Carolyn S. Shoemaker

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Carolyn S. Shoemaker
Carolyn Shoemaker (cropped).jpg
Born
Carolyn Jean Spellmann

(1929-06-24)June 24, 1929
Gallup, New Mexico, United States
DiedAugust 13, 2021(2021-08-13) (aged 92)
Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
NationalityAmerican
Alma materChico State
Known forCo-discovery of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9
Spouse(s)
(m. 1951; died 1997)
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsAstronomy
Institutions

Carolyn Jean Spellmann Shoemaker (June 24, 1929 – August 13, 2021) was an American astronomer and a co-discoverer of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.[1] She discovered 32 comets (then a record for the most by an individual)[2] and more than 500 asteroids.[3]

Having earned degrees in history, political science, and English literature, she had little interest in science until she met and married geologist Eugene Merle Shoemaker. Her career in astronomy began when she demonstrated good stereoscopic vision, a particularly valuable quality for looking for objects in near-Earth space. Despite the fact that her degrees were not in science, having that visual ability motivated the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to hire her as a research assistant on a team led by her husband.[2] She went on to making record-setting discoveries in the field of astronomy, as well as being awarded honorary degrees and many profession awards.

Personal life[edit]

Shoemaker was born on June 24, 1929, in Gallup, New Mexico, to Hazel and Leonard Spellmann.[2][4] Her family then moved to Chico, California, where she and her brother Richard grew up. She earned bachelor's and master's degrees in history, political science, and English literature from Chico State.[5]

When her brother attended Caltech, his roommate was a young graduate student named Eugene "Gene" Shoemaker. Carolyn first met him in the summer of 1950 at her brother's wedding.[2] After graduating, Shoemaker had moved to New Jersey to begin work toward his doctoral degree at Princeton University. He had flown back to California to serve as Richard's best man. When Shoemaker returned to his studies at Princeton, Carolyn and he maintained a pen pal relationship and later both attended a two-week camping trip on the Cumberland Plateau. They were married on August 18, 1951[6] and had three children: Christy, Linda, and Patrick (Pat).[2]

The Shoemaker family lived in Grand Junction, Colorado, Menlo Park, California, and Pasadena, California, before settling down in Flagstaff, Arizona, where she and her husband worked together at the Lowell Observatory.[6] In 1997, Carolyn and Gene were involved in a car crash in Australia. Gene was killed instantly, while Carolyn sustained severe injuries.[7]

Shoemaker died at age 92, after a fall on August 13, 2021.[8][9]

Carolyn never really considered herself a scientist, although she absorbed a large amount of geology and astronomy from her husband. She was a forthright person, gifted with inordinate patience and a fine sense of humour. Before the Jupiter impacts, a reporter asked her what would happen if all the comet’s fragments were to hit Earth instead. “We would all die,” she answered. The interviewer explained that this was for a children’s programme, then posed the question again. Carolyn’s second answer: “We would all be very uncomfortable.”

— Levy, David H. (2021). "Carolyn S. Shoemaker (1929–2021)". Nature. 597 (7874): 27. Bibcode:2021Natur.597...27L. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02345-5.

Careers[edit]

Palomar Observatory near San Diego, California, where Carolyn and Gene Shoemaker recorded many of their astronomical discoveries

Shortly after her marriage, the first job she held was teaching the seventh grade.[3] Unsatisfied with the teaching profession, she quit to raise a family.[3] Mary Chapman, author of Shoemaker's biography for the USGS Astrogeology Center, wrote "Carolyn is a warm, caring, and extremely patient woman, but her skills were better suited for a non-teaching environment."[2] After her children had grown up and moved out, Shoemaker sought work.[3] In her youth, she had never been interested in scientific topics.[2] She had taken one course in geology, but found it extremely boring.[2] However, she reportedly told others that, "listening to Gene explaining geology made what she had thought was a boring subject into an exciting and interesting pursuit of knowledge".[2]

Clark Dome at Lowell Observatory
Shoemaker in 1986

At the suggestion of her husband, she began studying astronomy from a student at Lowell Observatory.[5] Then she began working as a field assistant for her husband. She worked on his search program mapping and analyzing impact craters.[5]

