Cartagena, Colombia

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Cartagena
City
Cartagena de Indias
Top: Bocagrande Harbour. Second row: View of Santa Cruz Manga Island, Heredia Theatre. Third row: ClockTower (Torre del Reloj), Pilar Republicano, San Felipe Barajas Castle (Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas) (above), Charleston Hotel (below). Bottom: City Skyline.
Top: Bocagrande Harbour. Second row: View of Santa Cruz Manga Island, Heredia Theatre. Third row: ClockTower (Torre del Reloj), Pilar Republicano, San Felipe Barajas Castle (Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas) (above), Charleston Hotel (below). Bottom: City Skyline.
Flag of Cartagena
Flag
Official seal of Cartagena
Seal
Nickname(s): "The Magic City", "The Cosmopolitan City", "The city of Cartagena", "The Heroic", "The Rock Corral", " The fantastic"
Motto: "Por Cartagena"
Colombia - Bolívar - Cartagena de Indias.svg
Cartagena is located in Colombia
Cartagena
Cartagena
Coordinates: 10°24′N 75°30′W / 10.400°N 75.500°W / 10.400; -75.500Coordinates: 10°24′N 75°30′W / 10.400°N 75.500°W / 10.400; -75.500
Country  Colombia
Department Bolívar
Region Caribbean
Foundation June 1, 1533
Founded by Pedro de Heredia
Government
 • Mayor (interim) Sergio Londoño Zurek
Area
 • City 572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Elevation 2 m (7 ft)
Population (2016)
 • City 971,592 [1]
 • Rank Ranked 5th
 • Metro 1,013,389[1]
Demonym(s) Cartagenero(s) (in Spanish)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
Postal code 130000
Area code(s) 57 + 5
HDI (2008) Increase 0.798 – High
Patron saints Saint Catherine and Saint Sebastian
Average temperature 82ºF (30ºC)
Website www.cartagena.gov.co (in Spanish)

The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Spanish: Cartagena de Indias [kaɾtaˈxena ðe ˈindjas] (About this sound listen)), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region. It was strategically located between the Magdalena and Sinú rivers and became the main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s. During the colonial era it was a key port for the export of Peruvian silver to Spain and for the import of African slaves under the asiento system. It was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean.[2] It is the capital of the Bolívar Department, and had a population 971,592 as of 2016.[1] It is the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is also the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism.

The city was founded on June 1, 1533, and named after Cartagena, Spain, which in turn was named after Carthage in Tunisia. Settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire. It was a center of political, ecclesiastical, and economic activity.[3] In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History[edit]

According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to these Taíno culture huts in Baconao, Cuba
Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Criteria Cultural: iv, vi
Reference 285
Inscription 1984 (8th Session)

Pre-Columbian era: 4000 BC – 1500 AD[edit]

The Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life.[4][5][6]

Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC. The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and also to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish.[7]

The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib, Malibu and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was closely related to the Chibcha language family.[8][9]

Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family.

Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included:[10]

  • on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí (Calamari)
  • on the island of Tierrabomba: Carex
  • on Isla Barú, then a peninsula: Bahaire
  • on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique
  • in the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco Tribe

Heredia found these settlements, "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes."[11]:481

Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, and other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades.[12]

First sightings by Europeans: 1500–1533[edit]

Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500–01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa's voyage to Uraba. However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, and before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had already been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd.[13][11]

After the failed effort to find Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers. They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba.[14]

Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas (1460–1527) to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá, the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate.[15][16][17][18]

Colonial era: 1533–1717[edit]

Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city and explorer of its hinterland
Map of the city recently established and without walls (c.1550)
The historic center is surrounded by 11 kilometers of defensive walls. These were complemented by fortifications along the coast, making Cartagena a militarily impregnable city. The walls, made in several stages, were designed to protect the city from continual pirate attacks, with construction beginning in 1586.
The Convento de Santo Domingo, founded in 1551, is the oldest church in Cartagena. In 1588, two years after Francis Drake's assault on the city, the church was granted 500 pesos by a royal decree to proceed with repairs of the building, which was not affected by the English attacks. It was occupied by the Dominican religious order until the 19th-century.
Monasterio de San Pedro Cláver. The church is part of a set of religious buildings as the Cloister of San Pedro Claver and the archaeological museum. It was built between 1580 and 1654. The body of Saint Peter Claver is located in its main altar.

Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia entered the Bay of Cartagena with three ships, a lighter, 150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 January 1533. He soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, Heredia fought an all-day battle before claiming victory. Using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three-month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a solid gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In later expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold. His rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544.[10]:14–17[11]:479–85

Cartagena was founded on June 1, 1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamarí village. The town was named after the port city of Cartagena, in Murcia in southwest Spain, where most of Heredia's sailors had resided.[19] King Philip II gave Cartagena the title of "city" (ciudad) in 1574, adding "most noble and loyal" in 1575.[10]:23

The city's increasing importance as a port for the export of Peruvian silver from Potosí to Spain, made it an obvious target for pirates and corsairs, encouraged by France, England, and Holland. In 1544, the city was pillaged by 5 ships and 1000 men under the command of the French pirate Jean-François Roberval, who took advantage of the city still without walls. Heredia was forced to retreat to Turbaco until a ransom was paid. A defensive tower, San Felipe del Boqueron, was built in 1566 by Governor Anton Davalos. It was supposed to protect the anchorage and the Bahia de las Animas, a water lane into Plaza de lar Mar (current day Plaze de la Aduana), but the fort's battery had limited range. Then the French pirate Martin Cote struck in 1569 with 1000 men, ransacking the city.[10]:23–24[20]:97–98

A few months after the disaster of the invasion of Cote, a fire destroyed the city and forced the creation of a firefighting squad, the first in the Americas.[21][full citation needed]

