Caraway

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For other uses, see Caraway (disambiguation).
Caraway
Carum carvi - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-172.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Umbelliferae
Genus: Carum
Species: C. carvi
Binomial name
Carum carvi
L.

Caraway, also known as Persian cumin, (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,[1] native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.[2][2][3][4][5]

The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits (erroneously called seeds) are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm (0.08 in) long, with five pale ridges.

Caraway
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,567 kJ (375 kcal)
44.24 g
Sugars 2.25 g
Dietary fiber 10.5 g
22.27 g
Saturated 1.535 g
Monounsaturated 14.04 g
Polyunsaturated 3.279 g
17.81 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(8%)
64 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(55%)
0.628 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(27%)
0.327 mg
Niacin (B3)
(31%)
4.579 mg
Vitamin B6
(33%)
0.435 mg
Folate (B9)
(3%)
10 μg
Vitamin B12
(0%)
0 μg
Vitamin C
(9%)
7.7 mg
Vitamin E
(22%)
3.33 mg
Vitamin K
(5%)
5.4 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(93%)
931 mg
Iron
(510%)
66.36 mg
Magnesium
(103%)
366 mg
Phosphorus
(71%)
499 mg
Potassium
(38%)
1788 mg
Sodium
(11%)
168 mg
Zinc
(51%)
4.8 mg
Other constituents
Water 8.06 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Names and history[edit]

The etymology of caraway is complex and poorly understood.

Caraway has been called by many names in different regions, with names deriving from the Latin cuminum (cumin), the Greek karon (again, cumin), which was adapted into Latin as carum (now meaning caraway), and the Sanskrit karavi, sometimes translated as "caraway", but other times understood to mean "fennel".[6]

English use of the term caraway dates back to at least 1440,[7] and is considered by Skeat to be of Arabic origin, though Katzer believes the Arabic al-karawya (cf. Spanish alcaravea) to be derived from the Latin carum.[6]

Uses[edit]

Caraway fruits
S-(+)-carvone is primarily responsible for caraway's distinct odor.
Bread buns with caraway fruits and salt

The fruits, usually used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils, mostly carvone, limonene,[8] and anethole.[9] Caraway is used as a spice in breads, especially rye bread.

Caraway is also used in desserts, liquors, casseroles, Indian cuisine rice dishes such as pulao and biryani, and other foods. It is also found in European cuisine. For example, it is used in caraway seed cake, and it is frequently added to sauerkraut.[10][11][12][13][14] The roots may be cooked as a vegetable like parsnips or carrots. Additionally, the leaves are sometimes consumed as herbs, either raw, dried, or cooked, similar to parsley.[2]

In Serbia, caraway is commonly sprinkled over home-made salty scones (pogačice s kimom). It is also used to add flavor to cheeses such as bondost, pultost, and havarti. Akvavit and several liqueurs are made with caraway.

In Middle Eastern cuisine, caraway pudding is a popular dessert during Ramadan. Caraway is also added to flavor harissa, a Tunisian chili pepper paste. It is typically made and served in the Levant area in winter and on the occasion of having a new baby. In Aleppian, Syrian cuisine it is used to make the sweet scones named keleacha.

Caraway fruit oil is also used as a fragrance component in soaps, lotions, and perfumes. Caraway is also used as a breath freshener, and it has a long tradition of use in folk medicine.

Cultivation[edit]

The plant prefers warm, sunny locations and well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In warmer regions, it is planted in the winter as an annual. In temperate climates, it is planted as a summer annual or biennial. However, a polyploid variant (with four haploid sets=4n) of this plant was found to be perennial.

Finland supplies about 28% (2011) of the world's caraway production.[15] Caraway cultivation is well suited to the Finnish climate and latitudes, which ensure long hours of sunlight in the summer. This results in fruits that contain higher levels of essential oils than those produced in other main growing areas which include Canada, the Netherlands, Egypt, and central Europe.

References[edit]

  1. ^ USDA Plants Classification Report: Apiaceae
  2. ^ a b c "Caraway". About.com. Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Anise Seed Substitute". Buzzle.com. Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  4. ^ "English Malayalam Spice Names". Recipes.malayali.me. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  5. ^ "Caraway". Word Crops Database. Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Katzer's Spice Pages: Caraway Caraway (Carum carvi L.)
  7. ^ Walter William Skeat, Principles of English etymology, Volume 2, page 319. 1891 Words of Arabic Origin
  8. ^ "Chemical Composition and Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Volatile Oil from Carum Carvi". 
  9. ^ María D. López; María J. Jordán; María J. Pascual-Villalobo (2008). "Toxic compounds in essential oils of coriander, caraway and basil active against stored rice pests". Journal of Stored Products Research 44 (3): 273–278. doi:10.1016/j.jspr.2008.02.005. 
  10. ^ "Recipe - German Sauerkraut Caraway". Cooks.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  11. ^ "Sauerkraut With Caraway Recipe - Low-cholesterol.Food.com - 206206". Recipezaar.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  12. ^ "Fancified Sauerkraut Recipe : Emeril Lagasse : Recipes". Food Network. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  13. ^ 4+ hrs. "Slow Cooker Kielbasa Stew Recipe". Allrecipes.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  14. ^ "Sauerkraut with Apple and Caraway Recipe at". Epicurious.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  15. ^ "Finland a Global Leader in Caraway Exports". Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Carum carvi at Wikimedia Commons