Carrier air wing

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Diverse aircraft from Carrier Air Wing Two fly in formation above the USS Abraham Lincoln.

A carrier air wing (abbreviated CVW) is an operational naval aviation organization composed of several aircraft squadrons and detachments of various types of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Organized, equipped and trained to conduct modern US Navy carrier air operations while embarked aboard aircraft carriers, the various squadrons in an air wing have different but complementary (and sometimes overlapping) missions, and provide most of the striking power and electronic warfare capabilities of a carrier battle group (CVBG). While the CVBG term is still used by other nations, the CVBG in US parlance is now known as a carrier strike group (CSG).

Until 1963, Carrier Air Wings were known as Carrier Air Groups (CVGs). Carrier Air Wings are what the United States Air Force would call "composite" wings, and should not be confused with U.S. Navy Type Wings (such as Strike Fighter Wing Atlantic), which are primarily administrative and training commands composed of squadrons of the same type of carrier-based aircraft when not deployed. The United States Marine Corps equivalent command-level organization to a CVW is the Marine Aircraft Group (MAG). However, MAGs are shore-based (with sea-based capability) and may contain any combination of aircraft squadrons and aviation support units. Carrier Air Wings integrate closely with their assigned aircraft carriers, forming a "carrier/air wing team" that trains and deploys together. There are currently nine U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wings; four of the wing commanders and their staffs are based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia, four are based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California, and one is aboard Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan. The squadrons which make up each wing are based at various bases in the U.S. with their respective Type Wing Commanders with the exception of those squadrons assigned to the Japan based airwing which are based at Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni (fixed wing squadrons) and Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Japan (helicopters).

In addition to the squadrons which happen to be based at NAS Oceana and NAS Lemoore with the wing staffs the CONUS-based air wings also have squadrons based at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington; NAS Point Mugu, NAS North Island, and MCAS Miramar in California; NAS Jacksonville, Florida; MCAS Beaufort, South Carolina; MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina; and NS Norfolk/Chambers Field, Virginia. These air wings are occasionally reassigned to different aircraft carriers based on carrier maintenance schedules. A modern air wing consists of roughly 1,500 personnel and 74–78 aircraft.


The 1945 Visual Identification System.

The first Carrier Air Groups (as they were then called) were activated in 1937. From July 1937 to mid-1942, Carrier Air Groups were permanently assigned to and identified by their parent aircraft carrier, and group squadrons were numbered according to the carrier's hull number. For example, the Enterprise Air Group, assigned to USS Enterprise (CV-6), were all numbered "6": Fighting Squadron (VF) 6, Bombing Squadron (VB) 6, etc.[1] From 1942, numerical designation of carrier air groups began, the first being Carrier Air Group 9 (CVG-9), established on 1 March 1942.[2] For a while, they were given unique numbers according to their assigned carriers' hull number (i.e., the Saratoga Air Group became CVG-3).[3] This numbering scheme was also soon scrapped as carrier air groups (now abbreviated CVGs) frequently moved from carrier to carrier. At this point, the carrier air groups simply retained their number designation regardless of the carrier assigned.

The first formal system for air group identification (Visual Identification System for Naval Aircraft) was established in January 1945. This consisted of geometric symbols that identified the parent carrier, not the air group. As there were just too many carriers and the symbols were hard to remember or to describe over the radio, a single or double letter system was introduced in July 1945. The letters, however, still identified the carrier, not the carrier air group. The following identifications are known:[4]

A VBF-88 Goodyear FG-1D Corsair showing the letter code introduced in July 1945.

Shangri-La is known to have had her Lightning Bolt on the flight deck forward and aft replaced by her air group identification letter "Z", as the slight remaining Lightning Bolt can be seen painted on the deck beneath the Z on the victory photos of the carrier. Due to the ongoing combat and the end of the war, a mix of identification codes was used in late 1945. Starting in late 1946, the letters identified the carrier air group, and not the carrier. The use of single letters was discontinued in 1957.[5]

On 15 November 1946, to correct the results of demobilization which had left squadron numbers all out of sequence, sweeping changes were made in air unit designations.[2] Carrier Air Groups of four types were designated according to their assigned ship, as CVBG for Battle Carrier, CVG for Attack Carrier, CVLG for Light Carrier and CVEG for Escort Carrier. Two years later, on 1 September 1948, all carrier air groups became CVG regardless of their carrier affiliation.

