This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
Schooner Carroll A. Deering, as seen from the Cape Lookout lightship on January 28, 1921.
|Name||Carroll A. Deering|
|Namesake||Carroll Atwood Deering (1882–1967)|
|Operator||G.G. Deering Company|
|Builder||G.G. Deering Company Yards, Bath, Maine|
|Launched||April 4, 1919|
|Out of service||January 31, 1921|
|Homeport||Bath, Maine, United States|
|Tons burthen||3500 tons|
|Sail plan||Five-masted schooner|
|Boats & landing |
The Carroll A. Deering was an American five-masted commercial schooner launched in 1919 and found run aground without its crew off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in January 1921.[better source needed]
The Carroll A. Deering was built in Bath, Maine, in 1919 by the G.G. Deering Company for commercial use. The owner of the company named the ship after his son. One of the last large commercial sailing vessels, the ship was designed to carry cargo and had been in service for a year when it began its final voyage to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The Deering’s last voyage
On July 19, 1920, the Deering sailed from Puerto Rico, and arrived at Newport News to pick up a cargo of coal for delivery to Rio de Janeiro. The ship was captained by William H. Merritt, a hero of World War I who had been cited for bravery under fire for saving his entire crew when his previous command, the Deering-built five-masted schooner Dorothy B. Barrett, was sunk by the German submarine U-117 off Cape May, New Jersey in 1918. Merritt's son, Sewall, was his first mate and had a ten-man crew made up entirely of Scandinavians (mostly Danes). On August 26, 1920, the Deering cleared the Virginia Capes bound for Rio, but Captain Merritt soon fell seriously ill and the Deering turned back and put into the port of Lewes, Delaware to drop off Merritt and his son. The Deering Company recruited Captain Willis B. Wormell, a retired 66-year-old veteran sea captain, to replace him on the voyage to Brazil. Charles B. McLellan was hired on as first mate.
The Deering, with Wormell in command, set sail for Rio on September 8, 1920, arriving there and delivering its cargo without incident. Wormell gave his crew leave and met with a Captain Goodwin, an old friend who captained another cargo vessel that was docked in Rio. Wormell spoke of his crew with disdain, though he claimed to trust the engineer, Herbert Bates, with whom Goodwin was also acquainted.[better source needed] The Deering left Rio on December 2, 1920, and stopped for supplies in Barbados. First Mate McLellan got drunk in town and complained to Captain Hugh Norton of the Snow that he could not discipline the crew without Wormell interfering, and that he had to do all the navigation owing to Wormell's poor eyesight. Later, Captain Norton, his first mate, and another captain were in the Continental Café and heard McLellan say, "I'll get the captain before we get to Norfolk, I will." McLellan was arrested in a drunken state, but on January 9 Wormell forgave him, bailed him out of jail, and set sail for Hampton Roads.
The ship was next sighted by the Cape Lookout lightship off North Carolina on January 28, 1921, when the Deering hailed it. The lightship's keeper, Captain Jacobson, reported that a tall thin man with reddish hair and a foreign accent speaking through a megaphone told him the vessel had lost its anchors in a storm off Cape Fear and asked that the ship's owners, the G.G. Deering Company, be notified. Jacobson took note of this, but his radio was out, so he was unable to report it. He also noticed that the crew seemed to be "milling around" on the quarterdeck of the ship, an area where they were usually not allowed. The following afternoon, the crew of another vessel transiting the area spotted the Deering sailing a course that would take it directly onto the Diamond Shoals. They, however, saw no one on the ship's decks and didn't attempt to hail the schooner, assuming her crew would spot the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse or the Diamond Shoals Lightship and change course to avoid wrecking on the shoals.[better source needed]
On January 31, 1921, the Deering was sighted at dawn by surfman C. P. Brady who was on lookout duty at the Coast Guard station at Cape Hatteras. The vessel was hard aground with all sails set on the outer edge of Diamond Shoals. These shoals that extend offshore from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina have been notorious as a common site of shipwrecks for centuries and are known as the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." Rescue ships were unable to approach the vessel owing to bad weather. The ship was not boarded until February 4, after being battered by the surf for several days, and it became clear that the schooner had been completely abandoned. Her steering equipment was found to be damaged, with the wheel shattered, the binnacle box stove in, and the rudder disengaged from its stock. The ship's log and navigation equipment were gone, along with the crew's personal effects and the ship's two lifeboats. In the vessel's galley it appeared that certain foodstuffs were being prepared for the next day's meal at the time of the abandonment. The Coast Guard cutter Manning attempted to salvage the Deering, but found this impossible. The vessel was declared a hazard to navigation, and was destroyed using dynamite on March 4 to prevent it from becoming a danger to other vessels.