Carolyn Shoemaker started her astronomical career in 1980, at age 51, searching for Earth-crossing asteroids and comets at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, and the Palomar Observatory, San Diego, California.[10] That year, Shoemaker was hired at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a visiting scientist in the astronomy branch, and then in 1989 began work as an astronomy research professor at Northern Arizona University.[5] She concentrated her work on searching for comets and planet-crossing asteroids.[6] Teamed with astronomer David H. Levy, the Shoemakers identified Shoemaker-Levy 9, a fragmented comet with an orbit that intersected that of Jupiter, on March 24, 1993.[11][12]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Shoemaker used film taken at the wide-field telescope at the Palomar Observatory, combined with a stereoscope, to find objects that moved against the background of fixed stars.[2]

Following recovery from the injuries she suffered in the 1997 automobile crash in which her husband was killed, she resumed her work at the Lowell Observatory with Levy.[7] She was actively involved in astronomical observation work until at least 2002.[2] As of 2002, Shoemaker had been credited with discovering or co-discovering 32 comets and over 500 asteroids.[3]

Awards and honors[edit]

The Hildian asteroid 4446 Carolyn, discovered by colleague Edward Bowell at Lowell Observatory in 1985, was named in her honor.[13] In 1988, Shoemaker received the Rittenhouse Medal of the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society.[11]

She received the Scientist of the Year Award in 1995.[citation needed] In 1996, Shoemaker received an honorary doctorate degree from the Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal.[2] In 1998, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences named both of the Shoemakers as the recipients of the James Craig Watson Medal.[14]

List of discovered minor planets[edit]

As of March 2022, Shoemaker is tied with Takeshi Urata for 80th place on the Minor Planet Center's list of most discoveries with 377 numbered minor planets between the years 1980 and 1994.[15]