On 20 December 1963, Carrier Air Groups were retitled Wings, and the acronym CVG became CVW.[2] Replacement Air Groups, which were set up in 1958, became Combat Readiness Air Groups on 1 April 1963. Often known by the short titles RAG and CRAG in the respective periods, their designation throughout was RCVG. When Groups became Wings, CRAG became CRAW and RCVG became RCVW.

From 1960 to 1974, the U.S. Navy also operated Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Groups (CVSG). These typically consisted of two fixed-wing anti-submarine squadrons (VS), a helicopter anti-submarine squadron (HS), and two smaller squadrons or squadron detachments of 3–4 aircraft for airborne early warning (VAW) and self-defense (VA, VMA, VSF, VF).[6]

Carrier Air Group/Carrier Air Wing Commander[edit]

Initially and during WWII, the commander of the air group (known as the "CAG") was the most senior officer of the embarked squadrons and was expected to personally lead all major strike operations, co-ordinating the attacks of the carrier's fighter, bomber, and torpedo planes in combat. The CAG was a department head of the ship reporting to the carrier's commanding officer.

In 1963 when Carrier Air Groups were retitled Wings, the commander retained the legacy title of "CAG" which continues to this day.

After WWII through 1983, CAGs were typically post-squadron command aviators in the rank of commander. Though the CAG was in command of the air wing, he functioned as a department head reporting to the carrier's commanding officer once the wing embarked. The CAG would typically be promoted to captain after their tour and subsequently command a deep draft support vessel, then an aircraft carrier as a senior captain. In 1983, Secretary of the Navy John Lehman elevated the CAG position to a captain's billet and on-par with aircraft carrier's commander while embarked, both officers reporting directly to the Carrier Battle Group commander. During this transition period some air wings were commanded by commanders, others by captains; these new captain CAGs were dubbed "Super CAGs" until all air wings transitioned.[7] Later the position of deputy CAG (DCAG) was established and filled by junior captains who assisted the CAGs until they eventually "fleet up" to replace the out-going CAG. This system remains in place today.

A modern carrier air wing has a small command staff consisting of 16–20 officers and approximately 20 enlisted personnel. It is headed by the CAG, who is a navy captain with an aeronautical designation as a Naval Aviator or Naval Flight Officer. In the decade of the 2000s, the Navy and Marine Corps "cross pollinated" Carrier Air Wings and Marine Aircraft Groups by assigning a Marine Corps colonel as the commander of one carrier air wing and a Navy captain as the commander of one Marine aircraft group. That practice ceased before the end of the decade.

Second in command is the deputy commander (DCAG), also a navy captain aviator or NFO, who "fleets up" to the CAG position after about 18 months. Also on the staff are an operations officer (typically a commander), a number of warfare specialists (typically lieutenant commanders or lieutenants), two wing landing signal officers, an intelligence officer, a weapons officer and a maintenance officer. The air wing staff is often supplemented with squadron personnel, such as the squadron intelligence officers. The CAG reports to a rear admiral in the position of commander, Carrier Strike Group and is equal with the commanding officer of the aircraft carrier as well as the embarked Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) commander and the attached guided missile cruiser commanding officer. The CAG serves as the Strike Group's strike warfare commander, responsible for all offensive strike operations (including Tomahawk missiles). CAGs are typically qualified to fly at least two types of aircraft in the Carrier Air Wing inventory.

Carrier Air Group/Wing composition[edit]

World War II[edit]

A Carrier Air Group over battleships in 1940.