In 1568, Sir John Hawkins of England tried to trick Governor Martín de las Alas into violating Spanish law, which forbade trade with foreigners, by opening a trade fair in the city to sell goods. This would have allowed Hawkins to ravage the port afterwards; the governor declined. Hawkins bombarded the city for 8 days, but failed to level it.[22][23][24] Then Francis Drake attacked in April 1586 with 23 ships and 3,000 men. Drake burned 200 houses and the cathedral, departing only after a ransom was paid a month later.[10]:24

Spain then commissioned Bautista Antonelli in 1586 to design a master scheme for defending its Caribbean ports. This included a second visit to Cartagena in 1594 when he drew up plans for a walled city.[20]

In 1610, the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in Cartagena and The Palace of Inquisition was completed in 1770. Sentences were pronounced in the main city plaza, today's Plaza de Bolivar, during the Autos de Fe ceremonies. Crimes under its jurisdiction included those of heresy, blasphemy, bigamy and witchcraft. A total of 767 persons were punished, which ranged from fines, wearing a Sanbenito, life imprisonment, or even death for five unlucky souls. The Inquisition was abolished with independence in 1811.[10]:28

The Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713. The contract granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell African slaves in the Spanish West Indies.

The first slaves were brought by Pedro de Heredia to work as "macheteros", clearing the underbrush. By the 17th Century, Cartagena had become an important New World slave market, centered about the Plaza de los Coches. Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories.[25][26][27] [10]:30[20]:135

Gov. Francisco de Murga made the Inner Bay an "impregnable lagoon", according to Segovia, which included the forts El Boquerón, Castillo Grande, Manzanillo, and Manga. Besides the walls built to defend the historic district of Calamari, Francisco de Murga enclosed Getsemani with protective walls starting in 1631. This included the battery of Media Luna of San Antonio, located between the bastions of Santa Teresa and Santa Barbara, which protected the only gate and causeway to the mainland.[20]:98, 130

The practice of Situado, is exemplified in the magnitude of the city's subsidy between 1751 and 1810, when the city received the sum of 20,912,677 Spanish reales.[28][29][full citation needed]

The policies of the Bourbon Dynasty in Spain, such as those of Philip V, stimulated the economic growth and consolidation of the Spanish America.
Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta as governor was the mastermind of the reconstruction of the city after the destruction of 1697

The Raid on Cartagena, in April 1697 during the Nine Years' War, by Sir Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis and Jean Baptiste Ducasse was a severe blow to Cartagena. The Baron's forces included 22 large ships, 500 canons, and 4000 troops, while Ducasse's forces consisted of 7 ships and 1,200 buccaneers. They quickly overwhelmed Sancho Jimeno de Orozco's force of 30 men in the San Luis de Bocachica fortification. Then, San Felipe de Barajas also fell and the city came under bombardment. When the Half Moon Gate was breached and Getsemani occupied, Governor Diego de los Rios capitulated. The Baron left after a month of plunder and Ducasse followed a week later.[10]:31–32

When King Philip II employed the Italian engineer Juan Bautista Antonelli to design a master plan of fortifications for Cartagena, construction would actually continue for the next two hundred years. On 17 March 1640, three Portuguese ships under the command of Rodrigo Lobo da Silva, ran aground in the Bocagrande Channel. This accelerated the formation of a sand bar, which soon connected the Bocagrande Peninsula to the island of Tierrabomba. The defense of the bay then shifted to two forts on either side of Bocachica, San Jose and San Luis de Bocachica. San Luis was replaced by San Fernando after the 1741 English raid. The next narrow passage was formed by the Island of Manzanillo, where San Juan del Manzanillo was constructed and Santa Cruz O Castillo Grande opposite on Cruz Grande at Punta Judio, both connected by a floating chain. Finally, there was San Felipe del Boqueron, later San Sebastian del Pastelillo. The city itself was circled with a ring of bastions connected by curtains. The island of Getsemani was also fortified. Protecting the city on the landward side, atop San Lazaro hill, was the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas[30] named in honor of Spain's King Philip IV and Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, Marquis of Barajas' father, the Count of Barajas. Completed in 1654, the fort was expanded in the 18th Century, and included underground corridors and galleries.[10]:25–26[31][20]:76[20]:69–72

The final serious attempt to take the city and invade New Granada was made by Edward Vernon, who failed in one of the biggest military expeditions ever sent there
Blas de Lezo the one-eyed, one-legged, one-handed Spanish mariner was one of those who defended the city in 1741

Viceregal era: 1717–1811[edit]

Although the 18th century began poorly for the city economically, when the Bourbon dynasty discontinued the Carrera de Indias convoys. However, with the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the colonial struggle with England, Cartagena took on the stronghold as the "gateway to the Indies of Peru". By 1777, the city included 13,700 inhabitants with a garrison of 1300. The population reached 17,600 in 1809.[20]:31–33, 36

The reconstruction after the Raid on Cartagena (1697) was initially slow, but with the end of the War of the Spanish Succession around 1711 and the competent administration of Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta, the walls were rebuilt, the forts reorganized and restored, and the public services and buildings reopened. By 1710, the city was fully recovered. At the same time, the slow but steady reforms of the restricted trade policies in the Spanish Empire encouraged the establishment of new trade houses and private projects. During the reign of Philip V of Spain the city had many new public works projects either begun or completed, among them the new fort of San Fernando, the Hospital of the Obra Pía and the full paving of all the streets and the opening of new roads.[citation needed]

In 1731, Juan de Herrera y Sotomayor founded the Military Academy of Mathematics and Practice of Fortifications in Cartagena. He is also known for designing the Puerta del Reloj starting in 1704.[20]:43, 138–39

1741 attack[edit]

Siege of Cartagena de Indias of 1741 where Spanish Empire forces, of 2,800 men, commanded by Blas de Lezo defeated the British fleet and armies, of 23,600 soldiers, by Admiral Edward Vernon. The failed siege was decisive for the victory of the War of Jenkins' Ear in which the British wanted to take over various lands of Spanish America.[32]

