Carrefour

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Carrefour S.A.
Société Anonyme
Traded asEuronext ParisCA
CAC 40 Component
ISINFR0000120172 Edit this on Wikidata
IndustryRetail
Founded1 January 1958; 62 years ago (1 January 1958)
FounderMarcel Fournier, Denis Defforey, Jacques Defforey Edit this on Wikidata
Headquarters,
France
Number of locations
Decrease 12,225
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Alexandre Bompard
(Chairman & CEO)
ProductsCash & Carry, warehouse club, discount store, hypermarket, supercenter, superstore, supermarket
Revenue€74.142 billion (2018)[1]
€2,080M (2019)
€1,314M (2019)
Total assets€50,802M (2019)
Total equity€11,675M (2019)
Number of employees
321,383
SubsidiariesSee below
Websitewww.carrefour.com

Carrefour S.A. (French pronunciation: ​[kaʁfuʁ]) is a French multinational corporation specialized in retail.

History[edit]

The first Carrefour shop (not a hypermarket) opened in 1960, within suburban Annecy, near a crossroads. The group was created in 1958 by Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey,[2] who attended and were influenced by several seminars in the United States led by "the Pope of retail" Bernardo Trujillo.

The Carrefour group was the first in Europe to open a hypermarket, a large supermarket, and a department store under the same roof. They opened their first hypermarket on 15 June 1963 in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, near Paris.[3]

In April 1976, Carrefour launched a private label Produits libres (free products – libre meaning free in the sense of liberty as opposed to gratis) line of fifty foodstuffs, including oil, biscuits (crackers and cookies), milk, and pasta, sold in unbranded white packages at substantially lower prices.

In 1999, it merged with Promodès, known as Continent, one of its major competitors in the French market.

In September 2009, Carrefour updated its logo.[4]

In May 2011, Carrefour reviewed its business situation under conditions of stagnant growth and increasing competition in France from rivals including Casino Guichard-Perrachon SA, and decided to invest €1.5 billion ($50000.1 billion) to introduce the supermarket concept of Carrefour Planet in Western Europe.

In April 2015, Brazilian businessman Abílio Diniz revealed he was in talks to raise his 5.07 percent stake in Carrefour and has the support of shareholders to take a board seat.[5]

On 9 June 2017, the board of directors chose Alexandre Bompard as the new chairman and chief executive officer of Carrefour with effect as of 18 July 2017.[6]

In 2017, Carrefour began working with a small French start-up, Expliceat, on a trial basis.[7] Expliceat built a commercial mill that is designed to crumb down leftover bread. It rents the mill to commercial bakeries and then uses the crumb to bake cookies, muffins and pancakes.

In January 2018, Alexandre Bompard announced a strategic plan for the company, entitled "Carrefour 2022", that seeks to make Carrefour the "leader of the food transition for all". The plan includes measures for better food and package sustainability, limitation of food waste, development of organic products, e-commerce partnerships, and two billion euros in annual investments from 2018 as well as organisational and cost reduction measures.[8][9]

In the exceptional context of the COVID-19 pandemic, Carrefour is the first retailer to join C'est qui le Patron ? initiative to share its additional incomes related to COVID-19 to support people who are suffering from the current situation. According to co-founder Nicolas Chabanne, 100,000 euros have been paid out, then 50,000 euros each week until 11 May.[10]

Carrefour's Board of Directors has decided to reduce by 50% the dividend proposed for 2019. The dividend is now €0.23 per share (versus €0.46 per share).[11]

Until the end of the year, Alexandre Bompard and all the members of Carrefour Group's board of directors have decided to waive 25% of their director's fees. These savings will be used to finance solidarity actions for the company's employees, both in France and abroad.[12]

Alexandre Bompard, has decided to waive 25% of his fixed salary for a period of two months. To express his gratitude to his personnel in the field, he has decided to offer an exceptional bonus of €1,000 net to 85,000 employees in France.[12][13]

Financial data[edit]

Financial data in € billions[14]
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Revenue 76.675 76.318 78.857 78.774 80.975 77.910 74.142
Net income 1.2639 1.249 0.980 0.746 −0.531 −0.561 1,314
Assets 43.564 45.789 45.095 48.845 47.813 47.37 50.802
Employees 364,795 381,227 380,920 384,151 378,923 374,478 321 383

Operations[edit]

French operations[edit]

Groupe Carrefour head office at 33, avenue Émile Zola, Boulogne Billancourt, France

The head office of the Groupe Carrefour is in Boulogne Billancourt in the Paris metropolitan area. Carrefour leased space in the 9,257 square metres (99,640 sq ft) Gecina building at 36 avenue Émile Zola effective 1 December 2010. The complex has 208 parking spaces and has an aluminium facade. E. Naud and L. Poulx designed the building.[15]

The chain's Carrefour Hypermarket division has its head office in Courcouronnes, Essonne, France, near Évry.[16]

International operations[edit]

Asia[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Carrefour opened its first hypermarket in Armenia at Yerevan Mall on 11 March 2015, occupying approximately 10000 square meters. A second Carrefour branch was opened on Tigran Mets Avenue in October 2018, but in a medium-sized supermarket layout.

Bahrain[edit]

Majid Al Futtaim who introduced Carrefour to the Middle East, Africa and Asia also opened a franchise owned branch in the Bahrain City Centre in 2008.

China[edit]
Carrefour store front Shanghai China.
78th store of Carrefour China at Zhongshan Park, Shanghai, opened 6 June 2005

In 2007, expansion accelerated outside France, particularly in Asia, with the building of 36 new hypermarkets, including 22 in China – where the Group broke its record for store openings in a one-year period. It was the leading foreign retailer in terms of sales figures, until 2008 and has since lost its No. 1 position to RT-Mart. A selection of Carrefour products are sold in Hong Kong via Wellcome and its sister Market Place by Jasons.

India[edit]

Carrefour operates cash and carry stores in India under the name "Carrefour Wholesale Cash&Carry". The first store opened on 30 December 2010 in Shahdara, Delhi.[17] This was followed by a store in Jaipur in late 2011 and one in Meerut in October 2012, Agra in December 2013.