Typical air group composition aboard the Yorktown Class carriers, at the beginning of World War II, consisted of approximately 72 aircraft:

During the course of the war in the Pacific, the compositions of the air groups changed drastically. The scouting squadrons were disestablished by early 1943 and the number of fighter planes was increased continuously. Typically in 1943 an Essex class carrier carried 36 fighters, 36 bombers and 18 torpedo planes.[8]

By the end of WWII, a typical Essex air group was over 100 aircraft, consisting of :

Korea and Cold War (1950–1953)[edit]

CVG-9 aboard USS Philippine Sea, 1953.

Carrier Air Groups typically had four fighter squadrons with 58 planes and an attack squadron of 14 planes.

New to the air wings in the Cold War period after Korea and just prior to Vietnam were specialized squadrons or detachments of aircraft for heavy attack/nuclear strike (VAH), photographic reconnaissance (VAP/VFP, RVAH), airborne early warning (VAW), all-weather medium attack (VA), advanced twin-seat fighters (VF), electronic countermeasures (VAQ), and rescue and plane guard helicopters (HU).

Vietnam (1964–1973) and Cold War (1959–1973)[edit]

During the Vietnam War, Attack Carrier Air Wings typically consisted of approximately 70 aircraft, including two fighter squadrons and three attack squadrons, plus the special squadrons and detachments (VAW, VAQ, RVAH or VFP, VQ, HC or HS).[10]

CVG-15 aboard USS Coral Sea, 1963.

In 1965, a typical Carrier Air Wing consisted of:

By the end of the Vietnam War in 1973, a typical air wing consisted of ~90 aircraft:

An anti-submarine air group (CVSG) aboard the Essex-class anti-submarine carriers (CVS) operated up to five squadrons and two detachments:

From 1969 to 1977, a number of carrier air wings were disestablished in the post-Vietnam drawdown: Carrier Air Wing 10 on 20 November 1969,[11] Readiness Carrier Air Wing 12 on 1 June 1970, Readiness Carrier Air Wing 4 on 1 July 1970,[12] Carrier Air Wing 16 on 30 June 1971, Carrier Air Wing 21 on 12 December 1975, and Carrier Air Wing 19 on 30 June 1977 along with all of the Anti-Submarine Air Groups which were disestablished by 1974.

Cold War (1974–1990) and the 1983 Invasion of Grenada[edit]

CVW-1 over USS America in 1983.

In the mid 1970s the Navy decommissioned its Anti-Submarine Aircraft Carriers (CVS) and its Attack Carriers (CVA) were re-designated CV. The VS and HS squadrons of the former Anti-Submarine Air Groups joined the Carrier Air Wings and the HS squadrons, in addition to their Anti-Submarine role, assumed the search and rescue (SAR) and plane guard roles formerly filled by the HC detachments. By the early 1980s, typical air wings were replacing F-4 Phantom IIs with Grumman F-14 Tomcats on Forrestal, Kitty Hawk, Enterprise and Nimitz class carriers and with F/A-18 Hornets onboard Midway class carriers. LTV A-7 Corsair IIs were also being replaced with F/A-18s, while Grumman KA-6D Intruder tankers and A-6E bombers with aerial refueling pods had replaced A-3s as tankers. EA-6B Prowlers had largely replaced EA-3s in the VAQ mission, although detachments of EA-3s from fleet air reconnaissance squadrons (VQ) soldiered on through the late 1980s as ELINT aircraft until replaced by the Lockheed ES-3A Shadow in the carrier-based VQ mission. The North American RA-5C Vigilante was also phased out in January 1980, replaced by F-14 Tomcats with Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pods (TARPS). The typical Carrier Air Wing of this period consisted of the following.