List of minor planets discovered by Carolyn Shoemaker
Name Discovery date Listing
2459 Spellmann June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#459
2511 Patterson June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#511
2532 Sutton October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#532
2586 Matson June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#586
2614 Torrence June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#614
2686 Linda Susan May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#686
2705 Wu October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#705
2742 Gibson May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#742
2748 Patrick Gene May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#748
2773 Brooks May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#773
2834 Christy Carol October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#834
2891 McGetchin June 18, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#891
2906 Caltech January 13, 1983 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#906
2918 Salazar October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#918
2932 Kempchinsky October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#932
2982 Muriel May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 2001–3000#982
3025 Higson August 20, 1982 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#025[A]
3107 Weaver May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#107
3161 Beadell October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#161
3194 Dorsey May 27, 1982 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#194
3199 Nefertiti September 13, 1982 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#199[A]
3225 Hoag August 20, 1982 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#225[A]
3270 Dudley February 18, 1982 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#270[B]
3285 Ruth Wolfe November 5, 1983 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#285
3299 Hall October 10, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#299
3317 Paris May 26, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#317[A]
3333 Schaber October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#333
3375 Amy May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#375
3430 Bradfield October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#430
3553 Mera May 14, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#553
3554 Amun March 4, 1986 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#554[A]
3581 Alvarez April 23, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#581
3640 Gostin October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#640
3671 Dionysus May 27, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#671[A]
3689 Yeates May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#689
3700 Geowilliams October 23, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#700[A]
3709 Polypoites October 14, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#709
3777 McCauley May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#777
3779 Kieffer May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#779
3792 Preston March 22, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#792
3793 Leonteus October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#793
3794 Sthenelos October 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#794
3837 Carr May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#837
3840 Mimistrobell October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#840
3846 Hazel October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#846
3854 George March 13, 1983 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#854
3873 Roddy November 21, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#873
3880 Kaiserman November 21, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#880[A]
3888 Hoyt March 28, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#888
3895 Earhart February 23, 1987 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#895
3906 Chao May 31, 1987 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#906
3927 Feliciaplatt May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#927[A]
3932 Edshay September 27, 1984 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#932[C]
3972 Richard May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#972
3977 Maxine June 14, 1983 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#977
3985 Raybatson February 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 3001–4000#985
4029 Bridges May 24, 1982 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#029
4031 Mueller February 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#031
4082 Swann September 27, 1984 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#082
4083 Jody February 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#083
4085 Weir May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#085
4151 Alanhale April 24, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#151[A]
4153 Roburnham May 14, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#153
4171 Carrasco March 23, 1982 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#171
4173 Thicksten May 27, 1982 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#173
4203 Brucato March 26, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#203
4204 Barsig May 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#204
4217 Engelhardt January 24, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#217
4251 Kavasch May 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#251
4253 Märker October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#253
4283 Stöffler January 23, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#283
4327 Ries May 24, 1982 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#327
4332 Milton September 5, 1983 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#332
4340 Dence May 4, 1986 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#340
4341 Poseidon May 29, 1987 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#341
4348 Poulydamas September 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#348
4368 Pillmore May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#368
4379 Snelling August 13, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#379[A]
4401 Aditi October 14, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#401
4435 Holt January 13, 1983 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#435
4448 Phildavis March 5, 1986 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#448
4450 Pan September 25, 1987 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#450[A]
