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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American research psychologist known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET), and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). Differential Emotions Theory maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors", and argues for congruence of emotion expression and subjective experience. Izard also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling. In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure - the Differential Emotions Scale - currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV) that purports to measure 12 fundamental emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants. The 12 subscales are labeled: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt. The DES-IV has been used extensively in both research and practice especially by his Ph.D supervisee Gregory John Boyle at the University of Delaware.
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Izard, C. E., & Ackerman, B. P. (2000). Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–322). New York: Guilford.
Izard, C. E. et al. (2000). Self organization of discrete emotions, emotion patterns, and emotion cognition relations. In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-organization (pp. 15–36). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Izard, C. E., & Ackerman, B. P. (1997). Emotions and self-concepts across the life span. In K.W. Schaie & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 17, 1–26. New York: Springer.
Izard, C. E., & Youngstrom, E. A. (1996). The activation and regulation of fear and anxiety. In B. Brown (Ed.), Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (Vol. 43, pp. 1–57). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
(1984). Emotion-cognition relationships and human development. In C.E. Izard et al. (Eds.), Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior (pp. 17–37). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Izard, C. E., & Malatesta, C. Z. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development: Differential emotions theory of early emotional development. In J.D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Development (2nd ed.) (pp. 494–554). New York: Wiley Interscience.
Izard, C. E.(1978). On the ontogenesis of emotions and emotion cognition relationships in infancy. In M. Lewis & L.A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The Development of Affect (pp. 389–413). New York: Plenum.
Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1-25. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163539
Izard, C. E. et al. (2008). Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: Effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Development and Psychopathology 20, 369–397. doi:10.1017/s0954579408000175
Izard, C. E. (2007). Basic emotions, natural kinds, emotion schemas, and a new paradigm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(3), 260-280.
Izard, C. E. (2007). Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 96–98.
Izard, C. E. et al. (2007). Many ways to awareness: A developmental perspective on cognitive access. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 506-507.
Izard, C. E. et al. (2002). Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventative intervention. Development and Psychopathology 14(4): 761–787. doi:10.1017/s0954579402004066
Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5): 796–824. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.796
Izard, C. E. (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion 1(3), 249–257. doi:10.1037/1528-35184.108.40.206
Izard, C. E. et al. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12, 18–23.
Izard, C. E. (1994). Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288–299.
Izard, C. E. (1993). Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 100, 68–90.
Izard, C. E. et al. (1993). Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 847-860.
Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99, 561–565.
Izard, C. E. (1990). Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 487–498.
Izard, C. E. et al. (1987). Infants’ emotion expressions to acute pain: Developmental change and stability of individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 23, 105–113.
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^Izard, C. E. & Abe, J. A. (2004). Developmental changes in facial expressions of emotions in the strange situation during the second year of life. Emotion, 4(3), 251-265.
^Boyle, G. J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 747-750.
^Boyle, G. J., Helmes, E., Matthews, G., & Izard, C. E. (2015). Multidimensional measures of affects: Emotions and mood states. In G.J. Boyle et al. (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Amsterdam: Academic. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00001-2