Carter Page

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carter Page
Carter Page MSNBC June 2017 YouTube.png
Page in 2017
Personal details
Carter William Page

(1971-06-03) June 3, 1971 (age 51)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
EducationUnited States Naval Academy (BS)
Georgetown University (MA)
New York University (MBA)
SOAS, University of London (PhD)
Fordham University (LLM)
OccupationInvestment banker
Foreign policy analyst
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1993–98 (Navy)
1998–2004 (Navy Reserve)
RankUS Navy O3 infobox.svg Lieutenant

Carter William Page (born June 3, 1971) is an American petroleum industry consultant and a former foreign-policy adviser to Donald Trump during his 2016 presidential election campaign.[1] Page is the founder and managing partner of Global Energy Capital, a one-man investment fund and consulting firm specializing in the Russian and Central Asian oil and gas business.[2][3][4]

Page was a focus of the 2017 Special Counsel investigation into the many suspicious[5][6] links between Trump associates and Russian officials and spies and Russian interference on behalf of Trump during the 2016 presidential election.[2] In April 2019, the Mueller report concluded that the investigation did not establish that Page coordinated in Russia's interference efforts.[7][8] In December 2019, the Inspector General for the Department of Justice, Michael E. Horowitz, issued a report on his inquiry into the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) investigation of the 2016 Trump campaign and its ties to Russia. Horowitz found fault with specific aspects of the FBI's conduct, including omissions of facts and false statements to the FISA court when applying for a warrant to conduct surveillance on Page.

In 2019, the Justice Department determined the last two of four FISA warrants to surveil Page were invalid.[9][10] Page has filed four lawsuits,[further explanation needed] all were dismissed by courts.

Life and career[edit]

Carter Page was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on June 3, 1971,[11] the son of Allan Robert Page and Rachel (Greenstein) Page.[12][13] His father was from Galway, New York, and his mother was from Minneapolis.[14] His father was a manager and executive with the Central Hudson Gas & Electric Company.[15]

Education and military service[edit]

Page was raised in Poughkeepsie, New York, and graduated from Poughkeepsie's Our Lady of Lourdes High School in 1989.[12] Page graduated with a Bachelor of Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1993; he graduated with distinction (top 10% of his class) and was chosen for the Navy's Trident Scholar program, which gives selected officers the opportunity for independent academic research and study.[16][17][18] During his senior year at the Naval Academy, he worked in the office of U.S. Representative Les Aspin as a researcher for the House Armed Services Committee.[19] He served in the U.S. Navy for five years, including a tour in western Morocco as an intelligence officer for a United Nations peacekeeping mission, and attained the rank of lieutenant.[19][20] In 1994, he completed an MA degree in National Security Studies at Georgetown University.[19] After leaving active duty in 1998, Page was a member of the Navy's inactive reserve until 2004.[20]

Further education and business[edit]

After leaving the Navy, Page completed a fellowship at the Council on Foreign Relations, and in 2001 he received an MBA degree from New York University.[16][21] In 2000, he began work as an investment banker with Merrill Lynch in the firm's London office, was a vice president in the company's Moscow office,[3] and later served as COO for Merrill Lynch's energy and power department in New York.[17] Page has stated that he worked on transactions involving Gazprom and other leading Russian energy companies. According to business people interviewed by Politico in 2016, Page's work in Moscow was at a subordinate level, and he himself remained largely unknown to decision-makers.[3]

After leaving Merrill Lynch in 2008, Page founded his own investment fund, Global Energy Capital, with partner James Richard and a former mid-level Gazprom executive, Sergei Yatsenko.[3][22] The fund operates out of a Manhattan co-working space shared with a booking agency for wedding bands, and as of late 2017, Page was the firm's sole employee.[2] Other businesspeople working in the Russian energy sector said in 2016 that the fund had yet to actually realize a project.[2][3] The building which contains Page's working space is connected to Trump Tower by an atrium, a fact Page referenced when describing his work for the 2016 Trump campaign in a 2017 letter to the Senate Intelligence Committee.[23]

Page received a PhD degree from SOAS, University of London in 2012, where he was supervised by Shirin Akiner.[2][16] His doctoral dissertation on the transition of Asian countries from communism to capitalism was rejected twice before ultimately being accepted by new examiners.[24] One of his original examiners later said Page "knew next to nothing" about the subject matter and was unfamiliar with "basic concepts" such as Marxism and state capitalism.[25] He sought unsuccessfully to publish his dissertation as a book; a reviewer described it as "very analytically confused, just throwing a lot of stuff out there without any real kind of argument."[2] Page blamed the rejection on anti-Russian and anti-American bias.[25] He later ran an international affairs program at Bard College and taught a course on energy and politics at New York University.[26][27] In more recent years, he has written columns in Global Policy Journal, a publication of Durham University.[3] In 2022, he earned an LLM (cum laude) from Fordham University School of Law.[28]