Starting in mid-April 1741, the city endured a siege by a large English armada under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon. The engagement, referred to as Battle of Cartagena de Indias, was part of the larger War of Jenkin's Ear. The English armada included 50 warships, 130 transport ships, and 25,600 men, including 2,000 North American colonial infantry. The Spanish defense was under the command of Sebastián de Eslava and Don Blas de Lezo. The British were able to take the Castillo de San Luis at Bocachica and land marines on the island of Tierrabomba and Manzanillo. The North Americans then took La Popa hill.[10]:33–35

Following a failed attack on San Felipe Barajas on 20 April 1741, which left 800 British dead and another 1,000 taken prisoner, Vernon lifted the siege. By that time he had many sick men from tropical diseases. An interesting footnote to the battle, was the inclusion of George Washington's half brother, Lawrence Washington, amongst the British colonial troops. Lawrence later named his Mount Vernon estate in honor of his commander.[10]:35–36

Silver Age (1750–1808)[edit]

Mestiza of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1799.
Criollo of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1796.

In 1762, Antonio de Arebalo published his Defense Plan, the Report on the estate of defense on the avenues of Cartagena de Indias. This engineer continued the work to make Cartagena impregnable, including the construction from 1771 to 1778, of an 3400 yards long underwater jetty across the Bocagrande called the Escollera. Arebalo had earlier completed San Fernando, and the fort-battery of San Jose in 1759, then added El Angel San Rafael on El Horno hill as added protection across the Bocachica.[20]:55, 81–94

After Vernon, what is called the 'Silver Age' of the city (1750–1808) began. This time was one of permanent expansion of the existing buildings, massive immigration from all the other cities of the Viceroyalty, increase of the economic and political power of the city and a population growth spurt not equaled since that time. Political power that was already shifting from Bogotá to the coast completed its relocation, and the Viceroys decided to reside in Cartagena permanently.[citation needed] The inhabitants of the city were the richest of the colony, the aristocracy erected noble houses on their lands to form great estates, libraries and printing establishments were opened, and the first café in New Granada was even established. The good times of steady progress and advancement in the second half of the 18th century came to an abrupt end in 1808 with the general crisis of the Spanish Empire that came from the Mutiny of Aranjuez and all its consequences.[citation needed]

Among the censuses of the 18th century was the special Census of 1778, imposed by the governor of the time, D. Juan de Torrezar Diaz Pimienta – later Viceroy of New Granada – by order of the Marquis of Ensenada, Minister of Finance – so that he would be provided numbers for his Catastro tax project, which imposed a universal property tax he believed would contribute to the economy while at the same time increasing royal revenues dramatically. The Census of 1778, besides having significance for economic history, is interesting because each house had to be described in detail and its occupants enumerated, making the census an important tool[33] The census revealed what Ensenada had hoped. However, his enemies in the court convinced King Charles III to oppose the tax plan.

1811 to the 21st century[edit]

Postal showing the Dock of los Pegasos and the Torre del Reloj Público, in Cartagena de Indias, circa 1910.

For more than 275 years, Cartagena was under Spanish rule. With Napoleon's imprisonment of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, and the start of the Peninsular War, the Latin American wars of independence soon followed. In Cartagena, on 4 June 1810, Royal Commissioner Antonio Villavicencio and the Cartagena City Council banished the Spanish Governor Francisco de Montes on suspicions of sympathy for the French emperor and the French occupation forces which overthrew the king. A Supreme Junta was formed, along with two political parties, one led by Jose Maria Garcia de Toledo representing the aristocrats, and a second led by Gabriel and German Piñeres representing the common people of Getsemani. Finally on 11 November, a Declaration of Independence was signed proclaiming "a free state, sovereign and independent of all domination and servitude to any power on Earth".[10]:49–51

Spain's reaction was to send a "pacifying expedition" under the command of Pablo Morillo, The Pacifier, and Pascual de Enrile, which included 59 ships, and 10,612 men. The city was placed under siege on 22 August 1815. The city was defended by 3000 men, 360 cannons, and 8 ships plus ancillary small watercraft, under the command of Manuel del Castillo y Rada and Juan N. Enslava. However, by that time, the city was under the rule of the Garcia de Toledo Party, having exiled German and Gabriel Pineres, and Simon Bolivar. By 5 December, about 300 people per day died from hunger or disease, forcing 2000 to flee on vessels provided by the French mercenary Louis Aury. By that time, 6000 had died. Morillo, in retaliation after entering the city, shot nine of the rebel leaders on 24 February 1816, at what is now known as the Camellon de los Martires. These included José María García de Toledo and Manuel del Castillo y Rada.[10]:55–60

Finally, a patriot army led by General Mariano Montilla, supported by Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, laid siege to the city from August 1820 until October 1821. A key engagement was the destruction of almost all of the royalist ships anchored on Getsemani Island on 24 June 1821. After Governor Gabriel Torres surrendered, Simon Bolivar the Liberator, bestowed the title "Heroic City" onto Cartagena. The Liberator spent 18 days in the city from 20–28 July 1827, staying in the Government Palace in Proclamation Square and the guest of a banquet hosted by Jose Padilla at his residence on Calle Larga.[10]:60, 67

Geography[edit]

Sanctuary of Saint Peter Claver. Peter Claver was a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who dedicated his life to helping the African slaves, giving them a sense of their own personal dignity. He became the patron saint of slaves, seafarers, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to African Americans.
The Torre del Reloj Público (Public Clock Tower) was the main entrance to the old city. Originally, the clock tower had only the central archway. The other two arches were added in the 18th century, and a new clock in the 19th century.

Location[edit]

Cartagena faces the Caribbean Sea to the west. To the south is the Cartagena Bay, which has two entrances: Bocachica (Small Mouth) in the south, and Bocagrande (Big Mouth) in the north. Cartagena is located at 10°25' North, 75°32' West (10.41667, −75.5333).[34]

Neighborhoods[edit]

The metropolitan area of Cartagena is formed by:

Northern area[edit]

In this area is the Rafael Núñez International Airport, located in the neighborhood of Crespo, ten minutes' drive from downtown or the old part of the city and fifteen minutes away from the modern area. Zona Norte, the area located immediately north of the airport contains the Hotel Las Americas, the urban development office of Barcelona de Indias, and several educational institutions.[citation needed]

Downtown[edit]

The Downtown area of Cartagena has varied architecture, mainly a colonial style, but republican and Italian style buildings, such as the Cathedral's bell tower, can be seen.