Message in a bottle
On April 11, 1921, a local fisherman named Christopher Columbus Gray claimed to have found a message in a bottle floating in the waters off the beach of Buxton, North Carolina; he swiftly turned it over to the authorities. The text of the message was as follows:
DEERING CAPTURED BY OIL BURNING BOAT SOMETHING LIKE CHASER. TAKING OFF EVERYTHING HANDCUFFING CREW. CREW HIDING ALL OVER SHIP NO CHANCE TO MAKE ESCAPE. FINDER PLEASE NOTIFY HEADQUARTERS DEERING.
The handwriting in the letter was identified as that of the ship's engineer, Henry Bates, by the widow of Captain Wormell, and the bottle was proven to have been manufactured in Brazil. This, along with a sighting of a "mysterious" steamer that arrived at the Cape Lookout lightship in the wake of the Deering, suggested hostile action. The captain of the lightship had attempted to hail the steamer to get its crew to relay the message from the Deering but the steamer failed to respond and he could not make out the ship's name, as the crew had unfurled a canvas to cover the nameplate.
The message also raised skepticism: if a crew member did manage to get hold of paper, pen, and bottle and write a letter, why would he request that the company be notified, as opposed to the police or Coast Guard? Handwriting experts concluded later that the message was forged, and, after further questioning by federal agents, Christopher Gray admitted to the forgery. Gray apparently forged the note in hopes that the publicity he would garner from finding it would help him secure employment at the Cape Hatteras light station.
The U.S. government launched an extensive investigation into the disappearance of the crew of the Deering. Five departments of the government—Commerce, Treasury, Justice, Navy, and State—looked into the case. Herbert Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce, was intrigued by the fact that several other vessels of various nationalities—most notably the sulfur freighter Hewitt—had also disappeared in roughly the same area. Although most of these vessels were later revealed to have been sailing in the vicinity of a series of particularly powerful hurricanes, the Hewitt and Deering were proven to have been sailing away from the area of the storm at the time. Hoover's assistant, Lawrence Ritchey, was placed in charge of the investigation. Ritchey tried to chart what happened to the vessel between its last sighting at Cape Lookout and its running aground at Diamond Shoals by reading the log books of the Coast Guard lightships stationed in those areas.
When an Italian inquiry into the disappearance of the vessel Monte San Michele confirmed that there had been strong hurricanes in the vicinity, mutiny was then accepted as the explanation for the Deering incident.[clarification needed]
The investigation was closed in late 1922 without an official finding on the incident.
The following theories were considered by the U.S. government in its investigation:
- Hurricanes: The U.S. government, particularly the Weather Bureau, strongly advocated a series of powerful hurricanes known to have been raging in the Atlantic as the cause of the disappearances. As mentioned above, however, both the Deering and the Hewitt were heading away from the path of these storms. In any case, several authors, including Larry Kusche and Richard Winer, have pointed out that the state of the ship indicates an orderly rather than panicked evacuation.
- Piracy: Captain O. W. Parker of the United States Marine Shipping Board certainly believed piracy responsible; he stated that, in his opinion, "Piracy without a doubt still exists as it has since the days of the Phoenicians". Captain Wormell's widow was a particularly strong advocate of this theory. It was believed that a group of pirates were responsible for the various disappearances; however, no real evidence of this theory emerged, and no suspected pirates were ever caught.
- Russian/Communist piracy: During a police raid on the headquarters of the United Russian Workers Party (a Communist organization) in New York City, officers allegedly found papers that called on members of the organization to seize American ships and sail them to the Soviet Union. This was widely believed to be relevant to the Deering incident at the time, particularly by hardline anti-communists in the government. However, no evidence has surfaced that any of these allegedly planned activities were actually carried out.
- Rum runners: A similar speculation to the above speculates that a group of liquor smugglers working out of the Bahamas stole the ship to use as a rum-running vessel (this was during the Prohibition era). The Deering was large enough, according to Richard Winer's Ghost Ships, to carry roughly a million dollars' worth of liquor in her hold. On the other hand, it is doubtful that such a conspicuous, easily identifiable and comparatively slow vessel would constitute a choice target for smugglers. No evidence supporting this speculation has ever emerged.
- Mutiny: Wormell's known conflict with his first mate and derisive comments towards his crew while in Rio de Janeiro suggested that something may have been amiss between the captain and his men on the voyage. Captain Jacobson at Cape Lookout certainly thought it odd; the man who hailed his vessel was definitely not Captain Wormell, and he was not an officer by all accounts. Senator Frederick Hale of Maine advocated this theory, stating it was "a plain case of mutiny". Discontent with the captain could certainly have caused a mutiny of the crew, but once again, nothing definitive has ever been proven.