Foreign policy and ties to Russia[edit]

In 1998, Page joined the Eurasia Group, a strategy consulting firm, but left three months later. In 2017, Eurasia Group president Ian Bremmer recalled on his Twitter feed that Page's strong pro-Russian stance was "not a good fit" for the firm and that Page was its "most wackadoodle" alumnus.[29] Stephen Sestanovich later described Page's foreign-policy views as having "an edgy Putinist resentment" and a sympathy to Russian leader Vladimir Putin's criticisms of the United States.[2] Over time, Page became increasingly critical of United States foreign policy toward Russia, and more supportive of Putin, with a United States official describing Page as "a brazen apologist for anything Moscow did".[4] Page is frequently quoted by Russian state television, where he is presented as a "famous American economist".[3]

In August 2013, Page wrote, "Over the past half year, I have had the privilege to serve as an informal advisor to the staff of the Kremlin in preparation for their Presidency of the G-20 Summit next month, where energy issues will be a prominent point on the agenda."[30] Page described his role differently in 2018: "I sat in on some meetings, but to call me an advisor is way over the top."[31]

Also in 2013, Evgeny Buryakov and two other Russians attempted to recruit Page as an intelligence source, and one of them, Victor Podobnyy, described Page as enthusiastic about business opportunities in Russia but an "idiot".[2][27] "I also promised him a lot," Podobnyy reported to a fellow Russian intelligence officer at the time, according to an FBI transcript of their conversation, which was covertly recorded. "How else to work with foreigners?" Podobnyy added.[27][32][33]

Page was the subject of a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) warrant in 2014, at least two years earlier than was indicated in the stories concerning his role in the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump.[34] 2017 news accounts about the warrant indicated it was granted because of Page's ties to Buryakov, Podobnyy, and the third Russian who attempted to recruit him, Igor Sporyshev.[35]

Trump 2016 presidential campaign[edit]

Trump announced Page as a foreign policy adviser in his campaign on March 21, 2016.[36] On September 23, 2016, Yahoo News reported U.S. intelligence officials investigated alleged contacts between Page and Russian officials subject to U.S. sanctions, including Igor Sechin, the president of state-run Russian oil conglomerate Rosneft.[4] Page promptly left the Trump campaign.[1][37] Upon his departure, Trump campaign communications director Jason Miller said of Page, "He’s never been a part of our campaign. Period." Another campaign spokesman, Steven Cheung, stated, "we are not aware of any of his activities, past or present." [38]

Shortly after Page left the Trump campaign, the Federal Bureau of Investigation obtained another warrant from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) in October 2016 to surveil Page's communications and read his saved emails.[39][40] To issue the warrant, a federal judge concluded there was probable cause to believe that Page was a foreign agent knowingly engaging in clandestine intelligence for the Russian government.[41] The initial 90-day warrant was subsequently renewed three times.[42] The New York Times reported on May 18, 2018, that the surveillance warrant expired around October 2017.[43] The FBI did not use a so-called "filter team" to prevent irrelevant information from being seen by investigators, and it was later determined that use of such a team is not required.[40]

In January 2017, Page's name appeared repeatedly in the Steele dossier containing allegations of close interactions between the Trump campaign and the Kremlin.[44][45][46][47] By the end of January 2017, Page was under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the Director of National Intelligence, and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network.[48] Page was not accused of any wrongdoing.[49]

The Trump Administration attempted to distance itself from Page, saying that he had never met Trump or advised him about anything,[2] but a December 2016 Page press conference in Russia contradicts the claim that Page and Trump never met.[50] Page responded to a question about his contact with Trump saying, "I've certainly been in a number of meetings with him and I've learned a tremendous amount from him."[51] The Mueller Report found that Page produced work for the campaign, traveled with Trump to a campaign speech and "Chief policy adviser Sam Clovis expressed appreciation for Page's work and praised his work to other Campaign officials".[52][53]

In October 2017, Page said he would not cooperate with requests to appear before the Senate Intelligence Committee and would assert his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination.[54] He said this was because they were requesting documents dating back to 2010, and he did not want to be caught in a "perjury trap". He expressed the wish to testify before the committee in an open setting.[55]