  • 2 fighter squadrons (VF) of 12 F-4s or F-14s, or 2 strike fighter squadrons (VFA) of 12 F/A-18As on Midway class carriers
    • Marine fighter attack squadrons (VMFA) with F-4s or F/A-18As could occasionally substitute for a VF or VFA squadron
  • 2 attack squadrons (VA) of 12 A-7Es or 2 to 1 strike fighter squadrons of 12 F/A-18s
  • 1–2 all-weather attack squadron (VA) 10–12 A-6E (including 2–4 KA-6D tankers)
    • Marine medium attack – all-weather squadron (VMA(AW)) with A-6Es could occasionally substitute for a medium VA squadron
  • 1 early warning squadron (VAW) of 4–6 E-2Cs
  • 1 tactical electronic warfare squadron (VAQ) or Marine tactical electronic warfare squadron (VMAQ) of 4 EA-6Bs
  • 1 anti-submarine squadron (VS) of 10 Lockheed S-3A Vikings
  • 1 helicopter anti-submarine squadron (HS) of 6 SH-3H Sea Kings
  • 1 reconnaissance attack squadron (RVAH) flying North American RA-5C Vigilantes (until Jan 1980) or 1 detachment of RF-8Gs from a light photographic reconnaissance squadron (VFP) or RF-4s from a Marine photographic reconnaissance squadron (VMFP)
    • If one of the F-14 squadrons was Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod Systems (TARPS)-capable, the VFP detachment or VMFP detachment would be deleted
  • 1 detachment of EA-3B ELINT aircraft from a fleet air reconnaissance squadron (VQ)

On 1 March 1984, Carrier Air Wing 13 was established.[13] Between 1 October 1985 and 30 September 1989 the wing made three deployments aboard Coral Sea. A new Carrier Air Wing 10 was established on 1 November 1986 for eighteen months, but it was then disestablished in March 1988.[2]

1991 Gulf War and Post-Cold War (1992–2000)[edit]

CVW-17 aboard USS Saratoga in 1992.

The Gulf War marked the largest concentrated use of carrier air wings since World War II. All F-4s had been retired and A-7Es had largely been replaced with F/A-18 Hornets.

  • 2 fighter squadrons (VF) of 10–12 F-14 Tomcats, including TARPS photo reconnaissance aircraft
  • 2 strike fighter squadrons (VFA) of 12 F/A-18 Hornets
  • 1 medium attack squadron (VA) 16 A-6E SWIP/TRAM intruders (including 4 KA-6D tankers).
  • 1 early warning squadron (VAW) of 4–6 E-2Cs
  • 1 tactical electronic warfare squadron (VAQ) of 4–6 EA-6Bs (renamed "electronic attack squadron" in 1998)
  • 1 anti-submarine squadron (VS) of 8 S-3A/B Vikings (All S-3As had been retired by 1993)[14]
  • 1 helicopter anti-submarine squadron (HS) of 6 SH-3H Sea Kings or 6 SH-60F and 2 HH-60H Seahawks (Sea Kings had all been replaced by Seahawks by 1995)
  • 1 Detachment of ES-3A Shadow ELINT aircraft from a fleet air reconnaissance squadron (VQ)
  • 1 detachment of C-2A Greyhound aircraft for Carrier Onboard Delivery (COD)

From 1991 to 1995, several Type/Model/Series (T/M/S) aircraft were phased out of the active inventory (e.g., Regular Navy and Naval Air Reserve), to include the RF-8G Crusader, the A-7E Corsair II, ES-3A Shadow, SH-3H Sea King and the A-6E and KA-6D Intruder. While some of these retirements were due to obsolescence (RF-8G) or succession by newer aircraft (A-7Es replaced by F/A-18s), others were due strictly to post-Cold War perceived "Peace Dividend" budget measures on the part of certain Secretaries of Defense and the U.S. Congress (e.g., A-6 Intruder), with aircraft that still had useful remaining life being prematurely relegated to retirement. Other T/M/S aircraft saw the number of operational squadrons significantly reduced (e.g., F-14 Tomcat, E-2 Hawkeye) for similar budgetary reasons. During the same period, three more carrier air wings were disestablished: the Atlantic Fleet's Carrier Air Wing 13 on 1 January 1991,[15] followed by Carrier Air Wing 6 on 1 April 1992, and the Pacific Fleet's Carrier Air Wing 15 on 31 March 1995. In addition, the U.S. Naval Reserve's Carrier Air Wing Reserve 30 (CVWR-30) was disestablished on 31 December 1994.

