Carroll Izard

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Carroll Izard
Carroll Ellis Izard

(1923-10-08)October 8, 1923
DiedFebruary 5, 2017(2017-02-05) (aged 93)
Alma materSyracuse University
Known forDifferential Emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants; Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX); Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV)
Scientific career
FieldsPsychology of Affects (emotional development in children)
InstitutionsUniversity of Delaware; Vanderbilt University

Carroll Ellis Izard, PhD (October 8, 1923 – February 5, 2017)[1] was an American research psychologist[2][3][4] known for his contributions to differential emotions theory (DET),[5][6] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX).[7] Izard also undertook empirical studies into the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling. In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure – the Differential Emotions Scale – currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV)[8][9] His later research focused on emotional development in young children and the development and testing of his Emotions Course for Young Children.[10]

Academic career[edit]

Izard earned his PhD from Syracuse University in 1952 and served initially as a psychology professor at Vanderbilt University, where he carried out pioneering research into human emotions. In 1976, he joined the Department of Psychology at the University of Delaware where he remained active as Unidel Professor of Psychology in the McKinly Lab until his retirement in 2014.[1] A festschrift was held at the University of Delaware on 22 October 2012 to celebrate Izard's lifelong contributions to the understanding of human emotional development.[10]


  • Face of Emotion. (1993). Irvington Publishers.
  • The Psychology of Emotions. (1991). New York: Plenum.
  • Human Emotions. (1977). New York: Plenum.
  • Patterns of Emotions: A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression. (1972). New York: Academic.
  • The Face of Emotion. (1971). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. (1985). Guilford. (with Michael Rutter)
  • Emotions, Cognition and Behaviour. (1984). Cambridge University Press. (with Jerome Kagan)
  • Measuring Emotions in Infants and Children: Vol. 1. (1982). Cambridge University Press.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Manser, Ann (2017-02-13). "In Memoriam: Carroll Izard". University of Delaware. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
  2. ^ American Psychological Association Directory (1968). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  3. ^ Carrol E. Izard, Unidel Professor of Psychology, McKinly Lab., University of Delaware. [Retrieved 22 October 2015]
  4. ^ $2.7 million grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to evaluate Head Start program. [Retrieved 22 October 2015]
  5. ^ Siegler, R. (2006). How Children Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-6113-0.
  6. ^ Cicchetti, D. (2015). Reflections on Carroll Izard's contributions: Influences on diverse scientific disciplines and personal reflections. Emotion Review, 7(2), 104-109. doi: 10.1177/1754073914554781
  7. ^ Izard, C.E., (1979). The Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System (MAX). Newark, DE: University of Delaware Instructional Resource Center.
  8. ^ Boyle, G. J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 747-750.
  9. ^ Boyle, G. J., Helmes, E., Matthews, G., & Izard, C. E. (2015). Multidimensional measures of affects: Emotions and mood states (pp. 190-224). In Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Elsevier/Academic Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-12-386915-9
  10. ^ a b Manser, Ann (2017-10-26). "A celebrated career: Colleagues, family, students gather to honor psychologist Izard". Retrieved 2017-10-25.


  • Cicchetti, D. (2015). Reflections on Carroll Izard's contributions: Influences on diverse scientific disciplines and personal reflections. Emotion Review, 7(2), 104-109. doi: 10.1177/1754073914554781
  • Hope, D. A. (1996). (Ed.), Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Current Theory and Research in Motivation (Vol. 43). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-2382-X
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-306-42022-8

External links[edit]