On July 21, 2018, the Justice Department released a heavily redacted version of the October 2016 FISA warrant application for Page, which expressed in part the FBI's belief that Page "has been collaborating and conspiring with the Russian government",[56] as well as that Page had been the subject of targeted recruitment by Russian intelligence agencies.[57] The application also said that Page and a Russian intelligence operative had met in secret to discuss compromising material (kompromat) the Russian government held against "Candidate #2" (presumed to be Hillary Clinton) and the possibility of the Russians giving it to the Trump campaign.[58] Former U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia Joseph diGenova, who was under consideration to join Trump's legal team in 2018,[59] argued before and after release of the Mueller Report that the FISA warrants to surveil Page were obtained illegally.[60] Other observers opposed diGenova's view, pointing out that the warrants were approved by four different judges, all of whom were appointed by Republican presidents.[61][62]

The FBI applications to the FISA court to wiretap Page were partly founded on the Steele dossier.[63]

In 2019 the Justice Department determined the last two of four FISA warrants to surveil Page were invalid.[9][64]

House Intelligence Committee testimony[edit]

On November 2, 2017, Page testified[65] to the House Intelligence Committee that he had kept senior officials in the Trump campaign such as Corey Lewandowski, Hope Hicks, and J. D. Gordon informed about his contacts with the Russians[66] and had informed Jeff Sessions, Lewandowski, Hicks and other Trump campaign officials that he was traveling to Russia to give a speech in July 2016.[67][68]

Page testified that he had met with Russian government officials during this trip and had sent a post-meeting report via email to members of the Trump campaign.[69] He also indicated that campaign co-chairman Sam Clovis had asked him to sign a non-disclosure agreement about his trip.[66] Elements of Page's testimony contradicted prior claims by Trump, Sessions, and others in the Trump administration.[67][69][70][71] Lewandowski, who had previously denied knowing Page or meeting him during the campaign, said after Page's testimony that his memory was refreshed and acknowledged that he had been aware of Page's trip to Russia.[72]

Page also testified that after delivering a commencement speech at the New Economic School in Moscow, he spoke briefly with one of the people in attendance, Arkady Dvorkovich, a Deputy Prime Minister in Dmitry Medvedev's cabinet, contradicting his previous statements not to have spoken to anyone connected with the Russian government.[73] In addition, while Page denied a meeting with Sechin as alleged in the Steele dossier, he did admit he met with Andrey Baranov, Rosneft's head of investor relations.[74] The dossier alleges that Sechin offered Page a brokerage fee from the sale of up to 19 percent of Rosneft if he worked to roll back Magnitsky Act economic sanctions that had been imposed on Russia in 2012.[74][75] Page testified that he did not "directly" express support for lifting the sanctions during the meeting with Baranov, but that he might have mentioned the proposed Rosneft transaction.[74]

Mueller report findings[edit]

When the Mueller Report was released in April 2019, it described Page's testimony about his role in the 2016 Trump campaign and connections to individuals in Russia as contradictory and confusing, and his contacts with Russians before and during the campaign as tangential and eccentric.[76] He was not charged with any crimes, though the report indicated there were unanswered questions about his actions and motives: "The investigation did not establish that Page coordinated with the Russian government in its efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election." However, with incomplete "evidence or testimony about who Page may have met or communicated with in Moscow", "Page's activities in Russia – as described in his emails with the [Trump campaign] – were not fully explained."[77][78]

Horowitz Report findings[edit]

In December 2019, Michael E. Horowitz, the Inspector General for the Department of Justice, concluded an investigation into the circumstances of the FBI's investigation into the 2016 Trump campaign and its ties to Russia, codenamed Crossfire Hurricane.[79] On December 9, 2019, US Inspector General Michael Horowitz testified to Congress that the FBI showed no political bias at the initiation of the investigation into Trump and possible connections with Russia.[80][81][82] However, he also stated in a Senate hearing that he could not rule out political bias as a potential motivation.[83][84][85][86] Horowitz said he had no evidence the warrant problems were caused by intentional malfeasance or political bias rather than "gross incompetence and negligence",[87] adding his report was not an exoneration: "It doesn't vindicate anybody at the F.B.I. who touched this, including the leadership."[87][88]