At sea aboard USS George Washington (CVN 73), Nov. 21, 2003. Flight Deck Safety Observer, Aviation Boatswain's Mate 3rd Class Harrison Brookes braces himself as an F-14B Tomcat, assigned to Carrier Air Wing Seven (CVW-7) is launched from one of four steam driven catapults on the ship's flight deck.

In 1992, a program named CV Integration began with Marine Corps EA-6B and F-18 squadrons augmenting Carrier Airwings due to the shortage of EA-6Bs and F-18 aircraft in the inventory. In 1996, the last Marine Corps EA-6B squadron completed their CV Integration aboard the USS America which was making its final cruise. Marine Corps F-18 squadrons continued to augment Navy carrier airwings on both East and West Coast Airwings.[16]

2003 Iraq War[edit]

CVW-5 aboard USS George Washington, 2008.

By 2003, A-6s had been retired with their tanking duties being assumed by S-3s, ES-3s had been retired, and older F-14s were being phased out with the FA-18 E/F Super Hornets.

  • 1 fighter squadron (VF) of 10 F-14A/B/Ds or 1 strike fighter squadron (VFA) of 12 F/A-18F Super Hornets
  • 1 strike fighter squadron (VFA) of 12 F/A-18C Hornets or 12 F/A-18E Super Hornets
  • 2 strike fighter squadrons (VFA) or Marine fighter attack squadrons (VMFA) of 12 F/A-18C Hornets
  • 1 early warning squadron (VAW) of 4 E-2Cs
  • 1 electronic attack squadron (VAQ) of 4–5 EA-6Bs
  • 1 sea control squadron (VS) of 8 S-3Bs (primary aerial tankers)
  • 1 helicopter anti-submarine squadron (HS) of 6 SH-60F and 2 HH-60H
  • 1 detachment of C-2A Greyhound aircraft for Carrier Onboard Delivery (COD)

Current Carrier Air Wing[edit]

Carrier Air Wing Five aircraft in 2007.

By 2008 the S-3B Vikings had been retired and the VS squadrons deactivated, the HS squadrons were beginning a transition from their Anti-Submarine SH-60F helicopter to the new MH-60S Naval Special Warfare support, Combat Search and Rescue, and Logistics support helicopter and were being re-designated Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC) squadrons. The Navy's other new helicopter at the time, the MH-60R combined and improved the Anti-Submarine and Anti-Surface Warfare capabilities of the old SH-60F and the old SH-60B surface ship based Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) helicopter and were equipping a new carrier based helicopter squadron called the Helicopter Maritime Strike squadron (HSM). The HSM squadrons ultimately replaced the VS and HS squadrons as the carrier air wing's Anti-Submarine and Anti-Surface Warfare squadron and the VS tanking role was assumed by the airwing Super Hornet squadrons. By the beginning of the 2010s the VAQ squadrons began their transition from the EA-6B to the new EA-18G Growler.

Today's air wing composition is designed to allow for broad striking power hundreds of miles from the carrier's position, while providing defense in depth of the battle group through early warning and detection of airborne, surface and subsurface targets. The current U.S. Navy carrier air wing consists of:

  • Four Strike Fighter (VFA) Squadrons, with ten or twelve F/A-18E/F Super Hornets each, or three Super Hornet Squadrons and one ten aircraft squadron of F-35C Lightning IIs (over forty strike fighters total). The first deployment of an F-35C squadron was in 2021. 2021 was also the year of the last deployment of an F/A-18C Hornet squadron (VMFA-323).[17] The typical mix is one F/A-18F (two-seat) Super Hornet squadron (though some air wings have two F/A-18F squadrons), and three single-seat F/A-18E Super Hornet squadrons. As the F-35C continues to come on line it will replace one of the F/A-18E squadrons in each airwing. In up to four airwings the F-35C Lightning II squadron could be a U.S. Marine Corps Fighter Attack (VMFA) Squadron as the Marine Corps is transitioning four of its squadrons to the F-35C.
  • One Electronic Attack (VAQ) Squadron, made up of seven EA-18G Growlers. Prior to the early 2020s the VAQ squadrons were composed of five aircraft.
  • One Carrier Airborne Early Warning (VAW) Squadron, with four E-2C Hawkeyes or five E-2D "Advanced" Hawkeyes
  • One Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC) Squadron of eight MH-60S Seahawks
  • One Helicopter Maritime Strike (HSM) Squadron of eleven MH-60R Seahawks, 3–5 of which are typically based in detachments on other ships of the carrier strike group.
  • A Fleet Logistics Support (VRC) Squadron Detachment of two C-2A Greyhounds. In 2021 the new CMV-22B Osprey of newly established Fleet Logistics Multi-Mission (VRM) squadron detachments began to replace the C-2A Greyhounds.