4451 Grieve May 9, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#451
4487 Pocahontas October 17, 1987 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#487
4503 Cleobulus November 28, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#503
4531 Asaro March 20, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#531
4533 Orth March 7, 1986 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#533
4543 Phoinix February 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#543
4569 Baerbel April 15, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#569
4582 Hank March 31, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#582
4624 Stefani March 23, 1982 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#624
4666 Dietz May 4, 1986 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#666
4673 Bortle June 8, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#673
4707 Khryses August 13, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#707
4708 Polydoros September 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#708
4709 Ennomos October 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#709
4736 Johnwood January 13, 1983 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#736
4765 Wasserburg May 5, 1986 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#765
4783 Wasson January 12, 1983 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#783
4791 Iphidamas August 14, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#791
4792 Lykaon September 10, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#792
4805 Asteropaios November 13, 1990 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#805
4820 Fay September 15, 1985 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#820
4826 Wilhelms May 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#826
4827 Dares August 17, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#827
4828 Misenus September 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#828
4829 Sergestus September 10, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#829
4832 Palinurus October 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#832
4833 Meges January 8, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#833
4834 Thoas January 11, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#834
4836 Medon February 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#836
4856 Seaborg June 11, 1983 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#856
4857 Altgamia March 29, 1984 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#857
4867 Polites September 27, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#867
4885 Grange June 10, 1980 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#885
4888 Doreen May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#888
4898 Nishiizumi March 19, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#898
4899 Candace May 9, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#899[A]
4902 Thessandrus January 9, 1989 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#902
4946 Askalaphus January 21, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#946[A]
4947 Ninkasi October 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 4001–5000#947
5023 Agapenor October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#023[A]
5027 Androgeos January 21, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#027
5028 Halaesus January 23, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#028
5029 Ireland January 24, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#029[A]
5052 Nancyruth October 23, 1984 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#052[A]
5120 Bitias October 13, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#120
5126 Achaemenides February 1, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#126
5130 Ilioneus September 30, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#130
5143 Heracles November 7, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#143
5144 Achates December 2, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#144
5161 Wightman October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#161
5167 Joeharms April 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#167[A]
5168 Jenner March 6, 1986 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#168[A]
5175 Ables November 4, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#175[A]
5211 Stevenson July 8, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#211[A]
5231 Verne May 9, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#231
5259 Epeigeus January 30, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#259[A]
5264 Telephus May 17, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#264[A]
5283 Pyrrhus January 31, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#283
5284 Orsilocus February 1, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#284[A]
5285 Krethon March 9, 1989 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#285[A]
5317 Verolacqua February 11, 1983 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#317
5325 Silver May 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#325
5381 Sekhmet May 14, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#381
5392 Parker January 12, 1986 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#392
5426 Sharp February 16, 1985 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#426
5430 Luu May 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#430[A]
5436 Eumelos February 20, 1990 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#436[A]
5457 Queen's October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#457
5511 Cloanthus October 8, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#511[A]
5547 Acadiau June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#547
5551 Glikson January 24, 1982 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#551[A]
5579 Uhlherr May 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#579[A]
5632 Ingelehmann April 15, 1993 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#632[A]
5637 Gyas September 10, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#637[A]
5638 Deikoon October 10, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#638[A]
5652 Amphimachus April 24, 1992 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#652[A]
5670 Rosstaylor November 7, 1985 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#670[A]
5720 Halweaver March 29, 1984 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#720[A]
5725 Nördlingen January 23, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#725[A]
5726 Rubin January 24, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#726[A]