The main entrance to downtown is the Puerta del Reloj (Clock Gate), which exits onto the Plaza de los Coches (Square of the Carriages).[35] A few steps farther is the Plaza de la Aduana (Customs Square), next to the mayor's office. Nearby is San Pedro Claver Square and the church also named for Saint Peter Claver, where the body of the Jesuit saint ('Saint of the African slaves') is kept in a casket, as well as the Museum of Modern Art.[Note 1]

Nearby is the Plaza de Bolívar (Bolívar's Square) and the Palace of Inquisition. Plaza de Bolívar (formerly known as Plaza de La Inquisicion) is essentially a small park with a statue of Simón Bolívar in the center. This plaza is surrounded by balconied colonial buildings. Shaded outdoor cafes line the street.

The Office of Historical Archives devoted to Cartagena's history is not far away. Next to the archives is the Government Palace, the office building of the Governor of the Department of Bolivar. Across from the palace is the Cathedral of Cartagena, which dates back to the 16th century.

Another religious building of significance is the Iglesia de Santo Domingo in front of Plaza Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo Square). In the square is the sculpture Mujer Reclinada ("Reclining Woman"), a gift from the notable Colombian artist Fernando Botero. Nearby is the Tcherassi Hotel, a 250-year-old colonial mansion renovated by designer Silvia Tcherassi.

In the city is the Augustinian Fathers Convent and the University of Cartagena. This university is a center of higher education opened to the public in the late 19th century. The Claustro de Santa Teresa (Saint Theresa Cloister), which has been remodeled and has become a hotel operated by Charleston Hotels. It has its own square, protected by the San Francisco Bastion.

A 20-minute walk from downtown is the Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, located in el Pie de la Popa (another neighborhood), the greatest fortress ever built by the Spaniards in their colonies. The tunnels were all constructed in such a way as to make it possible to hear footsteps of an approaching enemy. Some of the tunnels are open for viewing today.

San Diego[edit]

San Diego was named after the local San Diego Convent, now known as the Beaux Arts University Building. In front of it is the Convent of the Nuns of the Order of Saint Clare, now the Hotel Santa Clara. In the surrounding area is Santo Toribio Church, the last church built in the Walled City. Next to it is Fernández de Madrid Square, honoring Cartagena's hero, José Fernández de Madrid, whose statue can be seen nearby.

Inside the Old City[clarification needed] is found Las Bóvedas (The Vaults),[38] a construction attached to the walls of the Santa Catalina Fortress. From the top of this construction the Caribbean Sea is visible.

Getsemaní[edit]

A view of the both Colonial and traditional neighbourhood of Getsemaní, usually found old houses painted with graffiti.

Once a district characterized by crime, Getsemani, just south of the ancient walled fortress, has become "Cartagena's hippest neighborhood and one of Latin America's newest hotspots", with plazas that were once the scene of drug dealing being reclaimed and old buildings being turned into boutique hotels.[39]

Bocagrande[edit]

The Bocagrande (Big Mouth) is an area known for its skyscrapers. The area contains the bulk of the city's tourist facilities, such as hotels, shops, restaurants, nightclubs and art galleries. It is located between Cartagena Bay to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the west, and includes the two neighborhoods of El Laguito (The Little Lake) and Castillogrande (Big Castle). Bocagrande has long beaches and much commercial activity is found along Avenida San Martín (Saint Martin Avenue).[citation needed]

The beaches of Bocagrande, lying along the northern shore, are made of volcanic sand, which is slightly grayish in color. This makes the water appear muddy, though it is not. There are breakwaters about every 200 yards (180 m).[citation needed]

On the bay side of the peninsula of Bocagrande is a seawalk. In the center of the bay is a statue of the Virgin Mary. The Naval Base is also located in Bocagrande, looking at the Bay.

Bocagrande's skyline at twilight from the old town, in the year 2008.

Climate[edit]

Cartagena features a tropical wet and dry climate. Humidity averages around 90%, with rainy seasons typically in May–June and October–November. The climate tends to be hot and windy.

Climate data for Cartagena (Rafael Núñez International Airport) 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.0
(104)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104)
39.8
(103.6)
39.0
(102.2)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.8
(82)
28.3
(82.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.3
(82.9)
28.0
(82.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.2
(81)
27.8
(82)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
24.2
(75.6)
24.8
(76.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.9
(78.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.7
(78.3)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
24.6
(76.3)
25.2
(77.4)
Record low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
18.0
(64.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.9
(0.075)
0.5
(0.02)
1.9
(0.075)
22.0
(0.866)
120.3
(4.736)
101.5
(3.996)
119.4
(4.701)
128.9
(5.075)
144.5
(5.689)
238.8
(9.402)
156.9
(6.177)
50.4
(1.984)
1,087
(42.795)
Average rainy days 0 0 1 4 10 13 11 13 15 16 12 3 98
Average relative humidity (%) 81 79 80 81 82 82 81 82 82 83 83 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8 240.1 238.7 210.0 192.2 189.0 207.7 198.4 171.0 170.5 186.0 241.8 2,518.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.8 8.5 7.7 7.0 6.2 6.3 6.7 6.4 5.7 5.5 6.2 7.8 6.9
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales[40][41][42]

Demographics[edit]

