Carroll Izard

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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American research psychologist[1][2][3] known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET),[4][5] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX).[6] Differential Emotions Theory maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors",[7] and argues for congruence of emotional expression and subjective experience.[8] Izard also undertook empirical studies into the Facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling.

In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure - the Differential Emotions Scale - currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV) that purports to measure 12 fundamental emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants. The 12 subscales are labeled: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt. The DES-IV has been used extensively in both research and practice.[9][10]


Chronologically, Izard's career was at Syracuse University, Vanderbilt University, and finally the University of Delaware. A festschrift was held at the University of Delaware in October 2012 to celebrate Izard's lifelong contributions to the understanding of human emotional development.[11]


  • Face of Emotion. (1993). Irvington Publishers.
  • The Psychology of Emotions. (1991). New York: Plenum.
  • Human Emotions. (1977). New York: Plenum.
  • Patterns of Emotions: A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression. (1972). New York: Academic.
  • The Face of Emotion. (1971). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. (1985). Guilford. (with Michael Rutter)
  • Emotions, Cognition and Behaviour. (1984). Cambridge University Press. (with Jerome Kagan)
  • Measuring Emotions in Infants and Children: Vol. 1. (1982). Cambridge University Press.

Selected chapters[edit]

  • Differential emotions theory. (2009). In D. Sander and K. Scherer (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences (pp. 117–119). New York: Oxford University Press. (with K.A. King)
  • Emotions and developmental psychopathology. (2006). In D. Cicchetti & D.J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychology: Theory and Method (2nd ed.). (Vol. 1, pp. 244–292). New York: Wiley. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
  • Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. (2000). In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–322). New York: Guilford. (with B.P. Ackerman)
  • Self organization of discrete emotions, emotion patterns, and emotion cognition relations. (2000). In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-organization (pp. 15–36). Cambridge University Press. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
  • Emotions and self-concepts across the life span. (1997). In K.W. Schaie & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 17, 1–26. New York: Springer. (with B.P. Ackerman)

Selected articles[edit]

  • Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 2009, 60, 1-25.
  • Basic emotions, natural kinds, emotion schemas, and a new paradigm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, 2(3), 260-280.
  • Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2007, 30, 96–98.
  • Many ways to awareness: A developmental perspective on cognitive access. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2007, 30, 506-507.
  • Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 2002, 128(5): 796–824.
  • Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion, 2001, 1(3), 249–257.
  • Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 2001, 12, 18–23.
  • Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 1994, 115, 288–299.
  • Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 1993, 100, 68–90.
  • Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, 64, 847-860.
  • Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 1992, 99, 561–565.
  • Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990, 58, 487–498.
  • Infants’ emotion expressions to acute pain: Developmental change and stability of individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 1987, 23, 105–113.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ American Psychological Association Directory (1968). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 
  2. ^ Carrol E. Izard, Unidel Professor of Psychology, McKinly Lab., University of Delaware. [Retrieved 22 October, 2015]
  3. ^ $2.7 million grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to evaluate Head Start program. [Retrieved 22 October, 2015]
  4. ^ Siegler, R. (2006). How Children Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-6113-0. 
  5. ^ Cicchetti, D. (2015). Reflections on Carroll Izard's contributions: Influences on diverse scientific disciplines and personal reflections. Emotion Review, 7(2), 104-109. doi: 10.1177/1754073914554781
  6. ^ Izard, C.E., (1979). The Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System (MAX). Newark, DE: University of Delaware Instructional Resource Center.
  7. ^ Izard, C. E. et al. (1995). The ontogeny and significance of infants’ facial expressions in the first 9 months of life. Developmental Psychology, 31, 997–1013.
  8. ^ Izard, C. E. & Abe, J. A. (2004). Developmental changes in facial expressions of emotions in the strange situation during the second year of life. Emotion, 4(3), 251-265.
  9. ^ Boyle, G. J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 747-750.
  10. ^ Boyle, G. J., Helmes, E., Matthews, G., & Izard, C. E. (2015). Multidimensional measures of affects: Emotions and mood states (pp. 190-224). In Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Elsevier/Academic Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-12-386915-9
  11. ^ Festschrift for Carroll E. Izard, University of Delaware, 22 October, 2012. [Retrieved 22 October, 2015]


  • Cicchetti, D. (2015). Reflections on Carroll Izard's contributions: Influences on diverse scientific disciplines and personal reflections. Emotion Review, 7(2), 104-109. doi: 10.1177/1754073914554781
  • Hope, D. A. (1996). (Ed.), Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Current Theory and Research in Motivation (Vol. 43). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-2382-X
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-306-42022-8

External links[edit]