5731 Zeus November 4, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#731[A]
5765 Izett April 4, 1986 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#765[A]
5799 Brewington October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#799
5852 Nanette April 19, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#852[D]
5863 Tara September 7, 1983 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#863[A]
5869 Tanith November 4, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#869
5899 Jedicke January 9, 1986 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#899[A]
5947 Bonnie March 21, 1985 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#947[A]
5953 Shelton April 25, 1987 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#953[A]
5957 Irina May 11, 1988 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#957[A]
5967 Edithlevy February 9, 1991 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#967
5999 Plescia April 23, 1987 List of minor planets: 5001–6000#999[A]
6063 Jason May 27, 1984 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#063[A]
6078 Burt October 10, 1980 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#078
6084 Bascom February 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#084[A]
6087 Lupo March 19, 1988 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#087[A]
6179 Brett March 3, 1986 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#179[A]
6183 Viscome September 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#183
6204 MacKenzie May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#204
6239 Minos August 31, 1989 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#239[A]
6282 Edwelda October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#282
6372 Walker May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#372[A]
6376 Schamp May 29, 1987 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#376[A]
6398 Timhunter February 10, 1991 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#398[A][D]
6401 Roentgen April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#401[A][D]
6436 Coco May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#436[A]
6478 Gault May 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#478[A]
6485 Wendeesther October 25, 1990 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#485[A][D]
6510 Tarry February 23, 1987 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#510[A]
6543 Senna October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#543[A]
6585 O'Keefe September 26, 1984 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#585[A]
6635 Zuber September 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#635[A]
6670 Wallach June 4, 1994 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#670[D]
6740 Goff April 14, 1993 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#740[A]
6898 Saint-Marys June 8, 1988 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#898
6901 Roybishop August 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#901[A]
6909 Levison January 19, 1991 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#909[A]
6914 Becquerel April 3, 1992 List of minor planets: 6001–7000#914[D][E]
7051 Sean May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#051[A]
7086 Bopp October 5, 1991 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#086[A]
7088 Ishtar January 1, 1992 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#088[A]
7092 Cadmus June 4, 1992 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#092[A]
7112 Ghislaine April 3, 1986 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#112[A]
7119 Hiera January 11, 1989 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#119[A]
7167 Laupheim October 12, 1985 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#167[A]
7173 Sepkoski August 15, 1988 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#173[A]
7344 Summerfield June 4, 1992 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#344[D]
7480 Norwan August 1, 1994 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#480[A]
7549 Woodard October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#549[A]
7560 Spudis January 10, 1986 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#560[A]
7749 Jackschmitt May 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#749[A]
7750 McEwen August 18, 1988 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#750[A]
7756 Scientia March 27, 1990 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#756[A]
7778 Markrobinson April 17, 1993 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#778[A]
7958 Leakey June 5, 1994 List of minor planets: 7001–8000#958[A]
8021 Walter October 22, 1990 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#021[D]
8034 Akka June 3, 1992 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#034[A]
8149 Ruff May 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#149[A]
8326 Paulkling May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#326[A]
8327 Weihenmayer May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#327[A]
8331 Dawkins May 27, 1982 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#331[B]
8347 Lallaward April 21, 1987 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#347[A]
8356 Wadhwa September 3, 1989 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#356[A]
8358 Rickblakley November 4, 1989 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#358[D]
8373 Stephengould January 1, 1992 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#373[A]
8709 Kadlu May 14, 1994 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#709[A]
8804 Eliason May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#804[A]
8817 Roytraver May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 8001–9000#817[A]
9016 Henrymoore January 10, 1986 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#016[A]
9022 Drake August 14, 1988 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#022[A]
9023 Mnesthus September 10, 1988 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#023[A]
9070 Ensab July 23, 1993 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#070[D]
9082 Leonardmartin November 4, 1994 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#082[A]
9083 Ramboehm November 28, 1994 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#083[D]
9165 Raup September 27, 1987 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#165[A]
9172 Abhramu July 29, 1989 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#172[A]
9277 Togashi October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#277[A]
9299 Vinceteri May 13, 1985 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#299[A]