The Marquis of Ensenada was Minister for America and responsible for many policies, one of which resulted in the first modern census in the city in 1778.
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1533 200 —    
1564 2,400 +1100.0%
1593 3,543 +47.6%
1612 5,302 +49.6%
1634 8,390 +58.2%
1643 12,302 +46.6%
1698 14,223 +15.6%
1701 10,230 −28.1%
1732 12,932 +26.4%
1762 14,203 +9.8%
1778 16,940 +19.3%
1792 19,380 +14.4%
Year Pop. ±%
1803 23,402 +20.8%
1811 29,320 +25.3%
1821 5,392 −81.6%
1832 8,001 +48.4%
1842 4,221 −47.2%
1853 6,403 +51.7%
1867 8,320 +29.9%
1870 7,680 −7.7%
1882 13,994 +82.2%
1890 17,392 +24.3%
1900 21,220 +22.0%
1912 29,922 +41.0%
Year Pop. ±%
1918 34,203 +14.3%
1926 64,322 +88.1%
1939 87,504 +36.0%
1952 123,439 +41.1%
1967 299,493 +142.6%
1976 312,520 +4.3%
1985 554,093 +77.3%
1993 725,072 +30.9%
1999 837,552 +15.5%
2005 893,033 +6.6%
2011 est. 955,709 +7.0%
2013 est. 978,600 +2.4%
Panorama of Cartagena from the San Felipe de Barajas Fort, in the year 2008.

Economy[edit]

The main economic activities in Cartagena are industry, tourism, and commerce. The port of Cartagena is one of the largest of South America.

Industry[edit]

Port of Cartagena de Indias

Other prominent companies include Cementos Argos, Miss Colombia, Kola Román, Indufrial, Amazon Pepper, Vikings SA, Distribuidora Ltda Refrigeration, Central Ingenio Colombia, Perfumery Lemaitre, Cartagena Refinery Cellux Colombiana SA, Flour Three Castles, Polyban International SA, SABMiller, Dow Chemical, Cemex, Dole, and Abocol.[citation needed].

Miss Colombia[edit]

In 1934, Miss Colombia was founded in Cartagena de Indias. Known as Concurso Nacional de Belleza de Colombia (National Beauty Contest of Colombia), it is a national beauty pageant in Colombia. The winner, Señorita Colombia, is sent to Miss Universe and the first runner-up, Señorita Colombia Internacional or Virreina, to Miss International.

Free zones[edit]

Free zones are areas within the local territory which enjoy special customs and tax rules. They are intended to promote the industrialization of goods and provision of services aimed primarily at foreign markets and also the domestic market.[citation needed]

  • Central Park Zone SAS: Located in the municipality of Turbaco in conurbation area with the District of Cartagena de Indias, which has 64.8 hectares in the first phase and a second extension underway to complete the 128 acres (52 ha) included in the project. It has excellent design features and will have the most modern software inventory of Colombia. It has a permamente Zone (Phase 1 – Phase 2) and a Logistics and Commercial Zone for SMEs. They are currently on sale and rent their warehouses, lots, yards and offices for companies in different cluster.[citation needed]
  • Zona Franca Industrial Goods and Services ZOFRANCA Cartagena SA: located 14 kilometres (8.7 miles) from the city center, at the end of the industrial sector and has Mamonal private dock.[citation needed]
  • Tourist Zone: located on the island of Baru, within the swamp Portonaito, is the only tourist zone offers lots of water in waterways, marine tourism and urban development, villas and all conveniences of a Caribbean urbanization.[citation needed]

Construction[edit]

Bocagrande in 2008

Tourism[edit]

Gertrudis sculpture by Fernando Botero in Plaza de Santo Domingo square in the old town.

Tourism is a mainstay of the economy. The following are tourist sites within the city:

  • Colonial architecture with Andalusian style roots.
  • Steps of La Popa mount[43]
  • Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas[44]
  • The Walled city of Cartagena
  • Cartagena Gold Museum[45]
  • Palace of the Inquisition[46]
  • Las Bóvedas
  • Clock Tower[47]
  • Fortresses in Cartagena de Indias: Of the twenty fortresses comprising the walls in the district of Getsemaní, today 16 are still standing, preserved in good condition. In 1586, was commissioned to the most famous military engineer of the Crown of Spain in that time, the Italian Battista Antonelli, the fortification of the city. The works of the project finally ended in the 17th century; Cartagena became an impregnable bastion, which successfully resisted the attacks of Baron Pontis to 1697. In the 18th century, new additions gave the fortified complex its current amplitude by engineer Antonio de Arévalo. The initial fortification system includes only the urban recint, the bastion port of San Matías at the entrance to the passage of Bocagrande, and the Tower of San Felipe del Boquerón that controlled the Bay of las Ánimas. Gradually, all passages were dominated by fortresses: fortress of San Luis, fortress of San José and fortress of San Fernando in Bocachica, fortress of San Rafaél and fortress of Santa Bárbara in Pochachica (the passage at southwest), fortress of Santa Cruz, fortress of San Juan de Manzanillo and fortress of San Sebasi de Pastellilo around the interior of Bahía, castle of San Felipe de Barajas, in the rock that dominates the city from the east and access to protected the Isthmus del Cerebro. The fortifications of San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena, protected the city during numerous sieges, giving its character and reputation unassailable. These are described as a masterpiece of Spanish military engineering in the Americas.

Infrastructure[edit]

The Barú Island, joined to the city by the Puente de Barú bridge, has several beaches like the famous Playa Blanca, in the image.
Islas Corales del Rosario, it is a small archipelago of some 28 islands facing the coast of Cartagena de Indias. In it is located one of the national parks of Colombia, created to protect one of the most important coral reefs of the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

Transportation[edit]

Sunset over Cartagena Harbor as seen from La Popa

As the commercial and touristic hub of the country, the city has many transportation facilities, particularly in the seaport, air, and fluvial areas.[citation needed]

In 2003,[48] the city started building Transcaribe, a mass transit system. In 2015 the system began operating in the city

Roads[edit]

The city is linked to the northern part of the Caribbean Region through roads 90 and 90A, more commonly called Central Caribbean Road. This Road passes through Barranquilla, Santa Marta and Riohacha ending in Paraguachón, Venezuela and continues with Venezuelan numeration all the way to Caracas. Taxis in the city perimeter do not have fare meters.[citation needed]

The following roads are in the southeast portion of the city:

[clarification needed] Road 25: Going through Turbaco and Arjona, and through the Montes de María when a fork divides it continuing to Sincelejo as National 25 and finally ending in Medellín, and to the east to Valledupar as number 80.

