Carpet dyes in Uzbekistan
Manufacture of home textiles from the wool for the different purposes, including a variety of rugs, bags, tablecloths, kigizes for yurts, items for their interior design, knitted turbans, etc. were widespread in the mountainous and foothill villages of the Baisun, Sherabad and Denau regions. Carpets were mainly woven from the fleece.
Carpet weaving was considered as a home craft till the middle of the 19th century in Central Asia. Cotton and wool were the main raw materials from the products of agriculture and animal husbandry. Especially the wool of the white color was valued. Inhabitants of the mountain villages of Sherabad were considered as the best manufactures of carpets.
Methods of manufacture, placing the patterns on them were different and had some definite meaning. For example, a carpet with an olacha (mixed colors) pattern "kulf-kalit" meant that the door of the house is always open for the friends and closed for the enemies and pattern "kurokgul" symbolize the wish that two young people were together till their old age.
Patterns of Surkhan oasis carpets
Surkhan oasis is known with its plain pile rugs with geometric, zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and islimi patterns, representing the religious beliefs and faith of the people. These rugs were woven of the cotton thread, first they waved the lower part which consisted of variety of colors and was called "suv yuli"- the way of the water. There was also "kosh uyurma" pattern which was waved from the 3-4 layers of white and black threads. One of the main parts of the carpet is "chetki kora"; it is a train of the edges were used for its manufacture.
During manufacture of the carpet knots from the colored threads that form the basis, each time completely transferred to the left or to the right, and the tool moves forward or backward.
If the purl yarns are equity, the nodules are not transferred. When 1-1.5 m left to the end of form, woven fabric is cut, as the purl yarn woven fabric with an increasing of woven linen is tightened and can break. After the cutting, the edges of the carpet are styled with purl of the remaining threads. From three or four filaments they make small knots, it’s provides durability of the carpet.
Making of takir gilam (weaving technique) is a very complex process, and they used average 12–14 kg of yarn. Turkmen clan Ersari living in Surkhan oasis is considered as the best masters for making of takir gilam.
From the wool yarn they produced takinamat of white, black, blue and other colors. Wool was purified and scotched, shook up then it was painted in large boilers and laid on a sacking in a variety of patterns, mostly diamond and a cross shaped. Then they moistened it a little with hot water, wrapped, pressed by hand and knees, and hung up. Then again they pressed it, but mainly this was the business of young men. This process was repeated by several times, after which the products are considered as ready.
- Traditions of Uzbekistan carpet weaving
- "Moziydan Sado" magazine,E.Kabilov and M.Fayzullayev, 2(58) 2013
- "Toshkentnoma"("Tashkentnama"), M.Shaykhzoda,2004