Horowitz did fault the FBI for overreaching and mistakes during the investigation. These included failing to disclose, when applying for a FISA warrant to surveil Page in October 2016, that he had provided the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) details of his prior contacts with Russian officials, including an incident the FBI indicated made Page's conduct suspicious.[79][89] In June 2017, FBI received written confirmation from the CIA that Page was an "operational contact" (a source who reported information from routine activities in foreign countries) of the CIA from 2008 to 2013. However, FBI attorney Kevin Clinesmith illegally doctored the email from the CIA liaison by inserting the words "and not a source", before forwarding it to another FBI agent who provided the written material for the fourth FISA application, which was submitted later in the month.[88][90][79][91][89] According to the Horowitz Report, if the FISA court judges had been informed of Page's CIA relationship, his conduct might have seemed less suspicious, although the Report did not speculate on "whether the correction of any particular misstatement or omission, or some combination thereof, would have resulted in a different outcome."[79][92] Horowitz referred Clinesmith to prosecutors for potential criminal charges.[93] On August 14, 2020, Clinesmith pleaded guilty to a felony for making a false statement by altering the email.[94][95] On January 29, 2021, Clinesmith was sentenced to 12 months federal probation and 400 hours of community service after pleading guilty in August to making a false statement.[96]

In a December 10, 2019, interview on Hannity, Page indicated that he had retained attorneys to review the Horowitz Report and determine whether he has grounds to sue.[97]

In December 2019, the Justice Department secretly notified the FISA court that in at least two of the 2017 warrant renewal requests "there was insufficient predication to establish probable cause" to believe Page was acting as a Russian agent.[98]

In a subsequent analysis of 29 unrelated FISA warrant requests, Horowitz found numerous typographical errors but just two material errors, which were determined not to impact the justifications for the resulting surveillance.[99]

Senate Intelligence Committee findings[edit]

The Republican-controlled Committee released its final report on 2016 Russian election interference in August 2020, finding that despite problems with the FISA warrant requests used to surveil him, the FBI was justified in its counterintelligence concerns about Page.[100] The Committee found Page evasive and his "responses to basic questions were meandering, avoidant and involved several long diversions."[100] The Committee found that although Page's advisory role in the Trump campaign from March 2016 to September 2016 was insignificant, Russian operatives may have thought he was more important than he actually was.[100]


Against DNC and Perkins Coie[edit]

In October 2018, Carter Page unsuccessfully sued the Democratic National Committee (DNC), Perkins Coie, and two Perkins Coie partners, for defamation.[101][102] The lawsuit was dismissed on January 31, 2019. Page said he intended to appeal the decision.[102][103]

On January 30, 2020, Page filed another defamation lawsuit (Case: 1:20-cv-00671, Filed: 01/30/20) against the DNC and Perkins Coie, naming Marc Elias and Michael Sussmann as defendants.[104] The suit was dismissed.[105]

Against Oath Inc. (Yahoo! News and HuffPost). Filed by Carter Page[edit]

On February 11, 2021, Page lost a defamation suit he had filed against Yahoo! News and HuffPost for their articles that described his activities mentioned in the Steele dossier. The judge said that Page admitted the articles about his potential contacts with Russian officials were essentially true.[106]

Page's suit targeted Oath for 11 articles, especially one written by Michael Isikoff and published by Yahoo! News in September 2016. The judge dismissed the suit on February 11, 2021,[107] noting that "Page's arguments regarding Isikoff's description of the dossier and Steele were 'either sophistry or political spin'." He also said that Page "failed to allege actual malice by any of the authors, and that the three articles written by HuffPost employees were true".[108] Page was represented by attorneys John Pierce[109] and L. Lin Wood, who was denied permission to represent Page because of his actions in the attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election in favor of President Donald Trump.[110]

In January 2022, Page lost an effort to revive the defamation case over Isikoff's article. Chief Justice Collins J. Seitz Jr. said "the article at the crux of the case—by Yahoo News reporter Michael Isikoff—was either completely truthful or, 'at a minimum,' conveyed a true 'gist,' even if it included some 'minor' or 'irrelevant' incorrect statements." Bloomberg Law reported that "The court dismissed as far-fetched Page's theories about a conspiracy among interconnected media and political figures to tarnish Trump by concocting the Russia investigation from thin air."[111]

On May 16, 2022, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear a defamation suit filed by Page.[112]

Against USA, DOJ, FBI, and several officials[edit]

On November 27, 2020, Page filed a $75 million suit against the United States, DOJ, FBI, and several former leading officials alleging they violated "his Constitutional and other legal rights in connection with unlawful surveillance and investigation of him by the United States Government". The defendants included James Comey, Andrew McCabe, Kevin Clinesmith, Peter Strzok, Lisa Page, Joe Pientka III, Stephen Soma, and Brian J. Auten.[113][114]

The suit was dismissed on September 1, 2022, by United States district court judge Dabney L. Friedrich, who wrote:

To the extent these allegations are true, there is little question that many individual defendants, as well as the agency as a whole, engaged in wrongdoing. Even so, Page has brought no actionable claim against any individual defendant or against the United States.[115]

See also[edit]


  • Page, Carter (2020). Abuse and Power: How an Innocent American Was Framed in an Attempted Coup Against the President. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-68451-121-1.