Road 25 A: Going also to Sincelejo, but avoiding the mountains, connects with Road 25 in the forementioned city.[clarification needed]

Air[edit]

The Rafael Núñez International Airport, is the busiest airport in Colombia's Caribbean region and the fourth in passenger traffic in the country. The code of the airport is CTG, having flights to almost all airports in Colombia including Bogota's El Dorado International Airport. Excessive operational costs and easier connection travel and better prices had led to the shifting of the Rafael Núñez's international connection passengers away from Bogota to the nearer Tocumen International Airport in Panama and Queen Beatrix International Airport in Aruba. Also more companies prefer to serve the Colombian market from Cartagena, due to better geographical and atmospheric conditions.[49]

Sea[edit]

Castillo Grande lighthouse

The open ports of the city are:

Private ports of the city:

Canals[edit]

Since the 17th century the bay has been connected to the Magdalena River by the Dique Canal, built by Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza. After Colombian independence, the canal was abandoned. Increasing centralization left the city without resources to maintain it. The last important maintenance work was done in the 1950s during Laureano Gómez's administration. Some improvements were made by local authorities in the 1980s. This was discontinued because of legal objections from the central government that decreed that the "maintenance" of the canal did not fall under the jurisdiction of the local government. From then on, maintenance of the canal has been delayed, though it is still functional.[52]

Cartagenian political leaders have argued that this state of affairs might change with a return to pre-independence funding and tax system. Under such systems the canal would be maintained properly and even expanded, benefiting the national economy.[53]

Waste disposal[edit]

Cartagena is one of the few cities in the world with a submarine emissary inaugurated in 2013. The emissary is the third largest in the world.

Education[edit]

The old city and the Convento de San Agustín to background, convent built in 16th-century, and since 1828 this building is occupied by the University of Cartagena which was founded in 1827. Currently, of the original structure of this convent remains only the cloister, the arches and supporting walls. The tower is of Italian style and as the large interior garden and courtyard

Colleges and universities[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

International schools include:

Libraries[edit]

José Fernández de Madrid was one of the first playwrights of the New Granada and his personal library was one of the richest of his time born in Cartagena, the University of Cartagena named its library system in his memory.

The city has many public and private libraries:

  • The Universidad de Cartagena José Fernández Madrid Library: Started in 1821 when the university opened as the "University of Magdalena and Ithsmus". Serves mainly the students and faculty of this university but anyone can use its services.
Divided in buildings across the city being assigned to the Faculties it serves accordingly each area. The main building is in C. de la Universidad 64 and the second biggest section is located in Av. Jose Vicente Mogollón 2839.[54]
  • The Bartolomé Calvo Library: Founded in 1843 and established in its current place in 1900, it is one of the main libraries on the Caribbean Coast and the largest in the city. Its address is Calle de la Inquisición, 23.
  • The History Academy of Cartagena de Indias Library: Opened in 1903, many of its books date from more than a century before from donations of members and benefactors. Its entrance is more restricted due to secure handling procedure reasons as ancient books require, but it can be requested in the Academy office in Plaza de Bolivar 112.
  • The Technological University of Bolívar Library: Opened in 1985 Although small in general size, its sections on engineering and electronics are immense and its demand is mostly on this area, being located in Camino de Arroyohondo 1829.
  • The American Hispanic Culture Library: Opened in 1999, it already existed a smaller version without Spanish funding in the Casa de España since the early 1940s but in 1999 was enlarged to serve Latin America and the Caribbean in the old convent of Santo Domingo. It specializes in Hispanic Culture and History and is a continental epicenter of seminaries on history and restoration of buildings. The restoration of the convent and the enlargement of the library was and still is a personal project of Juan Carlos I of Spain who visits it regularly. It is located in Plaza Santo Domingo 30, but its entrance is in C. Gastelbondo 52.
  • Jorge Artel Library: Opened in 1997, serves the area of the southwest districts of the city, it is mostly for children. It is located in Camino del Socorro 222
  • Balbino Carreazo Library: Located in Pasacaballos, a suburban neighborhood of the southeastern part of the city, serves mostly the suburbs of Pasacaballos, Ararca, Leticia del Dique and Matunilla. It is located in Plaza de Pasacaballos 321
  • District Libraries: Although small, this system goes grassroots to neighborhoods circulating books, generally each district library has around 5000 books.[55]

Culture[edit]

Theatre Heredia was opened in 1911
Inside of the Theatre Heredia

Theatres and concert halls[edit]

The first carnivals and western theaters that served in New Granada operated on, what is today, Calle del Coliseo. This was an activity patronized by the Viceroy Manuel de Guirior and Antonio Caballero y Góngora, who, like their predecessors, spent most of the time of their mandates ruling in Cartagena.

  • Heredia Theatre: Opened in 1911, inspired by the Teatro Tacón of Havana, was designed by Jose Enrique Jaspe. After years of abandonment, it was rebuilt in the 1990s and continues to be a cultural center. It is located in Plazuela de La Merced 5.[56]

Sport[edit]

The main football club in the city is Real Cartagena.

