Carroll Izard

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Carroll Ellis Izard (born October 8, 1923) is an American research psychologist[1] known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET),[2] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). Differential Emotions Theory maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors",[3] and argues for congruence of emotional expression and subjective experience.[4] Izard also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expressions which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion a person is feeling. In addition, Izard constructed a multidimensional self-report measure - the Differential Emotions Scale - currently in its 4th edition (DES-IV) that purports to measure 12 fundamental emotions universally discernible in the facial expressions of infants. The 12 subscales are labeled: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt. The DES-IV has been used extensively in both research and practice.[5][6]


  • Face of Emotion. (1993). Irvington Publishers.
  • The Psychology of Emotions. (1991). New York: Plenum.
  • Human Emotions. (1977). New York: Plenum.
  • Patterns of Emotions: A New analysis of Anxiety and Depression. (1972). New York: Academic.
  • The Face of Emotion. (1971). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. (1985). Guilford. (with Michael Rutter)
  • Emotions, Cognition and Behaviour. (1984). Cambridge University Press. (with Jerome Kagan)
  • Measuring Emotions in Infants and Children: Volume 1. (1982). Cambridge University Press.

Selected chapters[edit]

  • Differential emotions theory. (2009). In K. Scherer (Ed.), Oxford Companion to the Affective Sciences (pp. 117–119). New York: Oxford University Press. (with K.A. King)
  • Emotions and developmental psychopathology. (2006). In D. Cicchetti & D.J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychology: Theory and method (2nd ed.). (Vol. 1, pp. 244–292). New York: Wiley. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
  • Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. (2000). In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–322). New York: Guilford. (with B.P.Ackerman)
  • Self organization of discrete emotions, emotion patterns, and emotion cognition relations. (2000). In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-organization (pp. 15–36). Cambridge University Press. (Izard, C.E. et al.)
  • Emotions and self-concepts across the life span. (1997). In K.W. Schaie & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 17, 1–26. New York: Springer. (with B.P. Ackerman)

Selected articles[edit]

  • Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 2009, 60, 1-25.
  • Basic emotions, natural kinds, emotion schemas, and a new paradigm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, 2(3), 260-280.
  • Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2007, 30, 96–98.
  • Many ways to awareness: A developmental perspective on cognitive access. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2007, 30, 506-507.
  • Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 2002, 128(5): 796–824.
  • Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion, 2001, 1(3), 249–257.
  • Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 2001, 12, 18–23.
  • Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 1994, 115, 288–299.
  • Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 1993, 100, 68–90.
  • Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, 64, 847-860.
  • Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 1992, 99, 561–565.
  • Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990, 58, 487–498.
  • Infants’ emotion expressions to acute pain: Developmental change and stability of individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 1987, 23, 105–113.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ American Psychological Association Directory (1968). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 
  2. ^ Siegler, R. (2006). How Children Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-6113-0. 
  3. ^ Izard, C. E. et al. (1995). The ontogeny and significance of infants’ facial expressions in the first 9 months of life. Developmental Psychology, 31, 997–1013.
  4. ^ Izard, C. E. & Abe, J. A. (2004). Developmental changes in facial expressions of emotions in the strange situation during the second year of life. Emotion, 4(3), 251-265.
  5. ^ Boyle, G. J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 747-750.
  6. ^ Boyle, G. J. et al. (2015). Multidimensional measures of affects: Emotions and mood states. In G.J. Boyle et al. (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Amsterdam: Academic. ISBN 9-780123-869159


  • Hope, D. A. (1996). (Ed.), Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear. Volume 43 of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Current Theory and Research in Motivation. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-2382-X
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-306-42022-8

External links[edit]