Prior to September 2012, India's foreign direct investment (FDI) policy did not allow foreign companies to open multi-brand retail stores in the country. However, 100% FDI in cash-and-carry has been permitted since 1997. As a result, most global retailers, including Carrefour, opted for the cash-and-carry route in India. A new FDI policy, allowing up to 51% FDI in multi-brand retail, came into effect on 20 September 2012.[18][19]

On 8 July 2014, Carrefour announced that it will shut down its Indian operations and close its five wholesale stores by the end of September.[20]

Indonesia[edit]
Carrefour Hypermarket in Jakarta, Indonesia

The first Carrefour branch in Indonesia opened in October 1998 in Cempaka Putih region of Jakarta, following the end of 1997 Asian financial crisis and the subsequent fall of Suharto. Carrefour Indonesia is currently managed by CT Corp and its shares are owned by Chairul Tandjung. CT Corp also developed Transmart, a subsidiary of CT Corp operated by Carrefour Indonesia and named after CT Corp's television networks, and it also developed Groserindo, a grocery store also operated by mostly Carrefour.[21][22] CT Corp announced that it will replace all Carrefour branches with Transmart brand as its license expires in 2019.[23]

Iran[edit]

In February 2009, MAF opened its first store in Iran, called HyperStar[24] in Western region of Tehran. It opened its second store in Iran in April 2012. This store located in Persian Gulf Complex. It opened the third store in Isfahan located in Isfahan City Center in 2012. Three other stores are to be opened in Eastern region of Tehran, Mashhad and Tabriz.

Iraq[edit]

Majid al Futtaim opened the first Carrefour in Erbil in 2011.

Jordan[edit]

Carrefour is very popular in Jordan, with tens of locations dotting the capital and the suburbs; the largest and most frequented would be Carrefour: City Mall in the suburb of Dabuk.[25] Another multi-story complex is about to open near the Sixth Circle. Carrefour Express are smaller sized stores that operate inside smaller shopping areas, best known is Carrefour Express: Swéfiéh Avenue, inside the Avenue Mall in Swéfiéh.

Kuwait[edit]

In March 2007, Carrefour opened a store in Kuwait in the Avenues mall.

Lebanon[edit]

On 4 April 2013, Majid al Futtaim inaugurated a Carrefour hypermarket at their City Centre Beirut mall, in the Hazmiyeh suburb of Beirut. In September 2017, a second Carrefour outlet opened at the CityMall Dora, replacing a venue formerly held by a Monop' hypermarket.[26] In June 2018, a third outlet opened at the Tower Center mall in Zouk Mosbeh.[27] In February 2019, a fourth Carrefour, and the first supermarket format venue, opened within the Aley District. The fourth Carrefour is considered a major step for the company's expansion in Lebanon.[28]

Oman[edit]

In Oman, Carrefour opened a store in 2001 on the outskirts of the city of Muscat. And in 2008, another branch opened in Qurum. In May 2011 Carrefour opened a store in Sohar. The fourth Carrefour opened in March 2012 at Muscat Grand Mall. The fifth branch opened in Salalah on 24 May 2013. It has officially been confirmed this as the biggest Carrefour in Oman.

Pakistan[edit]

Website: www.hyperstarpakistan.com
In 2009, Carrefour opened its first hypermarket in Lahore under the name of Hyperstar in a joint venture with Majid Al Futtaim Group, where it achieved 1 billion Pakistani rupees in revenues in its first year.[29] It attracted more than 1 million customers every month. On 14 November 2011, Hyperstar opened its second hypermarket in the country in Karachi.[29] On 22 March 2016, it expanded its operations to Islamabad by opening a 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2) hypermarket in World Trade Center Islamabad.[30]

Since 20 December 2018, MAF has rebranded Hyperstar to Carrefour across Pakistan.[31] It has plans to expand its stores to other cities including Gujranwala, Multan and Hyderabad.[32] As of June 2019, the group had already invested 8 billion and was looking to invest another 40 billion in Pakistan.[33] It is operating at least seven hypermarkets (three in Lahore, two in Karachi, one in Islamabad and one in Faisalabad) and one superstore in Pakistan.[33][34]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Carrefour has 18[35] franchise operated hypermarkets in Saudi Arabia, with 7 of them being in the capital Riyadh itself.

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Carrefour also operates in the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in a joint venture with Majid al Futtaim.[25]

Japan[edit]

In 1999 Carrefour's Japanese subsidiary, Carrefour Japan Co. Ltd., opened.[36] The first Carrefour in Japan opened in a suburb of Tokyo in December 2000. In January and February 2001 new Carrefour stores opened in Tokyo and Osaka. Sales were initially strong, but Miki Tanikawa of The New York Times wrote that "But now, 10 months later, there is barely a line for most of the day at cash registers of most Carrefour stores here. Lengthy aisles of goods ranging from clothes to bicycles are mostly empty. "[37] On 10 March 2005, the subsidiary's name changed to AEON Marche´ Co., Ltd. after Aeon purchased the Carrefour Japanese division.[36] The stores were still operated in the Carrefour name until 31 March 2010, when the license expired.[38]

Taiwan[edit]

In 1989, Carrefour became the first international retailer to establish a presence in Asia when it entered Taiwan through a joint venture with Uni President Enterprises Corporation. It leveraged the experience it gathered in Taiwan to expand into other Asian markets.

South Korea[edit]

Carrefour entered the Korean market in 1996 with their first store in Bucheon and operated thirty-two stores across the country at its peak in its final year of 2006. Carrefour was confident they would dominate the market, and by 1999 invested a total of 925 million US Dollars into the Korean venture- more than any other foreign companies in the Korean market at that time.

Carrefour Korea enjoyed mediate success in the beginning, gaining traction for unseen low prices and standing above its competitors. But the rise quickly ended when the Asian Financial Crisis struck South Korea in late 1997, and as Carrefour was exposed smuggling real estate in South Korea to international recipients, their reputation suffered a blow and alongside the reluctance of people spending in the midst of the financial crisis, boycotts ensued, beginning Carrefour's eventual demise.