  1. ^ a b Rogin, Josh (September 26, 2016). "Trump's Russia adviser speaks out, calls accusations 'complete garbage'". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zengerle, Jason (December 18, 2017). "What (if Anything) Does Carter Page Know?". The New York Times.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ioffe, Julia (September 23, 2016). "Who Is Carter Page?". Politico. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Isikoff, Michael (September 23, 2016). "U.S. intel officials probe ties between Trump adviser and Kremlin". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  5. ^ Harding, Luke (November 15, 2017). "How Trump walked into Putin's web". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2019. ...the Russians were talking to people associated with Trump. The precise nature of these exchanges has not been made public, but according to sources in the US and the UK, they formed a suspicious pattern.
  6. ^ Harding, Luke; Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Hopkins, Nick (April 13, 2017). "British spies were first to spot Trump team's links with Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  7. ^ Samuelsohn, Darren; Cheney, Kyle; Bertrand, Natasha (April 23, 2019). "What you missed in the Mueller report". Politico. Arlington, VA.
  8. ^ Cohen, Marshall (June 14, 2019). "Explaining Republicans' claims about 'false information' in the Trump-Russia dossier". CNN. But Steele was right that Page attended high-level meetings with Russians during his trip, even though Page was denying it at the time.
  9. ^ a b "Justice Department Believes It Should Have Ended Surveillance of Trump Adviser Earlier". Retrieved January 24, 2020. Judge Boasberg ordered the government to explain further the specific steps it intended to take in response to its belief that some of the surveillance collected against Mr. Page lacked a legal basis.
  10. ^ Sandler, Rachel (January 23, 2020). "DOJ Says Two Wiretap Warrants Against Former Trump Aide Carter Page Are Invalid". Forbes. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  11. ^ "Carter William Page in the Minnesota Birth Index, 1935–2002". June 3, 1971.
  12. ^ a b Howland, Jack (March 3, 2017). "Page, Poughkeepsie Native, Linked to Trump-Russia". Poughkeepsie Journal. Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
  13. ^ "Minnesota, Marriage Index, 1958–2001". June 20, 1970.
  14. ^ "Hennepin County Marriage License Applications, Allan R. Page and Rachel Greenstein". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Minneapolis, MN. March 28, 1970. p. 18.
  15. ^ "2 Workers Promoted at Central Hudson". Poughkeepsie Journal. Poughkeepsie, N.Y. August 2, 1984. p. 22.
  16. ^ a b c Gidda, Mirren (April 12, 2017). "Who is Carter Page and Why is the FBI Surveilling Him?". Newsweek. New York.
  17. ^ a b Mufson, Steven; Tom Hamburger (July 8, 2016). "Trump Adviser's Public Comments, Ties to Moscow Stir Unease in Both Parties". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  18. ^ Page, Carter W. (May 17, 1993). "Balancing Congressional Needs for Classified Information: A Case Study of the Strategic Defense Initiative" (PDF). Ft. Belvoir, Va.: Defense Technical Information Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  19. ^ a b c Hall, Kevin G. (April 14, 2017). "Why did FBI suspect Trump campaign adviser was a foreign agent?". Washington, D.C.: McClatchy DC Bureau.
  20. ^ a b Dilanian, Ken; Memoli, Mike (February 5, 2018). "Who is Carter Page and what does he have to do with the Russia probe?". NBC News. New York, NY.
  21. ^ Lucas, Ryan (November 7, 2017). "Carter Page Tells House Intel Panel He Spoke To Sessions About Russia Contacts". Washington, D.C. p. Transcript, page 41.
  22. ^ "Capital Markets: Company Overview of Global Energy Capital LLC". New York: Bloomberg News. 2017.
  23. ^ CBS News (July 22, 2018). FBI releases Carter Page's surveillance records. New York, NY.
  24. ^ Sabur, Rozina (December 22, 2017). "Carter Page, Donald Trump's former adviser, blamed British academics after two failed PhD attempts". The Telegraph. London, UK.
  25. ^ a b Harding, Luke (December 22, 2017). "Ex-Trump adviser Carter Page accused academics who twice failed his PhD of bias". The Guardian. London.
  26. ^ Scott, Shane (April 19, 2017). "Trump Adviser's Visit to Moscow Got the F.B.I.'s Attention". The New York Times. New York, NY.
  27. ^ a b c Goldman, Adam (April 4, 2017). "Russian Spies Tried to Recruit Carter Page Before He Advised Trump". The New York Times.