Active Carrier Air Wings and identification[edit]

Atlantic Fleet air wings have an "A" as the first letter of their tailcode identification, while those of the Pacific Fleet have an "N". The "A" or "N" is followed by a letter that uniquely identifies the air wing (e.g., CVW-1 aircraft, part of the Atlantic Fleet, have a tail code of "AB").[18][19]

"AG" on tail indicates it is an Atlantic Fleet CVW-7 aircraft. The ship assigned is also indicated below the tail.
Air wing Insignia Tail code Assigned aircraft carrier Home port
CVW-1 Cvw-1.gif AB USS Harry S. Truman NAS Oceana
CVW-2 Cvw-2.gif NE USS Carl Vinson NAS Lemoore
CVW-3 Carrier Air Wing 3 patch (US Navy) 2015.png AC USS Dwight D. Eisenhower NAS Oceana
CVW-5 Carrier Air Wing 5 (United States Navy) insignia, 1991.png NF USS Ronald Reagan MCAS Iwakuni
CVW-7 Carrier Air Wing 7 patch (US Navy) 2015.png AG USS George H.W. Bush NAS Oceana
CVW-8 Carrier Air Wing 8 (United States Navy) insignia, 1973.png AJ USS Gerald R. Ford
CVW-9 Carrier Air Wing 9 logo (2011).jpg NG USS Abraham Lincoln NAS Lemoore
CVW-11 CVW-11 Emblem.svg NH USS Theodore Roosevelt
CVW-17 Carrier Air Wing Seventeen Emblem (CVW-17).svg NA USS Nimitz

CVW-17 transferred from Atlantic Fleet (with tail code AA) to Pacific Fleet (with tail code NA) in 2012 and was reassigned to USS Carl Vinson.[20] USS Enterprise decommissioned in December 2012 and CVW-1 was reassigned to USS Theodore Roosevelt in 2013[21] until USS Theodore Roosevelt shifted homeport to San Diego in 2015 at which time CVW-17 shifted to her.

With the inactivation of CVWR-30 in 1994, the single remaining U.S. Navy Reserve Carrier Air Wing was Carrier Air Wing Reserve Twenty (CVWR-20). On 1 April 2007, CVWR-20 was redesignated as Tactical Support Wing (TSW):

Official name Insignia Headquarters Tail code
Tactical Support Wing
Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth AF