Complaints of Carrefour Korea's poor service quality grew, citing pushing produces unfit for the Korean market and significantly soured relationship between the executives and the labor unions. With the company's attitude becoming reckless to its clients and suppliers, clients would boycott again while suppliers began refusing association with Carrefour Korea. With the company stained with controversial negativity, Carrefour Korea sold all their stores to E-Land and exited the Korean market in April 2006. Shortly after, E-Land sold their supermarket asset to Homeplus, who is recognized as Carrefour Korea's soul successor.[39]

Europe[edit]

Albania

In November 2011, Carrefour opened its first store in Albania as part of TEG Shopping Center (Tirana East Gate) with the same rights as in the European Union and throughout the rest of Europe. Carrefour is integrated in the new shopping center in the same format as in other countries extending into a space of about 7000 square meters. Carrefour will have a policy of supplying imported products while promoting Albanian products, particularly agro-industrial ones.

Austria

In 1976 Carrefour opened a store in the Shopping City Süd at the southern edge of Vienna. Due to limited success the store closed soon after. Carrefour has not made any other attempt at entering the Austrian market thereafter.

Belgium

Carrefour started its internationalization in Belgium in 1969 by the formation of a strategic alliance with GB Group. Between 1970 and 2000 several formats were tried with multiple brands and names used by Carrefour GB. In 2000 the Carrefour Group took over GB and Carrefour Belgium was officially born. The company retained the GB brand for some outlets as late as 2007 when all Carrefour stores were united under the Carrefour name, being operated as Carrefour and Carrefour Express GB. In May 2008, EcoPlanet Carrefour was launched selling gas and green energy throughout Belgium. In 2009 Carrefour Hyper, GB Carrefour, Carrefour Market and Carrefour Express outlets were established and online shopping was launched. In February 2010 Carrefour announced the elimination of 1,672 jobs and the closure of 21 stores and the possibility of acquisition of 20 stores by the group Mestdagh.

Bulgaria
Bulgaria's largest Carrefour hypermarket within The Mall shopping centre in Sofia, Bulgaria opened in early 2010

From 2009 to 2011 in Bulgaria were opened eight locations (five hypermarkets and three supermarkets) in Sofia, Plovdiv, Pleven, Varna, Burgas and Ruse.

In 2010, Carrefour and Marinopoulos Group, the largest group of retail in Greece, established a franchise company MSC Bulgaria to develop hypermarkets and supermarkets under the Carrefour banner within Southeastern Europe. In June 2016 the owner of the franchise for Bulgaria declared bankruptcy and the stores were closed.

Georgia

Carrefour operates two hypermarkets and ten Carrefour markets in Georgia. It opened its first hypermarket in Georgia at Tbilisi Mall on 13 September 2012, occupying approximately 12,000 sq m. The first market was opened at Karvasla Malon 16 September 2013. In 2014, the second Carrefour market was opened at Shopping Mall GTC on Orbeliani Square. On 10 November 2015, Carrefour opened its second hypermarket at East Point shopping mall near Kakheti Highway at 2 Aleksandre Tvalchrelidze Street. Shortly after the opening, Carrefour opened its third market in Isani district of Tbilisi at 8a Navtlughi Street. In 2016, Carrefour opened its fourth Market in City Mall Gldani at 1 Khizanishvili Street. The latest markets were opened in Saburtalo, Vake, Gldani and Vazisubani neighborhoods of Tbilisi and one – in Batumi.

Greece

Carrefour used to operate multiple supermarkets and hypermarkets all over Greece, since 2000, with Marinopoulos, till the disbandment of the Marinopoulos supermarket chain on 1 March 2017. Carrefour withdrawed their group-help with Marinopoulos, and now most Carrefour-Marinopoulos supermarkets have been sold to the supermarket chain Sklavenitis.

North Macedonia

In October 2012, Carrefour opened its first store in Skopje. The store is part of a brand new shopping mall (City Mall) that opened the same day in Skopje, the capital of North Macedonia, and by the end of summer 2014 there were plans to open the second store in Tetovo, a city located not too far from Skopje. Carrefour ended up closing because of debt.[40]

Poland

In 1997, Carrefour opened its first hypermarket in Poland.[41]

Portugal

In Portugal, Carrefour retail sold their stake in Continente Modelo to Sonae for €345 million on 16 November 2004.[42]

In 2008, Carrefour sold its Portuguese retail ventures existing under the Carrefour ensign to Sonae.

Romania

In 2001, Carrefour entered the Romanian market, expanded into 33 stores. It is one of the top retailers in Romania.[43]

Spain

Spain is the 3rd most important international market for Carrefour after France and Brazil. Carrefour has 205 hypermarkets, 110 Carrefour Markets and 780 Carrefour Express in Spain as well as hundreds of gas stations, travel agencies and smaller Carrefour retailers. There are as well more hypermarkets and supermarkets under construction or planned.[44] The company operates in Spain under the name of Centros Comerciales Carrefour SA. Carrefour Spain is the 14th most important Spanish company by revenue.[45] Its rivals in Spain are Mercadona, Eroski, Alcampo and Bonpreu.

Turkey

Carrefour also operates in Turkey in a joint venture with Sabancı Group under the name CarrefourSA.[46]

United Kingdom

Carrefour opened the first of several hypermarkets in the UK in September 1972 at Caerphilly in a joint partnership with a UK company Wheatsheaf / Hypermarket Holdings, followed by stores at the Telford Centre, Chandlers Ford, Minworth, Patchway and Swindon. The Dee Corporation later acquired the stores which continued to trade under the Carrefour name and rebranded some other existing smaller sites as Carrefour before being offloaded briefly to the now-defunct Gateway supermarket chain and then shortly after this to Asda – one such was the Merry Hill branch near Dudley, West Midlands, which opened on 1 July 1986 but became a Gateway branch in 1988 and an Asda in 1990. The initial Caerphilly store was redeveloped in the 1990s however the sites at Chandlers Ford, Minworth and Patchway still exist as large Asda Supercentres.[47] Carrefour was the first retailer to open in the MetroCentre in Tyne and Wear.

Since July 2011, online supermarket Ocado has sold a range of Carrefour's products in the UK.[48]

Africa[edit]

Kenya

As of October 2016 in Kenya, East Africa's largest economy, Carrefour opened its first outlet at the Two Rivers Mall. It is the largest mall in Sub-Sahara Africa with Carrefour as its anchor tenant.[49] The Hub – Karen, a newly opened shopping mall in the Nairobi suburb of Karen also hosts a Carrefour outlet that opened its doors in May 2016.[50] Recently Carrefour added another store at Thika Road mall(TRM) They occupied the space previously occupied by Nakumatt,which recently closed down. The new branch was opened on Tuesday 14 November 2017.[51] A fourth outlet was opened up at the Junction Mall along Ngong road, Nairobi, at the beginning of 2018.[52]Recently, Carrefour has opened a new Branch along Uhuru Highway bringing the total count of branches to 8 https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/corporate/companies/Carrefour-opens-Mega-store-on-Uhuru-Highway/4003102-5574450-j5jic5/index.html.