  28. ^ University, Fordham. "GRADUATION PRIZES, AWARDS, AND LATIN HONORS 2022" (PDF). Fordham University. Fordham University. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  29. ^ Stephanie Kirchgaessner; Spencer Ackerman; Julian Borger; Luke Harding (April 14, 2017). "Former Trump adviser Carter Page held 'strong pro-Kremlin views', says ex-boss". The Guardian. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  30. ^ Calabresi, Massimo; Abramson, Alana (February 4, 2018). "Carter Page Touted Kremlin Contacts in 2013 Letter". Time. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  31. ^ Tatum, Sophie. "Carter Page says FISA warrant accusations 'so ridiculous' and 'misleading'". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  32. ^ Watkins, Ali (April 3, 2017). "A Former Trump Adviser Met With A Russian Spy". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  33. ^ Monaghan, Gregory (January 23, 2015). "Sealed complaint, United States v. Evgeny Buryakov, Igor Sporyshev, and Victor Podobnyy" (PDF). US Department of Justice. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  34. ^ Perez, Evan; Brown, Pamela; Prokupecz, Shimon (August 4, 2017). "One year into the FBI's Russia investigation, Mueller is on the Trump money trail". CNN. Atlanta, GA.
  35. ^ Boyd, Stephen E. (February 7, 2020). "Verified Application, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court: In Re Carter Page" (PDF). Office of Legislative Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice. pp. 13–14.
  36. ^ "Opinion - A transcript of Donald Trump's meeting with The Washington Post editorial board". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  37. ^ Shane, Scott; Mazzetti, Mark; Goldman, Adam (April 19, 2017). "Trump Adviser's Visit to Moscow Got the F.B.I.'s Attention". The New York Times.
  38. ^ Neidig, Harper (September 24, 2016). "Trump camp backs away from adviser suspected of Kremlin ties". Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  39. ^ Rosenberg, Matthew; Apuzzo, Matt (April 13, 2017). "Court Approved Wiretap on Trump Campaign Aide Over Russia Ties". The New York Times. p. A13. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  40. ^ a b Fandos, Nicholas; Goldman, Adam (April 10, 2019). "Barr Asserts Intelligence Agencies Spied on the Trump Campaign". The New York Times – via
  41. ^ Beckwith, Ryan Teague; Abramson, Alana (February 1, 2018). "Who Is Carter Page? Meet the Donald Trump Advisor at the Center of the GOP Memo". Time. New York, NY: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  42. ^ Nakashima, Ellen; Barrett, Devlin; Entous, Adam (April 12, 2017). "FBI obtained FISA warrant to monitor Trump adviser Carter Page". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  43. ^ Goldman, Adam; Mazzetti, Mark; Rosenberg, Matthew (May 18, 2018). "F.B.I. Used Informant to Investigate Russia Ties to Campaign, Not to Spy, as Trump Claims". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2018 – via
  44. ^ Sengupta, Kim (March 2, 2017). "US Senate calls on British spy Christopher Steele to give evidence on explosive Trump-Russia dossier". Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  45. ^ Bensinger, Ken; Miriam Elder; Mark Schoofs (January 10, 2017). "These Reports Allege Trump Has Deep Ties To Russia". New York: BuzzFeed News. Retrieved January 12, 2017. See also the attached full transcript of the dossier.
  46. ^ First major new report, from Bernstein, et al., at CNN: Evan Perez; Jim Sciutto; Jake Tapper; Carl Bernstein (January 10, 2017). "Intel Chiefs Presented Trump with Claims of Russian Efforts to Compromise Him". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  47. ^ Editorial regarding the journalist issues raise by the published leak and subsequent story: Wemple, Erik (January 10, 2017). "BuzzFeed's Ridiculous Rationale For Publishing the Trump-Russia Dossier". The Washington Post News. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  48. ^ Schmidt, Michael S.; Rosenberg, Matthew; Goldman, Adam; Apuzzo, Matt (January 19, 2017). "Intercepted Russian Communications Part of Inquiry Into Trump Associates". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  49. ^ Ballhaus, Rebecca; Tau, Byron (February 2, 2018). "Former Trump Aide Carter Page Was on U.S. Counterintelligence Radar Before Russia Dossier". The Wall Street Journal. Court documents, testimony show foreign-policy adviser was known to authorities as early as 2013… Mr. Page hasn't been accused of wrongdoing.