Museums and galleries[edit]

Museo Naval del Caribe, this naval museum housed in a colonial building of almost 3,500 square meters, located in the walled city of Cartagena de Indias, is divided into two large rooms: "Colonial area" and "Republican area".
Museo del Oro museum, it contains an important collection of over 600 pieces, of gold and pottery, of the old Zenú indigenous culture
  • City Museum Palace of the Inquisition, opened in the 1970s.[citation needed]
  • Sanctuary and Museum of St. Maria Bernarda Butler. (foundress of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Perpetual Help).[57]

World Heritage site[edit]

The port, the fortresses and the group of monuments of Cartagena were selected in 1984 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as significant to the heritage of the world, having the most extensive fortifications in South America. They are significant, too, for being located in a bay that is part of the Caribbean Sea. A system of zones divides the city into three neighborhoods: San Sebastian and Santa Catalina with the cathedral and many palaces where the wealthy lived and the main government buildings functioned; San Diego or Santo Toribio, where merchants and the middle class lived; and Getsemani, the suburban popular quarters.[58]

Festivities[edit]

  • January: The "Cartagena International Music Festival", (Cartagena Festival Internacional de Música) Classical music event that has become one of the most important festivals in the country. It is done in the Walled City for 10 days, which are held classes, conferences and counted with the presence of national and international artists,
    • "Fiesta Taurina del Caribe" (Caribbean Bullfight festival) (ultimately canceled, for maintenance of the scenario),
    • "SummerLand Festival": Electronic music festival most important of the country.
  • February : "Fiestas de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria" (Feasts of Our Lady of Candelaria),
    • "Festival del Frito".
  • March: "International Film Festival of Cartagena" (Festival Internacional de Cine de Cartagena),
  • April: "Festival del Dulce" (Festival of the Sweets).
  • June–July: "Festival de Verano" (Summer Festival),
    • "Sail Cartagena".
  • November: "Fiestas del 11 de noviembre" (Feasts of November 11) or (of the Independence).
  • December: "Jazz Festival under the Moon" (Festival de Jazz bajo la Luna),
    • "Cartagena Rock".

Media appearances[edit]

Film[edit]

  • Burn! (1969), with Marlon Brando, was filmed in Cartagena
  • In the movie Romancing the Stone (1984), romance novelist Joan Wilder (Kathleen Turner) travels to Cartagena to deliver a treasure map, in an effort to ransom her kidnapped sister. The Cartagena scenes were actually filmed in Mexico. In the movie, Michael Douglas' character refers to it as Cartage(ny)a. This has largely been adopted by tourists and is an irritant to the locals. The "N" in Cartagena is hard.
  • The film The Mission (1986), with Robert De Niro, was filmed in Cartagena and Brazil[59]
  • The film Love in the Time of Cholera (2007) was filmed in Cartagena

Television[edit]

Literature[edit]

Video games[edit]

Music[edit]

Famous people[edit]

Plaza de la Aduana. Cartagena, la heróica

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Peter Claver was a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On March 19, 1616 he was ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the dignity of the slaves. After four years of sickness, Peter died in 1654. Two services were held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African friends. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He is now Known as the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia.[36][37]

Further reading[edit]

Colonial history[edit]