Egypt

Carrefour (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [kɑɾˈfuːɾ]) has 35 outlets under franchise in Egypt, which are often situated in shopping malls and frequented by the Egyptian upper class. The location in Alexandria was severely looted during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Another 8 outlets or more are coming in 2012/2013. Opened Hyper Markets: (Maadi City Center, Dandy Mega Mall, Sun City Mall, Obour Golf City Mall, Alex City Center, Cairo Festival City, Sky Plaza (El-Shorouk City), Mall of Egypt). Opened Express Markets: (Maadi, Tiba Outlet Mall, Sharm-El-Sheik, Green Plaza Mall, Down Town Mall).

Morocco

Carrefour has 10 hypermarkets in Morocco, with the most being located in and around the Casablanca metropolitan area. Carrefour Maroc is a partner of Label'vie, a Moroccan supermarket chain. All the Label'Vie stores are transformed into Carrefour Markets. There are 30 of them widely spread around the kingdom. Carrefour is still expanding its presence in Morocco by opening more supermarkets and hypermarkets to face the settled competition like the Moroccan hypermarket chain Marjane.

Tunisia

Carrefour has 2 hypermarkets and 70 outlets under franchise in Tunisia.


South America[edit]

Argentina
Brazil

Carrefour Brasil (which is the biggest market outside France) was founded in 1975 and today it is the major supermarkets chain in Brazil under competition with Groupe Casino, Walmart and others, and currently it sells more than 25 million products per year.[citation needed]

Previous operations[edit]

In 2006, Carrefour sold all 16 stores in Korea to E-Land and exited Korea. In the same year it also sold all 11 Czech stores to Tesco in exchange for 6 stores and two shopping centers in Taiwan, plus €57.5 million. In 2010, Carrefour announced a decision to leave Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. In November 2010, Carrefour sold its Thailand operations and kept its Malaysian and Singaporean stores. Carrefour had already exited Singapore's market since 30 September 2012.[53] On 31 October 2012, Aeon Co. Ltd bought over Carrefour Malaysia and its subsidiaries for €147 million and being rebranded as Aeon Big.[54] All former Carrefour stores in Malaysia are rebranded as AEON BIG, and will be run as a separate brand from the existing AEON stores in the country.[55] All stores have fully completed the process of rebranding.

Former stores[edit]

Former Carrefour store at Minoo, Osaka, Japan
Former Carrefour store in Bangkok, Thailand
Previous branch of Carrefour in Niterói, Brazil (has been replaced by an Atacadão branch)
  • Chile – Carrefour opened six supermarkets in Santiago de Chile between 1998 and 2003. However, Carrefour never surpassed a 3% market share in the country and their assets in Chile were sold to D&S in 2003.[56]
  • Colombia – In October 2012, Carrefour sold to Chilean retailer Cencosud all 72 stores in Colombia for $2.6 billion, with Cencosud converting all existing Carrefour hypermarkets to its Jumbo brand. Carrefour pulled out of Colombia to focus on its core markets.[57]
  • Czech Republic – In September 2005, Carrefour sold to Tesco (the biggest UK retailer) 11 stores in the Czech Republic. Tesco paid €57.4 million as well as its stores in Taiwan. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1998 in the Czech Republic. The stores use the Tesco name and brand now;
  • Greece – In 2017, all of the Carrefour stores were sold to Greek supermarket brand Sklavenitis and will undergo major rebranding, to reflect the brand that now owns the stores.
  • Hong Kong – On 18 September 2000,[58][59] Carrefour closed its stores in Hong Kong after complaints from manufacturers about selling products (especially electronics) at prices far below those of its competitors.[60][citation needed] A company spokesman said at that time that the closures were due to "difficulties in finding sites suitable for developing its hypermarket concept and quickly acquiring a significant market share". Carrefour had entered the Hong Kong market in December 1996 with a store in Heng Fa Chuen and had later added stores in Tsuen Wan (Skyline Plaza), Tuen Mun, Yuen Long and Tsim Sha Tsui. Plans to open additional stores in Ma On Shan, Tseung Kwan O and Yau Tsim Mong had been cancelled.[59]
  • Japan – In early 2003, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets to AEON Group and changed branding for the only supermarket in Wisma Atria (Tokyo) as Lotte Mart. It happened due to renovations.[citation needed]
  • Kazakhstan – In the summer of 2017, the one and only Carrefour hypermarket closed down in Almaty as a result of the loss of value of the Tenge currency.
  • Malaysia – Carrefour entered Malaysia in 1994 sold its 26 hypermarkets to AEON Group in November 2012.[61] The hypermarkets was rebranded as AEON BIG, and operates with an orange logo, compared to the magenta logo used by its parent company and existing JUSCO stores in the country. The outlets in Kota Damansara and Jalan Ipoh was first to be changed from Carrefour to AEON BIG;[62]
  • Mexico – In March 2005, Carrefour sold its 29 hypermarkets in Mexico to Chedraui. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1995 in Mexico;
  • Portugal – Carrefour entered Portugal by buying its first stores in 1991 – two Euromaché hypermarkets, in Telheiras (a Lisbon neighbourhood) and Vila Nova de Gaia (suburbs of Porto); This chain was known to have very good quality products, mainly from French origin, when in July 2007 Carrefour sold all of its 12 hypermarkets and 9 fuel stations to Sonae for €662 million. Also included were 11 licenses for opening new commercial spaces. Nowadays only the 365 hard-discount supermarkets (Minipreço) are supported by Carrefour in this country, not included in the takeover.
  • Russia – Carrefour entered Russian market in the summer of 2009. In October 2009, only a month after it opened its second hypermarket in the country, Carrefour announced it was exiting Russia.
  • Singapore – In 2012, Carrefour's stores were primarily replaced by Giant Hyper (Suntec City) and Cold Storage.
  • Slovakia – In 2018, Carrefour pulled out of the Slovak market, after 17 years of operation in the country.[63]
  • South Korea – In 2006, Carrefour sold its 32 hypermarkets to E-Land. The stores have been re-branded as Homever but 2008 E-Land sold its 30 hypermarkets to Homeplusstores The stores have been re-branded as Homepl.
  • Switzerland – In August 2007 Carrefour sold its 12 hypermarkets in Switzerland to Swiss retailer Coop for $390 million;[64]
  • Syria - Carrefour previously opened a store in Shahba Mall in Aleppo on 2009[65] and operates until the mall was destroyed during Syrian Civil War on 16 October 2014 which causes destruction to mall itself and was permanently closed.[66]
  • Thailand – Carrefour's business in Thailand was sold to Big C Supercenter Public Company Limited, the owner of Big C hypermarket stores in Thailand due to complaints. The transaction is completed in March 2011, with the Suwintawong branch being the first changed brand store from Carrefour to Big C.[67] Carrefour entered the Thai market in 1996.
  • United Kingdom – Carrefour had several hypermarkets in the UK until the end of the 1980s. The first of them opened in the early 1970s in Caerphilly, South Wales.[68]
  • United States – Carrefour opened its first hypermarket in the United States in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1988, across from the Philadelphia Mills Mall. Despite the huge selection, the store was generally derided for its poor conditions, and most of the time, the many 61 check-out lanes in the store were deserted. 6 years later, the next store came, in Voorhees Township, New Jersey. Both stores closed because of financial debt in 1994. The Voorhees store was broken up into many smaller stores, while the Philadelphia location became a Walmart and a Dick's Sporting Goods. In 2017, Walmart moved to one of the former department store spaces at the mall, while the Dick's at the old Carrefour property remains.