  50. ^ O'Meara Morales, Kelly (February 6, 2018). "Carter Page told George Stephanopoulos he never met Donald Trump. Here's a video of him telling Russian media they had 'a number of meetings.'". The Week. New York, NY. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  51. ^ Savaransky, Rebecca (February 6, 2018). "Carter Page told Russian TV he was in 'a number of meetings' with Trump". The Hill. Washington, DC. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  52. ^ Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 98: "In May 2016, Page prepared an outline of an energy policy speech for the Campaign and then traveled to Bismarck, North Dakota, to watch the candidate deliver the speech. Chief policy advisor Sam Clovis expressed appreciation for Page's work and praised his work to other Campaign officials."
  53. ^ Brice-Saddler, Michael; Alemany, Jacqueline (April 19, 2019). "Here's what Trump and his associates said at the time. Now, read what the Mueller report tells us". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  54. ^ "Carter Page says he won't testify before Senate Intelligence panel in Russia probe". Politico. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  55. ^ Herb, Jeremy; Raju, Manu. "Carter Page subpoenaed by Senate intel committee". CNN. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  56. ^ Savage, Charlie (July 21, 2018). "Justice Dept. Releases Secret Carter Page Surveillance Documents at Center of Partisan Clash". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  57. ^ Cheslow, Daniella (July 22, 2018). "Trump Administration Releases Classified Warrants For FBI Wiretap Of Carter Page". NPR. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  58. ^ Dupree, Jamie (July 21, 2018). "FBI releases declassified Carter Page FISA applications". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  59. ^ "Lawyers Joseph diGenova, Victoria Toensing won't join Trump's Russia legal team". CBS News. New York, NY. March 25, 2018.
  60. ^ "FISA court ordering target list shows it 'suspects' pattern of FBI seeking political dirt, Joe DiGenova says". Washington Examiner. April 7, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2022.
  61. ^ Dilanian, Ken (July 23, 2018). "Why Team Trump is wrong about Carter Page, the dossier and that secret warrant". NBC News. New York, NY.
  62. ^ Balsamo, Michael (May 3, 2019). "What's known about surveillance of Trump campaign aides". Associated Press. New York, NY.
  63. ^ Goldman, Adam; Savage, Charlie (July 25, 2020). "The F.B.I. Pledged to Keep a Source Anonymous. Trump Allies Aided His Unmasking". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  64. ^ Rachel Sandler. "DOJ Says Two Wiretap Warrants Against Former". Forbes.
  65. ^ "Testimony of Carter Page, U.S. House Select Committee on Intelligence, Nov. 7, 2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  66. ^ a b Raju, Manu; Herb, Jeremy; Polantz, Katelyn (November 8, 2017). "Carter Page reveals new contacts with Trump campaign, Russians". Atlanta, GA.
  67. ^ a b Raju, Manu; Herb, Jeremy (November 2, 2017). "Carter Page testifies he told Sessions about Russia trip". CNN. Atlanta, GA.
  68. ^ Price, Greg (November 7, 2017). "Carter Page Says Russia Trip was Approved by Trump Campaign Manager Lewandowski". Newsweek. New York, NY.
  69. ^ a b Mazzetti, Mark; Goldman, Adam (November 3, 2017). "Trump Campaign Adviser Met With Russian Officials in 2016". The New York Times. New York, NY.
  70. ^ "Ex-Trump adviser Carter Page contradicts Sessions in testimony about Russia trip". Fox News. New York, NY. November 3, 2017.
  71. ^ Tacopino, Joe (November 2, 2017). "Carter Page: I told Jeff Sessions about my trip to Russia". New York Post. New York, NY.
  72. ^ Lima, Cristiano (November 8, 2017). "Lewandowski: 'My memory has been refreshed' on Carter Page Moscow trip". Politico. Washington, D.C.
  73. ^ Chia, Jessica (November 3, 2017). "Carter Page flew to Moscow, met with Russian government officials during presidential campaign: report". New York Daily News. New York, NY. He has previously denied meeting with any Russian government officials during the trip. Just yesterday, Page said he traveled to Moscow to deliver a speech and that the trip was "completely unrelated to my limited volunteer role with the campaign."
  74. ^ a b c Tracy, Abigail (November 7, 2017). "Is Carter Page Digging the Trump Administration's Grave?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  75. ^ Bertrand, Natasha (January 27, 2017). "Memos: CEO of Russia's state oil company offered Trump adviser, allies a cut of huge deal if sanctions were lifted". Business Insider. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  76. ^ Graham, David A. (April 20, 2019). "What If Everything Mueller Told Us Had Been New?". The Atlantic. Washington, DC.
