Carroll Izard

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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American research psychologist[1] known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET),[2] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). Differential Emotions Theory maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions[3] emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors",[4] and argues for congruence of emotion expression and subjective experience.[5] Izard also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling. In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure - the Differential Emotions Scale - currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV) that purports to measure 12 fundamental emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants. The 12 subscales are labeled: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt. The DES-IV has been used extensively in both research and practice especially by his Ph.D supervisee Gregory John Boyle at the University of Delaware.[6][7]

Selected bibliography[edit]


  • Face of Emotion. (1993). Irvington Publishers.
  • The Psychology of Emotions. (1991). New York: Plenum.
  • Human Emotions. (1977). New York: Plenum.
  • Patterns of Emotions: A New analysis of Anxiety and Depression. (1972). New York: Academic.
  • The Face of Emotion. (1971). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Edited books[edit]

  • Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. (1985). Guilford. (with Michael Rutter)
  • Emotions, Cognition and Behaviour. (1984). Cambridge University Press. (with Jerome Kagan)
  • Measuring Emotions in Infants and Children: Volume 1. (1982). Cambridge University Press.

Selected chapters[edit]

  • Izard, C. E. & King, K. A. (2009). Differential emotions theory. In K. Scherer (Ed.), Oxford Companion to the Affective Sciences (pp. 117–119). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2006). Emotions and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D.J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychology: Theory and method (2nd ed.). (Vol. 1, pp. 244–292). New York: Wiley.
  • Izard, C. E., & Ackerman, B. P. (2000). Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–322). New York: Guilford.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2000). Self organization of discrete emotions, emotion patterns, and emotion cognition relations. In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-organization (pp. 15–36). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Izard, C. E., & Ackerman, B. P. (1997). Emotions and self-concepts across the life span. In K.W. Schaie & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 17, 1–26. New York: Springer.
  • Izard, C. E., & Youngstrom, E. A. (1996). The activation and regulation of fear and anxiety. In B. Brown (Ed.), Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (Vol. 43, pp. 1–57). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • (1984). Emotion-cognition relationships and human development. In C.E. Izard et al. (Eds.), Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior (pp. 17–37). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Izard, C. E., & Malatesta, C. Z. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development: Differential emotions theory of early emotional development. In J.D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Development (2nd ed.) (pp. 494–554). New York: Wiley Interscience.
  • Izard, C. E.(1978). On the ontogenesis of emotions and emotion cognition relationships in infancy. In M. Lewis & L.A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The Development of Affect (pp. 389–413). New York: Plenum.

Selected articles[edit]

  • Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1-25. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163539
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2008). Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: Effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Development and Psychopathology 20, 369–397. doi:10.1017/s0954579408000175
  • Izard, C. E. (2007). Basic emotions, natural kinds, emotion schemas, and a new paradigm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(3), 260-280.
  • Izard, C. E. (2007). Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 96–98.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2007). Many ways to awareness: A developmental perspective on cognitive access. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 506-507.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2002). Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventative intervention. Development and Psychopathology 14(4): 761–787. doi:10.1017/s0954579402004066
  • Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5): 796–824. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.796
  • Izard, C. E. (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion 1(3), 249–257. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.1.3.249
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12, 18–23.
  • Izard, C. E. (1994). Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288–299.
  • Izard, C. E. (1993). Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 100, 68–90.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (1993). Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 847-860.
  • Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99, 561–565.
  • Izard, C. E. (1990). Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 487–498.
  • Izard, C. E. et al. (1987). Infants’ emotion expressions to acute pain: Developmental change and stability of individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 23, 105–113.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ American Psychological Association Directory (1968). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 
  2. ^ Siegler, R. (2006). How Children Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-6113-0. 
  3. ^ Izard, C. E. (1994). Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288–299.
  4. ^ Izard, C. E. et al. (1995). The ontogeny and significance of infants’ facial expressions in the first 9 months of life. Developmental Psychology, 31, 997–1013.
  5. ^ Izard, C. E. & Abe, J. A. (2004). Developmental changes in facial expressions of emotions in the strange situation during the second year of life. Emotion, 4(3), 251-265.
  6. ^ Boyle, G. J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 747-750.
  7. ^ Boyle, G. J., Helmes, E., Matthews, G., & Izard, C. E. (2015). Multidimensional measures of affects: Emotions and mood states. In G.J. Boyle et al. (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Amsterdam: Academic. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00001-2


  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-306-42022-8

External links[edit]