9564 Jeffwynn September 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#564[A]
9739 Powell September 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#739
9744 Nielsen May 9, 1988 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#744[A]
9768 Stephenmaran April 5, 1992 List of minor planets: 9001–10000#768[A]
10028 Bonus May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#028
10041 Parkinson April 24, 1985 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#041[A]
10044 Squyres September 15, 1985 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#044[A]
10060 Amymilne April 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#060[A]
10108 Tomlinson April 26, 1992 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#108[A]
10283 Cromer May 5, 1981 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#283
10295 Hippolyta April 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#295[A]
10332 Défi May 13, 1991 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#332[D]
10346 Triathlon April 2, 1992 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#346[D]
10487 Danpeterson April 14, 1985 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#487[A]
10563 Izhdubar November 19, 1993 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#563[A]
10683 Carter June 10, 1980 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#683[A]
10739 Lowman May 12, 1988 List of minor planets: 10001–11000#739[A]
11006 Gilson October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#006[A]
11066 Sigurd February 9, 1992 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#066[A]
11277 Ballard October 8, 1988 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#277[A]
11311 Peleus December 10, 1993 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#311[A]
11548 Jerrylewis November 25, 1992 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#548[D]
11569 Virgilsmith May 27, 1993 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#569[D]
11836 Eileen February 5, 1986 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#836[A]
11911 Angel June 4, 1992 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#911[D]
11941 Archinal May 23, 1993 List of minor planets: 11001–12000#941[D]
12227 Penney October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#227[A]
12237 Coughlin April 23, 1987 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#237[A]
12242 Koon August 18, 1988 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#242[A]
12675 Chabot October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#675[A]
12680 Bogdanovich May 6, 1981 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#680
12714 Alkimos April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#714[A]
12753 Povenmire April 18, 1993 List of minor planets: 12001–13000#753[A]
13057 Jorgensen November 13, 1990 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#057[D]
13062 Podarkes April 19, 1991 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#062[A]
13111 Papacosmas July 23, 1993 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#111[D]
13123 Tyson May 16, 1994 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#123[D]
13615 Manulis November 28, 1994 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#615[D]
13914 Galegant June 11, 1980 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#914
13915 Yalow May 27, 1982 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#915[B]
13937 Roberthargraves August 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 13001–14000#937[A]
14429 Coyne December 3, 1991 List of minor planets: 14001–15000#429[D]
14827 Hypnos May 5, 1986 List of minor planets: 14001–15000#827[A]
14835 Holdridge November 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 14001–15000#835[A]
15228 Ronmiller February 23, 1987 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#228[A]
15276 Diebel April 14, 1991 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#276[D]
15294 Underwood November 7, 1991 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#294[D]
15304 Wikberg October 21, 1992 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#304[A]
15318 Innsbruck May 24, 1993 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#318
15321 Donnadean August 13, 1993 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#321[D]
15779 Scottroberts July 26, 1993 List of minor planets: 15001–16000#779[D]
16452 Goldfinger September 28, 1989 List of minor planets: 16001–17000#452[A]
16514 Stevelia November 11, 1990 List of minor planets: 16001–17000#514[D]
16641 Esteban August 16, 1993 List of minor planets: 16001–17000#641[A]
16666 Liroma December 7, 1993 List of minor planets: 16001–17000#666
16669 Rionuevo December 8, 1993 List of minor planets: 16001–17000#669[D]
17399 Andysanto September 6, 1983 List of minor planets: 17001–18000#399[A]
17408 McAdams October 19, 1987 List of minor planets: 17001–18000#408[A]
17493 Wildcat December 31, 1991 List of minor planets: 17001–18000#493[D]
18368 Flandrau April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 18001–19000#368[D]
18434 Mikesandras March 12, 1994 List of minor planets: 18001–19000#434[D]
19140 Jansmit September 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 19001–20000#140[A]
19173 Virginiaterése April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 19001–20000#173[A]
19243 Bunting February 10, 1994 List of minor planets: 19001–20000#243[A]
19980 Barrysimon November 22, 1989 List of minor planets: 19001–20000#980[D]
20007 Marybrown June 7, 1991 List of minor planets: 20001–21000#007[A]
20037 Duke October 20, 1992 List of minor planets: 20001–21000#037[A]
20084 Buckmaster April 6, 1994 List of minor planets: 20001–21000#084[D]
21062 Iasky May 13, 1991 List of minor planets: 21001–22000#062[A]
21148 Billramsey April 16, 1993 List of minor planets: 21001–22000#148[A]
21149 Kenmitchell April 19, 1993 List of minor planets: 21001–22000#149[A]
22294 Simmons September 28, 1989 List of minor planets: 22001–23000#294[A]
22312 Kelly April 14, 1991 List of minor planets: 22001–23000#312[D]
22338 Janemojo June 3, 1992 List of minor planets: 22001–23000#338[D]
23452 Drew August 18, 1988 List of minor planets: 23001–24000#452[A]
24626 Astrowizard October 9, 1980 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#626[A]
24643 MacCready September 28, 1984 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#643[A]
24654 Fossett May 29, 1987 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#654[A]
24761 Ahau January 28, 1993 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#761[A]
24778 Nemsu May 24, 1993 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#778[D]
