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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American research psychologist known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET), and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). Differential Emotions Theory maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors", and argues for congruence of emotional expression and subjective experience. Izard also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling. In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure - the Differential Emotions Scale - currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV) that purports to measure 12 fundamental emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants. The 12 subscales are labeled: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt. The DES-IV has been used extensively in both research and practice.
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Emotions and developmental psychopathology. (2006). In D. Cicchetti & D.J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychology: Theory and method (2nd ed.). (Vol. 1, pp. 244–292). New York: Wiley. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. (2000). In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–322). New York: Guilford. (with B.P.Ackerman)
Self organization of discrete emotions, emotion patterns, and emotion cognition relations. (2000). In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-organization (pp. 15–36). Cambridge University Press. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
Emotions and self-concepts across the life span. (1997). In K.W. Schaie & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 17, 1–26. New York: Springer. (with B.P. Ackerman)
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