Governance[edit]

Board of Directors[edit]

As of October 2019, the members of the board of directors are:

Executive Committee[edit]

As of October 2019, the members of Carrefour's executive committee are:

Responsible for geographic zones:

  • Pascal Clouzard: Executive Director France
  • Rami Baitieh: Executive Director Spain
  • Guillaume de Colonges: Executive Director Northern and Eastern Europe (Belgium, Poland and Romania)
  • Gérard Lavinay: Executive Director Italy
  • Noël Prioux: Executive Director Latin America (Brazil and Argentina)

Responsible for group functions:

  • Marie Cheval: Executive Director, Financial Services (also Executive Director of Hypermarkets France)
  • Alexandre de Palmas: Executive Director Assets (also Executive Director of Nearby Store France)
  • François Melchior de Polignac: Executive Director Merchandise, Supply and Formats
  • Amélie Oudéa-Castéra: Executive Director Customers, Services and Digital Transformation

Responsible for corporate functions:

  • Dominique Benneteau-Wood: Executive Director Communication for the Group and France
  • Matthieu Malige: chief financial officer
  • Jérôme Nanty: Executive Director Human Resources for the Group and France
  • Laurent Vallée: General Secretary
  • Morgane Weill: Executive Director Strategy and Transformation for the Group and France

Stores per region[edit]

Asia[edit]

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Cash & Carry
Armenia 2015 1 1
China 1995 231[69]
Bahrain 2008 11
Japan 2000 7
Jordan 2006 5 31
Kuwait 2007 2 6
Lebanon 2013 3
Oman 2000 7
Pakistan 2009 10 1
Indonesia 1998 88
Iran 2009 3 4
Iraq 2012 3 2
Qatar 2000 5 4
Saudi Arabia 2004 11 4
Syria 2009
Taiwan 1989 64 50
United Arab Emirates[70] 1995 55 44[71] No data available

The stores in Iran is operated by MAF under the name of Hyperstar.

Africa[edit]

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Cash & Carry
Egypt 2002 10 26
Ivory Coast 2015 1 1
Cameroon 2017 1 2
Kenya 2016 6[49][50]
Morocco 2009 9 81 11
Tunisia 2001 2 69* 1

Carrefour has left Algeria in 2009, and opened in Morocco.
*37 Carrefour Market and 32 Carrefour Express, which are smaller supermarkets.[72]

Europe[edit]

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Convenience Stores Cash & Carry
Belgium 1969 45 445 290
France 1963 247 1,059 897 4,237 143
Georgia 2012 2 11
Italy 1993 55 414 583 13
Monaco 2020 1 1[73]
Poland 1997 86 169 662
Portugal 1991 365
Romania 2001 32 213 6 54
Spain 1973 200 131 593 114
Turkey 1993 73 99 519
Carrefour has 173 hypermarkets in Spain, the second most important country of the Carrefour group

On 15 October 2009, Carrefour announced plans to sell its Russian business, citing "absence of sufficient organic growth and acquisition opportunities".[74]

Americas[edit]

  • Carrefour has a presence in three countries in the Americas: Brazil (who is the biggest market outside France), Argentina, Curaçao, and the Dominican Republic. Carrefour is active in three types of retail distribution: hypermarkets, supermarkets and hard discounters, and entered the Cash & Carry market in Brazil, after the purchase of Atacadão.[75] Carrefour was also active in Mexico between 1995 and 2005, when the 29 hypermarkets opened at the moment were sold to Chedraui. Carrefour also used to have a presence in Colombia until they pulled out of the country in 2012 to focus on their core markets. Chilean retailer Cencosud bought all 72 of Carrefour's hypermarket locations and converted them to Jumbo.[76]
Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Convenience Stores Cash & Carry
Argentina 1982 97 108 398 235
Brazil 1975 241 41 305 87 143
Dominican Republic 2000 5 10 20 85

Store brands[edit]

8 à Huit store in Étretat
Hypermarkets

Carrefour, Atacadão,[77]

Supermarkets

Carrefour Bairro, Carrefour Market[77] (Formerly Champion as of 2008), Champion Mapinomovaoe, Globi, Carrefour GB, GS, Carrefour Mini, Gima, Supeco[78]

Convenience stores

Carrefour Express,[77] Carrefour City,[77] Carrefour Contact(fr),[77] Carrefour Montagne(fr), 5 minutes, 8 à Huit, Marché Plus,[79] Proxi (supermarket)(fr), Sherpa(fr), Dìperdì, Smile Market, Express, Shopi (supermarket)(fr)