  • Álvarez Alonso, Fermina. La Inquisición en Cartagena de Indias durante el siglo XVII. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 1999.
  • Bossa Herrazo, Donaldo. Nomenclatur cartagenero. 1981.
  • Böttcher, Nikolaus. “Negreros portugueses y la Inquisición de Cartagena de Indias, siglo XVII.” Memoria 9 (2003): 38–55.
  • Dorta, Enrique Marco. Cartagena de Indias: Puerto y plaza fuerte. 1960.
  • Escobar Quevedo, Ricardo. “Los Criptojudíos de Cartagena de Indias: Un eslabón en la diáspora conversa (1635–1649).” Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura 29 (2002): 45–71.
  • Fals-Borda, Orlando. Historia doble de la costa. 4 vols. 1979–1986.
  • Goodsell, James Nelson. "Cartagena de Indias: Entrepôt for a New World, 1533–1597." PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1966.
  • Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena and Its Hinterland in the Eighteenth Century" in Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World, 1650–1850. Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss, eds. 1991, pp. 168–95.
  • Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, pp. 581–82. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  • Greenow, Linda. Family, Household, and Home: A Microgeographic Analysis of Cartagena (New Granada) in 1777. 1976.
  • Greenow, Linda. "Urban form in Spanish American colonial cities: Cartagena de Indias, New Granada, in 1777." Department of Geography Suny-New Paltz, NY. Middle States Geographer (2007).
  • Lemaitre, Eduardo. Historia general de Cartagena. 4 vols. Bogota: Banco de la República, 1983.
  • McKnight, Kathryn Joy. "Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan" Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 5.3 (2004).
  • Medina, José Toríbio. Historia del Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisicón de Cartagena de Indias. Santiago: Imprenta Elzeviriana, 1899.
  • Meisel, Adolfo. "Subsidy-Led Growth In A Fortified Port: Cartagena De Indias And The Situado, 1751–1810." Borradores de Economía 167 (2000).
  • Molino García, María Paulina. “La sede vacante en Cartagena de Indias, 1534–1700.” Anuario de Estudios Americanos 32 (1975): 1–23.
  • Newson, Linda A., and Susie Minchin. "Slave mortality and African origins: a view from Cartagena, Colombia, in the early seventeenth century." Slavery & Abolition 25.3 (2004): 18–43.
  • Olsen, Margaret M. Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.
  • Pacheco, Juan Manuel. “Sublevación portuguesa en Cartagena.” Boletín de historia y antigüedades 42 (1955): 557–60.
  • Rey Fajardo, José del. Los jesuitas en Cartagena de Indias, 1604–1767. Bogota: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2004.
  • Rocha, Carlos Guilherme. "A disputa por poder em Cartagena das Índias: o embate entre o governador Francisco de Murga e o Tribunal do Santo Ofício (1629–1636)." (2013).
  • Ruiz Rivera, Julián B. “Cartagena de Indias: ¿Un cabildo cosmopolita en una ciudad pluriétnica?” In El municipio indiano: Relaciones interétnicas, económicas y sociales. Homenaje a Luis Navarro García, edited by Manuela Cristina García Bernal and Sandra Olivero Guidobono, 407–24. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla, 2009.
  • –––. “Gobierno, comercio y sociedad en Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII.” In Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII, edited by Haroldo Calvo Stevenson and Adolfo Meisel Roca, 353–76. Cartagena: Banco de la República, 2007.
  • –––. “Los regimientos de Cartagena de Indias.” In La venta de cargos y el ejercicio del poder en Cartagena de Indias, edited by Julián B. Ruiz Rivera y Ángel Sanz Tapia, 199–221. León: Universidad de León, 2007.
  • –––. Cartagena de Indias y su provincia: Una mirada a los siglos XVII y XVIII. Bogota: El Áncora Editores, 2005.
  • –––. “Municipio, puerto y provincia (1600–1650).” In Julián B. Ruiz Rivera, Cartagena de Indias y su provincia: Una mirada a los siglos XVII y XVIII, 203–24. Bogota: El Áncora Editores, 2005.
  • –––. “Vanquésel, casa de préstamos en Cartagena de Indias.” In Estudios sobre América: siglos XVI–XX, edited by Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero and María Luisa Laviana Cuetos, 673–89. Seville: Asociación Española de Americanistas, 2005.
  • –––. “Una banca en el mercado de negros de Cartagena de Indias.” Temas americanistas 17 (2004): 3–23.
  • –––. “Los portugueses y la trata negrera en Cartagena de Indias.” Temas americanistas 15 (2002): 19–41.
  • Salazar, Ricardo Raul. "Running Chanzas: Slave-State Interactions in Cartagena de Indias, 1580 to 1713." Diss. Harvard University, 2014.
  • Sánchez Bohórquez, José Enrique. “La Inquisición en América durante los siglos XVI–XVII: Los dominicos y el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias.” In Praedicatores inquisitores, vol. 2, La Orden Dominicana y la Inquisición en el mundo ibérico e hispanoamericano, 753–808. Rome: Istituto Storico Domenicano, 2006.
  • Solano Alonso, Jairo. Salud, cultura y sociedad en Cartagena de Indias, siglos XVI y XVII In De la Roma Medieval a la Cartagena Colonial: El Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Vol. I of Cincuenta Años de Inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena deIndias, 1610–1660, edited by Anna María Splendiani, et. al. Bogotá: Centro EditorialJaveriano, 1997.. Barranquilla: Universidad del Atlántico, 1998.
  • Splendiani, Anna María, et al. eds. De la Roma Medieval a la Cartagena Colonial: El Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Vol. I of Cincuenta Años de Inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias, 1610–1660, Bogotá: Centro Editorial Javeriano, 1997.
  • Tejado Fernández, Manuel. “El tribunal de Cartagena de Indias: La primera mitad del siglo XVII(1621–1650).” In Historia de la Inquisición en España y América, 3 vols., edited by Joaquín Pérez Villanueva and Bartolomé Escandell Bonet, I.1141–45. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Inquisitoriales, 1984.
  • –––. “La ampliación del dispositivo: Fundación del Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias.” In Historia de la Inquisición en España y América, 3 vols., edited by Joaquín Pérez Villanueva and Bartolomé Escandell Bonet, I.984–95. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Inquisitoriales, 1984.
  • –––. Aspectos de la vida social en Cartagena de Indias durante el seiscientos. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1954.
  • –––. “Un foco de judaísmo en Cartagena de Indias durante el seiscientos.” Bulletin Hispanique 52 (1950): 55–72.
  • Vidal Ortega, Antonino. Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580–1640. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 2002.
  • –––. “Portugueses negreros en Cartagena, 1580–1640,” in IV Seminario internacional de estudios del Caribe: Memorias, 135–54. Bogota: Fondo de Publicaciones de la Universidad del Atlántico, 1999.
  • Vila Vilar, Enriqueta. “Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII: Puerto negrero internacional.” In Redescubriendo el Nuevo Mundo: Estudios americanistas en homenaje a Carmen Gómez, edited by María Salud Elvás Iniesta and Sandra Olivero Guidobono, 63–74. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla, 2012.
  • –––. “Extranjeros en Cartagena (1593–1630).” Jahrbuch für Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas 16 (1979): 147–84.
  • Von Germeten, Nicole. Violent Delights, Violent Ends: Sex, Race, & Honor in Colonial Cartagena de Indias. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2013.
  • Wethey, Harold E. "Enrique Marco Dorta, Cartagena de Indias. La ciudad y sus monumentos: Seville, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-americanos, 1951. pp. xxiii+ 322; 170 figs. 200 pesetas." (1952): 322–24.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Estimaciones de Población 1985–2005 y Proyecciones de Población 2005–2020 Total Municipal por Área (estimate)". DANE. Retrieved 10 November 2016. 
  2. ^ Lance R. Grahn, "Cartagena" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, p 581. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  3. ^ Grahn, "Cartagena" p. 582.
  4. ^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  5. ^ "Colombia Pais Maravilloso". Pwp.supercabletv.net.co. Archived from the original on April 25, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Universidad del Norte". Uninorte.edu.co. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. June 4, 2005. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  8. ^ "X Cátedra de Historia Ernesto Restrepo Tirado – "El Caribe en la Nación Colombiana" Guerra, Langbaek et al. Ed. Aguilar, Bogotá, 2007. ISBN 958-8250-31-5.
  9. ^ Allaire, Louis (1997). "The Caribs of the Lesser Antilles". In Samuel M. Wilson, The Indigenous People of the Caribbean, pp. 180–85. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1531-6.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lemaitre, Eduardo (1994). A Brief History of Cartagena. Medellin: Compania Litografica Nacional S.A. p. 13. ISBN 9789586380928. 
  11. ^ a b c Parry, John; Keith, Robert (1984). New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century, Vol. II. New York: Times Books. p. 454. ISBN 9780812910704. 
  12. ^ Lemaitre, Eduardo; Historia Extensa de Cartagena de Indias, Ed. Aguilar 1976. Edited before the ISBN system was enforced in Colombia, no reedition.
  13. ^ Floyd, Troy (1973). The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, 1492–1526. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 49, 89, 95, 135. 
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