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Swanborough, pp. 38
  2. ^ a b c d Roy A. Grossnick (ed.), United States Naval Aviation 1910–1995, Appendix 15, accessed May 2012
  3. ^ Swanborough/Bowers, p. 35
  4. ^ Greer, p. 33
  5. ^ Swanborough/Bowers, p. 37
  6. ^ Terzibaschitsch, Luftwaffe, p. 16
  7. ^ Faltum, Andrew (2014). The Supercarriers: The Forrestal and Kitty Hawk Classes. Naval Institute Press. p. 146.
  8. ^ Terzibaschitsch, Flugzeugtraeger, pp. 31
  9. ^ John Roberts, Aircraft Carrier Intrepid
  10. ^ Terzibaschitsch, Flugzeugtraeger, pp. 146. See also James L. Holloway III, 'Aircraft Carriers at War: A Personal Retrospective of Korea, Vietnam, and the Soviet Confrontation.'
  11. ^ The original CVG 10 during the war was established on 16 Apr 1942 and disestablished 16 Nov 1945. CVG-10 was established on 1 May 1952. CVG-10 was redesignated CVW-10 on December 20, 1963. CVW 10 made one deployment aboard USS Shangri-La in the Mediterranean, and three deployments off Vietnam aboard USS Intrepid.
  12. ^ CVG-4 Established 1 Sep 1950; Became RCVG-4 Apr 1958; Became RCVW-4 20 December 1963; disestablished 1 Jul 1970. Roy A. Grossnick (ed.), United States Naval Aviation 1910–1995, Appendix 15, accessed May 2012
  13. ^ "CVW-13 Carrier Air Wing 13 CARAIRWING THIRTEEN - US Navy".
  14. ^ Reade, David (1993). Airborne Log Fall 1993: S-3 Viking 20th Anniversary Review (PDF).
  15. ^ VFA-136 first deployed in September 1987 with CVW-13 on board the USS Coral Sea.
  16. ^ SECNAV Message date September 1991
  17. ^ South, Todd (3 March 2021). "Marine Corps concludes final carrier deployment with F/A-18 Hornet". Marine Corps Times. sightline media group. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2001. Retrieved 15 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Zero to Full Speed": Carrier Air Wing 5, George Washington Completes Carrier Qualifications, story number: NNS150524-12 by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Paolo Bayas, release date: 24 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Fleet Forces Commander to be Naval Component for US NORTHCOM" (PDF). Documents. United States Navy. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-25. Retrieved 2013-10-08. OPNAVNOTE 5400 Ser DNS-33/12U102092 dated 19 June 2012.
  21. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Brian G. Reynolds, USN (August 15, 2012). "CVW-1 Conducts Aerial Change of Command". NNS120815-04. Enterprise Carrier Strike Group Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-08-16.


  • Don Greer: F4U in Action. Squadron/Signal Publications, Carrollton, Texas (USA) 1977. ISBN 0-89747-028-1
  • Roy A. Grossnick (ed.), United States Naval Aviation 1910–1995, Appendix 15
  • Gordon Swanborough; Peter M. Bowers: United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis (Maryland) 1990, ISBN 0-87021-792-5.
  • John Roberts: Aircraft Carrier Intrepid (Anatomy of the Ship). Conway Maritime Press, 2004. ISBN 0-85177-966-2
  • Stefan Terzibaschitsch: Flugzeugtraeger der U.S. Navy. Bernard & Graefe, 2nd edition, Munich, Germany, 1986, ISBN 3-7637-5803-8.
  • Stefan Terzibaschitsch: Die Luftwaffe der U.S. Navy und des Marine Corps. J.F. Lehmanns, Munich, Germany, 1974, ISBN 3-469-00466-8.

Further reading[edit]

  • Rene Francillion: US Navy Carrier Air Groups: Pacific 1941–1945. (Osprey Airwar 16). Osprey, London 1978, ISBN 0-85045-291-0.
  • Bert Kinzey; Ray Leader: Colors and Markings of U.S. Navy and USMC CAG Aircraft. Part 1: Fighters! F-8 Crusader, F-4 Phantom, F-14 Tomcat" (Colors and Markings, Bd. 10). Airlife Publishing, Shrewsbury 1988, ISBN 1-85310-602-X.
  • Bert Kinzey; Ray Leader: Colors and Markings of U.S. Navy CAG Aircraft. Part 2: Attack Aircraft. A-6 Intruder, A-7 Corsair" (Colors and Markings, Bd. 16). Airlife Publishing, Shrewsbury 1990, ISBN 1-85310-623-2.
  • Stefan Terzibaschitsch: Jahrbuch der U.S. Navy 1988/89 (Schwerpunkt: Luftwaffe der U.S. Navy und des Marine Corps). Bernard & Graefe, Munich, Germany, 1988, ISBN 3-7637-4792-3.
  • Stefan Terzibaschitsch: Seemacht USA. Bd. 1. 2nd revised edition, Bechtermünz, Augsburg, Germany, 1997, ISBN 3-86047-576-2.

External links[edit]