Cash & Carry

Promocash, Docks Market, Gross IPer

Carrefour City, Paris

Carrefour Foundation[edit]

The Carrefour Foundation (Fondation d'Enterprise Carrefour) is a philanthropic fund created by Carrefour in 2000 to support social welfare programmes 'linked to [its] core business as a retailer' in countries the company operates and in countries where its suppliers are located.[80]

Criticism and controversies[edit]

The Carrefour supermarket at Faa'a, Tahiti, French Polynesia

On 1 May 2007, more than 30 employees of the now closed Carrefour Ratu Plaza, Jakarta, Indonesia, were taken to the Central Pertamina Hospital (Rumah Sakit Pusat Pertamina), after being affected by CO2. The hypermarket was located on the mall's basement, which offered insufficient ventilation.[81]

On 26 June 2007, the company was convicted in a French court for false advertising. The suit alleged that Carrefour regularly stocked insufficient quantities of advertised products for sale. In addition, the company was convicted of selling products below cost and accepting kickbacks from wholesalers. Carrefour was ordered to pay a fine of €2 million and to prominently and legibly display a notice in all of its French stores disclosing the false advertising.[82]

In Carrefour Mangga Dua Square, Jakarta, Indonesia, a 5-metre high metal rack fell on top of a 3-year-old boy, killing him almost instantly due to internal bleeding.[when?][83] Afterwards, the victim's family claimed that Carrefour has refused to meet with them to settle the case.[84] However, Carrefour Corporate Affairs Officer denied this allegation.[85]

Carrefour has also received criticism for engaging in sweatshop practices.[86]

On 7 May 2009, the French government asked a tribunal to fine Carrefour some €220,000 for more than 2,500 violations. Meat products lacked proper tracking information (more than 25% of inventory at some locations), and some products had incorrect labels – such as meat products that "shrank" in weight by 15% after receiving labels. The chain sold products that had long since passed their expiration dates, including, in one case, packs of baby formula that had expired six months earlier. Some 1,625 frozen and refrigerated products were found that had been stored in warehouses at ambient temperature.[87]

Boycott of supplies in China[edit]

A Carrefour outlet in Beijing, China, promotes the use of canvas bags as opposed to plastic bags prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics

In April 2008, after the 2008 Olympic torch relay was disrupted by Tibetan independence movement advocates in London and especially Paris, where some protesters attempted to wrest control of the torch from torch bearers, Chinese activists have promoted boycotting Carrefour because of its French roots.[88] The boycott of Carrefour in particular was further fueled by unsubstantiated rumours that a major shareholder, Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton, had donated to the Dalai Lama because Tibet was yearning for independence from China in the same year. In its response, Carrefour China stated that it does support the Beijing Olympics; and that they will never do anything to harm the feelings of the Chinese people.[89] Protests occurred in and around a number of Carrefour outlets throughout China, and anti-Carrefour advocates campaigned for a one-day boycott of Carrefour on May Day, a public holiday in China. This led to diplomatic negotiations between the Chinese and French governments to resolve tensions.

As a result of the boycott, Chinese search engines Baidu.com.cn and sina.com blocked access to Carrefour's website in China for a short time. Users searching Carrefour in China, were sent an error page indicating "The search result may contain illegal content, so we can not display the result." in Chinese.[90]

Building collapse at Savar[edit]

On 24 April 2013, the eight-story Rana Plaza commercial building collapsed in Savar, a sub-district near Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. At least 1,127 people died and over 2,438 were injured.[91] The factory housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, several shops, and a bank[92] and manufactured apparel for brands including the Benetton Group, Joe Fresh,[93] The Children's Place, Primark, Monsoon, and DressBarn.[94][95] Of the 29 brands identified as having sourced products from the Rana Plaza factories, only 9 attended meetings held in November 2013 to agree a proposal on compensation to the victims. Several companies refused to sign including Walmart, Carrefour, Bonmarché, Mango, Auchan and KiK. The agreement was signed by Primark, Loblaw, Bonmarche and El Corte Ingles.[96]

Slavery in Thailand[edit]

In 2014, the Guardian reported, that Carrefour is a client of Charoen Pokphand Foods. During a six-month investigation The Guardian traced the entire supply chain from slave ships in Asian waters to leading producers and retailers.[97]

Slogans[edit]

French slogans[edit]

  • 1988–2003 : With Carrefour, I'm positive (Avec Carrefour, je positive)
  • 2003–2007 : Energy Wise
  • 2007–2009 : Quality for all
  • 2009–2010 : Positive is back (Le positif est de retour)
  • 2010–2011 : Positively every day (Du positif chaque jour)
  • 2012–2015 : Low in price... but high in trust (Les prix bas ... La confiance en plus)
  • 2015–2018 : I optimism (J'optimisme)
  • Since 2018 : We all deserve the best (On a tous droit au meilleur)

International slogans[edit]

  • Hypermarkets: "Choice and quality for everyone" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Low prices, and so much more!" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Está bueno para vos" and "Los precios más bajos, siempre" (Argentina), it means "It's good for you" and "The lowest prices, always" respectively and "Todos merecen lo mejor" (Argentina), it means "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Ninguém faz melhor que o primeiro" (Brazil), meaning "Nobody does better than the first", referring to the fact that Carrefour is the world's first hypermarket and also Brazil's first hypermarket and to other Carrefour firsts, such as the "Lowest price or the difference back" policy.
  • Hypermarkets: "Faz Carrefour" (Brazil), "Do It Carrefour" and "Todos merecem o melhor" (Brazil), "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Carrefour, chévere!" (Colombia), it means "Carrefour, nice!" and "Todos merecen lo mejor" (Colombia), it means "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Life, the way I want it" (Singapore) and "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Untuk hidup yang lebih baik" (Indonesia), it means "For a better life" and "Kita semua berhak mendapatkan yang terbaik" (Indonesia), it means "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Pentru o viaţă mai bună" (Romania), it means "For a better life" and "Cu toţii merităm ce e mai bun" (Romania), it means "We all deserve the best"
  • Supermarkets: "The prices people want, close to home" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Hard Discount: "Grocery products at low, low prices" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Convenience Stores: "Just what you need, right next door" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Cash & Carry: "Proximity and accessibility for catering professionals" and "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets, Cash & Carry: "Καθε μέρα για σένα" (Cyprus) means "Every day, for you" and "Όλοι αξίζουμε το καλύτερο" (Cyprus) means "We all deserve the best"
  • Hypermarkets: "Pozytywnie każdego dnia" (Poland), it means "Positively every day", "To wszystko dla Ciebie" (Poland), it means "It's all for You" and "Wszyscy zasługujemy na najlepsze" (Poland), it means "We all deserve the best"