24779 Presque Isle July 23, 1993 List of minor planets: 24001–25000#779[D]
26879 Haines July 9, 1994 List of minor planets: 26001–27000#879[A]
27706 Strogen October 11, 1985 List of minor planets: 27001–28000#706[A]
27711 Kirschvink November 4, 1988 List of minor planets: 27001–28000#711[A]
27776 Cortland February 25, 1992 List of minor planets: 27001–28000#776[D]
27810 Daveturner July 23, 1993 List of minor planets: 27001–28000#810[D]
29133 Vargas May 29, 1987 List of minor planets: 29001–30000#133[A]
29137 Alanboss October 18, 1987 List of minor planets: 29001–30000#137[A]
29146 McHone March 17, 1988 List of minor planets: 29001–30000#146[A]
29292 Conniewalker May 24, 1993 List of minor planets: 29001–30000#292[D]
30767 Chriskraft November 6, 1983 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#767[A]
30779 Sankt-Stephan October 17, 1987 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#779[A]
30785 Greeley August 13, 1988 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#785[A]
30786 Karkoschka August 18, 1988 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#786[A]
30840 Jackalice April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#840[D]
30844 Hukeller May 17, 1991 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#844[A]
30934 Bakerhansen November 16, 1993 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#934[D]
30935 Davasobel January 8, 1994 List of minor planets: 30001–31000#935[D]
32776 Nriag May 29, 1987 List of minor planets: 32001–33000#776[A]
32890 Schwob January 8, 1994 List of minor planets: 32001–33000#890[D]
32897 Curtharris August 1, 1994 List of minor planets: 32001–33000#897[D]
35056 Cullers September 28, 1984 List of minor planets: 35001–36000#056[A]
37588 Lynnecox April 15, 1991 List of minor planets: 37001–38000#588[D]
37601 Vicjen April 3, 1992 List of minor planets: 37001–38000#601[D]
37609 LaVelle November 25, 1992 List of minor planets: 37001–38000#609[A]
37655 Illapa August 1, 1994 List of minor planets: 37001–38000#655[A]
43763 Russert May 30, 1987 List of minor planets: 43001–44000#763[A]
43793 Mackey November 13, 1990 List of minor planets: 43001–44000#793[D]
48416 Carmelita January 24, 1988 List of minor planets: 48001–49000#416[A]
(48576) 1994 NN2 July 11, 1994 List of minor planets: 48001–49000#576
52266 Van Flandern January 10, 1986 List of minor planets: 52001–53000#266[A]
52384 Elenapanko April 19, 1993 List of minor planets: 52001–53000#384
(55758) 1991 XR December 3, 1991 List of minor planets: 55001–56000#758
65672 Merrick August 16, 1988 List of minor planets: 65001–66000#672[A]
(65688) 1990 VD8 November 13, 1990 List of minor planets: 65001–66000#688
73670 Kurthopf August 19, 1982 List of minor planets: 73001–74000#670[A]
79117 Brydonejack August 16, 1988 List of minor planets: 79001–80000#117[A]
85158 Phyllistrapp October 17, 1987 List of minor planets: 85001–86000#158
(85165) 1988 TV2 October 7, 1988 List of minor planets: 85001–86000#165
(85194) 1991 TL2 October 5, 1991 List of minor planets: 85001–86000#194
(85306) 1994 VL8 November 7, 1994 List of minor planets: 85001–86000#306
(90777) 1993 XJ3 December 10, 1993 List of minor planets: 90001–91000#777
(99907) 1989 VA November 2, 1989 List of minor planets: 99001–100000#907
(100008) 1988 QZ August 16, 1988 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#008
(100015) 1989 SR7 September 28, 1989 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#015
(100016) 1989 SD8 September 28, 1989 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#016
(100045) 1991 TK1 October 5, 1991 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#045
(100052) 1991 VP5 November 7, 1991 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#052
(100085) 1992 UY4 October 25, 1992 List of minor planets: 100001–101000#085
(129451) 1991 KD May 18, 1991 List of minor planets: 129001–130000#451
(316650) 1987 UL October 17, 1987 List of minor planets: 316001–317000#650
(363012) 1988 PH4 August 14, 1988 List of minor planets: 363001–364000#012
(368150) 1992 DC February 26, 1992 List of minor planets: 368001–369000#150
(393348) 1988 RO1 September 13, 1988 List of minor planets: 393001–394000#348
(408751) 1987 SF3 September 26, 1987 List of minor planets: 408001–409000#751[A]
(422637) 1985 WA November 16, 1985 List of minor planets: 422001–423000#637
(488450) 1994 JX May 14, 1994 List of minor planets: 488001–489000#450
Co-discovery with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mestel, Rosie (July 9, 1994). "Carolyn Shoemaker and 'Her Comet'". New Scientist. Vol. 143, no. 1933. p. 23. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chapman, Mary G. (May 17, 2002). "Carolyn Shoemaker". Astrogeology Research Program. United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Carolyn Shoemaker has discovered 32 comets and more than 500 asteroids". The Arizona Republic. August 11, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  4. ^ Stange, Mary Zeiss; Oyster, Carol K.; Sloan, Jane E. (February 23, 2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE Publishing. p. 1344. ISBN 978-1-4129-7685-5. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011). American women of science since 1900. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-59884-159-6. OCLC 702118874.
  6. ^ a b c "Gene Shoemaker, American astrogeologist". Encyclopædia Britannica. July 14, 2021. Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  7. ^ a b Shoemaker, Carolyn (November 27, 1998). "Space-Where Now, and Why?". Science. 282 (5394): 1637–1638. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.1637S. doi:10.1126/science.282.5394.1637. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 2896833. S2CID 130632437.
  8. ^ Traub, Alex (September 1, 2021). "Carolyn Shoemaker, Hunter of Comets and Asteroids, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  9. ^ "In Memoriam: Carolyn Shoemaker, 1929–2021". Planetary News. August 17, 2021.
  10. ^ "She's Looking Out for Us". Explorer. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. May 2001.
  11. ^ a b Lang, Susan S. (April 11, 2002). "Comet hunter Carolyn Shoemaker to speak at Cornell April 21". Cornell Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018.
  12. ^ Levy, David H. (July 16, 2014). "Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: 20 years later". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
  13. ^ "4446 Carolyn (1985 TT)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  14. ^ "James Craig Watson Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  15. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. January 29, 2022. Archived from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.

External links[edit]