science | Chemical & Engineering News". cen.acs.org. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
  7. ^ Grabowski, Joseph J.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Jacobsen, John R.; Jain, Ahamindra; Marzluff, Elaine M.; Suh, Annie Y. (1992). "Fluorescence probes in biochemistry: An examination of the non-fluorescent behavior of dansylamide by photoacoustic calorimetry". Analytical Biochemistry. 207 (2): 214–26. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(92)90003-P. PMID 1481973.
  8. ^ "Meet Carolyn Bertozzi". NIGMS. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  9. ^ "Carolyn Bertozzi' s Winding Road to an Extraordinary Career - inChemistry". inchemistry.acs.org. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  10. ^ "Bertozzi: Infectious In Her Enthusiasm". Chemical & Engineering News. 78 (5): 26–35. January 31, 2000.
  11. ^ a b "Carolyn Bertozzi | Lemelson-MIT Program". lemelson.mit.edu. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  12. ^ a b Davis, T. (16 February 2010). "Profile of Carolyn Bertozzi". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (7): 2737–2739. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.2737D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914469107. PMC 2840349. PMID 20160128.
  13. ^ Gardiner, Mary Beth (2005). "The Right Chemistry" (PDF). HHMI Bulletin. Winter 2005: 8–12. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Carolyn Bertozzi". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Carolyn Bertozzi's glycorevolution". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 2020-02-12.
  16. ^ "NIHF Inductee Carolyn Bertozzi Invented Bioorthogonal Chemistry". www.invent.org. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  17. ^ Sletten, Ellen M.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (2011-09-20). "From Mechanism to Mouse: A Tale of Two Bioorthogonal Reactions". Accounts of Chemical Research. 44 (9): 666–676. doi:10.1021/ar200148z. ISSN 0001-4842. PMC 3184615. PMID 21838330.
  18. ^ Sletten, Ellen M.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (2009). "Bioorthogonal Chemistry: Fishing for Selectivity in a Sea of Functionality". Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. In English). 48 (38): 6974–6998. doi:10.1002/anie.200900942. ISSN 1433-7851. PMC 2864149. PMID 19714693.
  19. ^ "Carolyn R. Bertozzi". bertozzigroup.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  20. ^ Xiao, Han; Woods, Elliot C.; Vukojicic, Petar; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (2016-08-22). "Precision glycocalyx editing as a strategy for cancer immunotherapy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (37): 10304–10309. doi:10.1073/pnas.1608069113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5027407. PMID 27551071.
  21. ^ a b "Carolyn Bertozzi 2010 Lemelson-MIT Prize". MIT. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  22. ^ Kamariza, Mireille; Shieh, Peyton; Ealand, Christopher S.; Peters, Julian S.; Chu, Brian; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances P.; Babu Sait, Mohammed R.; Treuren, William V.; Martinson, Neil; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Kana, Bavesh D. (2018). "Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum with a solvatochromic trehalose probe". Science Translational Medicine. 10 (430): eaam6310. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aam6310. ISSN 1946-6242. PMC 5985656. PMID 29491187.
  23. ^ Bertozzi, Carolyn. "Carolyn Bertozzi | Speaker | TED". www.ted.com. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  24. ^ McCook, Alison (March 6, 2013). "Women in Biotechnology: Barred from the Boardroom". Scientific American. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  25. ^ a b "Redwood Bioscience Inc. | IPIRA". ipira.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  26. ^ "Enable Biosciences, Inc. | IPIRA". ipira.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2020-02-12.
  27. ^ Palleon Pharma - Leadership
  28. ^ MassBio - Palleon Pharma
  29. ^ Spectrometry, InterVenn Biosciences | AI-Driven Mass. "InterVenn Biosciences | AI-Driven Mass Spectrometry". intervenn.bio. Retrieved 2020-02-12.
  30. ^ "Grace Science Foundation | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-12.
  31. ^ Dinkele, Ryan; Gessner, Sophia; Koch, Anastasia S.; Morrow, Carl; Gqada, Melitta; Kamariza, Mireille; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Smith, Brian; McLoud, Courtney; Kamholz, Andrew; Bryden, Wayne (2019-12-27). "Capture and visualization of live Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli from tuberculosis bioaerosols". bioRxiv: 2019.12.23.887729. doi:10.1101/2019.12.23.887729.
  32. ^ Banik, Steven; Pedram, Kayvon; Wisnovsky, Simon; Riley, Nicholas; Bertozzi, Carolyn (2019-11-20). "Lysosome Targeting Chimeras (LYTACs) for the Degradation of Secreted and Membrane Proteins". Figshare. doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.7927061.v2.
  33. ^ "Carolyn R. Bertozzi". Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  34. ^ "President Honors Outstanding Young Scientists". clintonwhitehouse4.archives.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
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  37. ^ Cassell, Heather (February 22, 2007). "Two Bay Area gay scientists honored". Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  38. ^ "NOGLSTP to Honor Bertozzi, Gill, Mauzey, and Bannochie at 2007 Awards Ceremony in February". NOGLSTP. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  39. ^ Kamerling, Johannis P. (2008-03-01). "The Roy L. Whistler International Award in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2008". Glycobiology. 18 (3): 209. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwn005. ISSN 0959-6658. PMID 18326004.
  40. ^ "List of Members". www.leopoldina.org. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
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  45. ^ "Heinrich Wieland Prize 2012 goes to Carolyn R. Bertozzi". Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ "Carolyn Bertozzi and George Smoot Elected to National Academy of Inventors | Research UC Berkeley". vcresearch.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
  47. ^ "Bloemendal Medal". www2.rimls.nl. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
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  49. ^ "Distinguished scientists elected as Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society". The Royal Society. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
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  52. ^ "UCLA Math Department Faculty". Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  53. ^ "MIT Physics Department Faculty". Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  54. ^ Davis, T. (2010-02-16). "Profile of Carolyn Bertozzi". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (7): 2737–2739. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.2737D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914469107. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2840349. PMID 20160128.

External links[edit]