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). Carrefour Group. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  2. ^ "History". Carrefour Group.
  3. ^ (in French) Hugues Joublin, L'aventure du premier hyper, L'Expansion, 6 May 1993
  4. ^ "Carrefour Fades (to Color) – Brand New". Underconsideration.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  5. ^ "Brazil tycoon Diniz to raise Carrefour stake, eyes board seat" (Press release). Reuters. 9 April 2015.
  6. ^ "The Board of Directors Chose Alexandre Bompard as the New Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Carrefour with Effect as of July 18, 2017" (Press release). Business Wire. 9 June 2017.
  7. ^ "Eating a cookie of the future made with recycled bread". Engadget. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  8. ^ "French Retailer Carrefour Set To Start Fresh Consumer Revolution Using Bricks, Clicks and Blockchain". Forbes. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  9. ^ "Presentation of the transformation plan "Carrefour 2022"" (PDF). Carrefour.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Covid-19 : Carrefour rejoint le fonds solidaire de C'est Qui le Patron ?!". processalimentaire.com. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  11. ^ "CARREFOUR BOARD OF DIRECTORS' DECISIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC". carrefour.com. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b "COMPENSATION OF CARREFOUR GROUP EXECUTIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC". carrefour.com. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  13. ^ "Q1 2020 Sales: Carrefour Mobilized to Respond to Strong Customer Demand in the Face of the COVID-19 Crisis". businesswire.com. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Carrefour Bilanz, Gewinn und Umsatz | Carrefour Geschäftsbericht | 852362". wallstreet-online.de. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  15. ^ Mezinis, Damien. "Gecina : installe le siège social de Carrefour Management à Boulogne-Billancourt" (Archive). Boursier.com. Retrieved on 28 November 2014.
  16. ^ "Mentions Légales." Carrefour. Retrieved on 15 February 2011. "Ce Site est édité par la société CARREFOUR HYPERMARCHES, Société par Actions Simplifiée au capital de 37 000 Euros dont le siège social se situe 1, rue Jean Mermoz – ZAE Saint Guénault – BP 75, 91002 Evry Cedex et immatriculée au Registre du Commerce et des Sociétés de Evry sous le numéro B 451 321 335.."
  17. ^ Carrefour opens shop in Delhi's Shahadara. Domain-B. 31 December 2010
  18. ^ "FDI in multi-brand retail comes into effect, India Inc euphoric". The Times Of India. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  19. ^ "FDI: Hypermarket chains Wal-Mart, Tesco and Carrefour biggest beneficiaries of FDI in retail". 20 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  20. ^ "Carrefour to exit India, shut five wholesale stores". TODAY. 8 July 2014.
  21. ^ Whery Enggo Prayogi. "CT: Saya Beli Perusahaan Asing Dengan Duit Asing, Kini Jadi". Finance.detik.com. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  22. ^ Whery Enggo Prayogi. "Chairul Tanjung Kuasai 100% Saham Carrefour Indonesia". Finance.detik.com. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  23. ^ Lona Olavia (9 January 2015). "2019, Carrefour Ganti Nama Jadi Transmart". beritasatu.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  24. ^ "بههايپر استار خوش آمدود". Hyperstariran.com. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  25. ^ a b [1] Archived 20 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Alieh, Yassmine (18 May 2017). "Carrefour to open store at City Mall". BusinessNews.com.lb. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  27. ^ "Majid Al Futtaim Plans to Invest $2 billion in Lebanon by 2030". Asharq Al-Awsat. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  28. ^ "Majid Al Futtaim Opens its Fourth Branch of Carrefour in Lebanon". Majid al Futtaim press release. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  29. ^ a b "What's in store: City's first hypermarket opens today". The Express Tribune. The Express Tribune. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  30. ^ "Hyperstar now open in Islamabad". Islamabad Scene. 27 March 2016.
  31. ^ "Carrefour Opens in Pakistan | Good Times Blogs". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  32. ^ "About Us - Carrefour & Majid Al Futtaim Retail - Carrefour Pakistan". www.hyperstarpakistan.com. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  33. ^ a b haq, shahram (22 June 2019). "Majid Al Futtaim to invest Rs40b in Pakistan's retail". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  34. ^ "Find a Store - Find Our Store Near You - Carrefour Pakistan". www.hyperstarpakistan.com. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  35. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20181028151630/https://www.carrefourksa.com/en/find-store
  36. ^ a b "Company Overview of AEON Marche´ Co., Ltd." (Archive) Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved on 13 October 2013.
  37. ^ Tanikawa, Miki. "French Supermarket Struggles to Fit In." The New York Times. 5 October 2001. Retrieved on 13 October 2013.
  38. ^ "Termination of License Agreement between Carrefour and AEON." (Archive) Aeon. 15 January 2010. Retrieved on 13 October 2013.
  39. ^ "[브랜드흥망사] '까르푸' 기억하세요? 한국에서 실패한 글로벌 유통 공룡". it dongA. 김영우. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  40. ^ http://tocka.com.mk/1/185522/poradi-dolgovi-zatvoren-kerfur-vo-siti-mol
  41. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.carrefour.com/content/history}}
  42. ^ "Carrefour announces the divestment of its stake in Modelo Continente and the acquisition of 13 hypermarkets in Poland from Ahold" (PDF). Carrefour. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  43. ^ "GfK: Kaufland, Carrefour si Lidl cei mai puternici retaileri din Romania" (in Romanian). Yahoo! Romania. 24 December 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013.
  44. ^ Carrefour.es. "Carrefour en España – Carrefour España". www.carrefour.es. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  45. ^ https://ranking-empresas.eleconomista.es/ranking_empresas_nacional.html
  46. ^ "Carrefoursa.com – En Hesaplı Sanal Market Alışverişi". Carrefour.com.tr. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  47. ^ "Another High Street Rebrand – Page 57 – Metropol". Metropol247.co.uk. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  48. ^ "The French connection: Ocado strikes deal to deliver groceries from across the Channel to UK customers". Daily Mail. UK. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  49. ^ a b "Dubai group signs Runda mall lease – Corporate News". Businessdailyafrica.com. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  50. ^ a b KENNEDY KANGETHE (17 May 2016). "First Carrefour Hypermarket store opens at the Hub Mall, Karen". Capital Business. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  51. ^ "Carrefour opens 3rd store at TRM".