This section possibly contains original research. (February 2023)
Other areas of speculation include:
- Evacuation: It is also possible that the Deering's crew simply abandoned ship after the vessel grounded on Diamond Shoals and, unable to row to shore, were swept out to sea and to certain death in their small open lifeboats.
- Paranormal explanation: The disappearance of the ship's crew has been cited by innumerable authors dealing with anomalous phenomena and the supernatural. Charles Fort, in his book Lo! (1931), first mentioned this vessel in a "mysterious" context, and many subsequent chroniclers of sea mysteries have followed suit. Since this vessel sailed in the area generally considered to be part of the so-called Bermuda Triangle, the disappearance of the crew has often been tied to this fact. However the ship's resting place (Diamond Shoals) and its last known point of sighting and communication (Cape Lookout) are several hundred miles away from the area generally known as the Bermuda Triangle. No evidence of paranormal events related to the incident has ever emerged.
- SS Hewitt involvement. When the Coast Guard boarded the Deering they found that distress signals, two red lights high in the rigging, had been lit.[better source needed] The steamer Hewitt that was known to be in the area could have sighted the distress signals and taken the crew of the Deering aboard. The Hewitt was later lost with all hands so it is possible that the Deering crew may have gone down with it.[better source needed]
No official explanation for the disappearance of the crew of the Carroll A. Deering was ever offered.
Carrol A. Deering, for whom the ship was named, died in March 1967, aged 84.
- "Five-master Launched at Deering Yard in Bath, ME". The Boston Globe. April 5, 1919. p. 13. Retrieved February 4, 2023 – via newspapers.com.
- "Carroll A. Deering - The Ghost Ship". Bermuda Attractions.
- Graveyard of the Atlantic page. Archived 2016-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
- Simpson, Bland (2005), Ghost Ship of Diamond Shoals: The Mystery of the Carroll A. Deering, UNC Press, pp. 55–7, ISBN 978-0-8078-5617-8
- Bland (2005) p60
- "The Carroll A. Deering, Ghost Ship of Cape Hatteras". 9 January 2018.
- "The Unsolved Mystery of the Carroll A. Deering, the Outer Banks' Most Famous Ghost Ship".
- "Pirate Raid on the Deering Turns Out a Hermit's Joke". New York Herald. August 26, 1921. Retrieved February 4, 2023 – via newspapers.com.
- "Mystery in the Disappearance of 3 Coast Ships and a Schooner Crew". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. AP. June 21, 1921. Retrieved February 4, 2023 – via newspapers.com.
- Bland (2005) p64
- Bland (2005) p176-179
- Eyers, Jonathan (2011). Don't Shoot the Albatross!: Nautical Myths and Superstitions. A&C Black, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4081-3131-2.
- "Ghost ship found off Hatteras 96 years ago today remains an unsolved mystery". Archived from the original on 2018-11-16. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
- "Hattaras Ghose Ship: On Voyage in Hurricane". The News & Observer. Raleigh, North Carolina. September 23, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved February 4, 2023 – via newspapers.com.
- "Namesake of Bath-Built Ghost Ship 'Deering' Dies". Evening Express. Portland, Maine. AP. March 14, 1967. p. 15. Retrieved February 4, 2023 – via newspapers.com.
- "Piracy Suspected In Disappearance Of 3 American Ships," New York Times, June 21, 1921.
- "Bath Owners Skeptical," New York Times, June 22, 1921.
- "Deering Skipper's Wife Caused Investigation," New York Times, June 22, 1921.
- "More Ships Added To Mystery List," New York Times, June 22, 1921.
- "Hunt On For Pirates," Washington Post, June 21, 1921
- "Comb Seas For Ships," Washington Post, June 22, 1921.
- "Port Of Missing Ships Claims 3000 Yearly," Washington Post, July 10, 1921.
- Ghost Ship of Diamond Shoals, The Mystery of the Carroll A. Deering (2002), Bland Simpson
- Lo! (1931), Charles Fort - ISBN 1-870870-89-1
- Invisible Horizons (1965), Vincent Gaddis
- The Bermuda Triangle (1974), Charles Berlitz
- The Bermuda Triangle Mystery: Solved (1975), Larry Kusche - ISBN 0-87975-971-2
- Ghost Ships (2000), Richard Winer
- C.A. Deering, Graveyard of the Atlantic.