  52. ^ "Carrefour opens store at the Junction Mall, replacing Nakumatt. Additional stores are in the pipeline totalling the overall store count to 6 stores".
  53. ^ "Carrefour announces the disposal of its business in Thailand" (PDF). Carrefour. 15 November 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  54. ^ "Carrefour becomes Aeon Big". The Malay Mail. 2 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  55. ^ "News". AEON BIG Malaysia. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  56. ^ América Retail (11 April 2019). "Hitos de Grandes Marcas: Carrefour fracasa en Chile" (in Spanish).
  57. ^ "Carrefour shares up on Colombia sale to Cencosud". BBC News. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  58. ^ ""France's Carrefour to close stores in H.K" Asian Economic News, Sept 4, 2000". Findarticles.com. 4 September 2000. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  59. ^ a b "The Standard – China's Business Newspaper". Archived from the original on 7 January 2013.
  60. ^ "Consumer Council – The Practice of Resale Price Maintenance in Hong Kong (September 2, 1997)". .consumer.org.hk. 2 September 1997. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  61. ^ "Carrefour Malaysia sold to AEON (1 November 2012)". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  62. ^ "Carrefour Supermarkets To Be Rebranded". CommercialAsia.com. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  63. ^ "[2]." esmmagazine.com. Retrieved on 3 February 2018. "Carrefour Exits Slovakian Market, Closing Final Bratislava Store."
  64. ^ Kar, Sudip (21 August 2007). "Carrefour sell its hypermarkets to Swiss retailer Coop for $390 million". Reuters. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  65. ^ Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (18 November 2008). "Commerce: Virgin and Carrefour in Syria From 2009". Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  66. ^ Reuters (17 October 2014). "A general view shows damage at Shahba Mall, that was targeted by what activists said were airstrikes by forces loyal to Syria's President Bashar al-Assad in northern Aleppo countryside". Thomson Reuters Foundation News. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  67. ^ "Acquisition of Carrefour's operations in Thailand: a major strategic step towards market leadership « Big C Supercenter". Bigc.co.th. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  68. ^ ITV, ITV. "Remember the Caerphilly Carrefour? This was the reaction to the first 'hypermarket' in 1972". ITV, News. ITV Plc. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  69. ^ "Opening of the 231th hypermarket". Carrefour. 27 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  70. ^ "Carrefour Branches in United Arab Emirates (UAE) – TEN Yellow Pages". Yp.theemiratesnetwork.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  71. ^ https://www.thenational.ae/business/majid-al-futtaim-in-dh2-5-billion-carrefour-deal-to-buy-hypermarkets-1.576534 Sean Cronin, The National. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  72. ^ "la grande distribution en Tunisie par". Carrefour Tunisie. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  73. ^ "Carrefour Monaco". Carrefour.fr. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  74. ^ "Resilient sales in a persistently changing environment" (PDF). Carrefour. 15 October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  75. ^ "Carrefour purchases Atacadão and becomes leader of the segment in Brazil – UOL (Portuguese)". Noticias.uol.com.br. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  76. ^ "Carrefour sells Colombia assets to Chile's Cencosud for $2.6 billion". Reuters. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  77. ^ a b c d e Zentes, J.; Morschett, D.; Schramm-Klein, H. (2016). Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. p. 190. ISBN 978-3-658-10183-1. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  78. ^ "Opening of the first Supeco store". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  79. ^ Marketing Management, 2E. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. 2009. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-07-015327-1. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  80. ^ Carrefour Foundation http://www.fondation-carrefour.org/content/our-missions, accessed 6 July 2015
  81. ^ "Puluhan Karyawan Carrefour Ratu Plaza Keracunan CO2". detikNews. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  82. ^ lefigaro.fr. "(French) Carrefour condamné pour publicité mensongère". Le Figaro (in French). France. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  83. ^ "A 3-year old boy died when a metal rack fell onto him". Detiknews.com. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  84. ^ "Victims Family is Refused to Meet Carrefour Officials". Detiknews.com. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  85. ^ "Carrefour Officials deny refusing victim's family". Detiknews.com. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  86. ^ Bangladesh – Carrefour has to do better Archived 29 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  87. ^ "(French) Carrefour risque de payer 220.000€ d'amende". Leparisien.fr. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  88. ^ "Carrefour faces China boycott bid". BBC News. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  89. ^ "家乐福中国对近日出现的一些不实传闻的声明". Carrefour.com.cn. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  90. ^ "Chinanews.com article dated April 30, 2008". Chinatechnews.com. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  91. ^ Ahmed, Saeed; Lakhani, Leone (14 June 2013), "Bangladesh building collapse: An end to recovery efforts, a promise of a new start", CNN, retrieved 16 December 2013
  92. ^ Zain Al-Mahmood, Syed (24 April 2013). "Matalan supplier among manufacturers in Bangladesh building collapse". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  93. ^ O'Connor, Clare. "'Extreme Pricing' At What Cost? Retailer Joe Fresh Sends Reps To Bangladesh As Death Toll Rises". Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  94. ^ Nelson, Dean (24 April 2013). "Bangladesh building collapse kills at least 82 in Dhaka". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  95. ^ Alam, Julhas (24 April 2013). "At least 87 dead in Bangladesh building collapse". USA Today. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  96. ^ Ovi, Ibrahim Hossain (2013), Buyers' compensation for Rana Plaza victims far from reality, archived from the original on 25 March 2016, retrieved 16 December 2013
  97. ^ Hodal, Kate; Chris Kelly; Felicity Lawrence (10 June 2014). "Revealed: Asian slave labour producing prawns for supermarkets in US, UK". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2014. Charoen Pokphand (CP) Foods, buys fishmeal, which it feeds to its farmed prawns, from some suppliers that own, operate or buy from fishing boats manned with slaves. ... CP Foods admits that slave labour is part of its supply chain.

External links[edit]