  77. ^ Scarborough, Rowan (April 18, 2019). "Carter Page exonerated by Mueller report". Associated Press. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  78. ^ Siddiqui, Sabrina (April 19, 2019). "The key unanswered questions from the Mueller report". The Guardian. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  79. ^ a b c d Savage, Charlie; Goldman, Adam; Benner, Katie (December 9, 2019). "Report on F.B.I. Russia Inquiry Finds Serious Errors but Debunks Anti-Trump Plot". The New York Times. New York, NY.
  80. ^ "Read the full text: Justice Department watchdog report into origins of Russia probe". NBC News. December 9, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  81. ^ Barrett, Devlin (December 9, 2019). "Inspector general report says FBI had 'authorized purpose' to investigate Trump campaign's Russia ties but finds some wrongdoing". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  82. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (December 9, 2019). "Justice Department watchdog finds Trump-Russia probe was not tainted by political bias". CNBC. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  83. ^ "Watchdog tells Senate of deep concerns over FBI errors in Russia probe". NBC News. December 11, 2019.
  84. ^ "IG Report On Russia Probe: No Evidence Of Bias, But Issues With Surveillance". NPR. December 9, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  85. ^ "Horowitz: 'We found no bias' in decision to open probe". TheHill. December 11, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  86. ^ Cournoyer, Caroline (December 11, 2019). "Inspector General Michael Horowitz Horowitz defends Trump-Russia report but is "deeply concerned" about FBI's surveillance failures". Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  87. ^ a b Savage, Charlie; Goldman, Adam (December 11, 2019). "Withering Criticism of F.B.I. as Watchdog Presents Russia Inquiry Findings". The New York Times – via
  88. ^ a b Barrett, Devlin (December 14, 2019). "Ex-Trump campaign aide Carter Page notches victory after inspector general hammers FBI for surveillance missteps". The Washington Post.
  89. ^ a b McQuade, Barbara; Rosenberg, Chuck (August 19, 2020). "A Recent Prosecution Shows the Hypocrisy of Flynn's Defenders". Lawfare. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  90. ^ Sarah N., Lynch (August 19, 2020). "Ex-FBI lawyer pleads guilty to doctoring email in Russia probe of Trump campaign". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  91. ^ Office of the Inspector General (December 2019). "Review of Four FISA Applications and Other Aspects of the FBI's Crossfire Hurricane Investigation" (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. p. 79. Page had been approved as an operational contact for the other agency from 2008 to 2013.
  92. ^ Barrett, Devlin. "FBI was justified in opening Trump campaign probe, but case plagued by 'serious failures,' inspector general finds". The Washington Post.
  93. ^ Charlie Savage (November 22, 2019). "Russia Inquiry Review Is Said to Criticize F.B.I. but Rebuff Claims of Biased Acts - The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  94. ^ Kalmbacher, Colin. Here’s What We Know About ‘FBI Attorney 2’ Kevin Clinesmith, the First Person Charged in Durham Probe, Law & Crime, August 14, 2020.
  95. ^ Katelyn Polantz and David Shortell (August 14, 2020). "Former FBI lawyer set to plead guilty to altering email during Russia investigation". CNN.
  96. ^ Gerstein, Josh (January 29, 2021). "Ex-FBI lawyer spared prison for altering Trump-Russia probe email". Politico. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  97. ^ Creitz, Charles (December 10, 2019). "Carter Page: I have a 'team of attorneys' scouring Horowitz report for potential lawsuits". Fox News.
  98. ^ "Justice Dept. concedes it had ?insufficient predication? to continue monitoring former Trump campaign adviser Carter Page in Russia probe". The Washington Post. January 23, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  99. ^ Phillips, Kristine. "FBI says errors discovered in more than two-dozen wiretap applications were mostly minor". USA TODAY.
  100. ^ a b c Barnes, Julian E.; Savage, Charlie (August 18, 2020). "8 Takeaways From the Senate Committee Report on Russian Interference". The New York Times.
  101. ^ Burke, Michael (October 15, 2018). "Carter Page files defamation lawsuit against DNC". The Hill. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  102. ^ a b Page v. Democratic National Committee (W.D. Okla. January 31, 2019).Text
  103. ^ Hayes, Christal (January 31, 2019). "'I plan to appeal': Carter Page's lawsuit that accused the DNC of terrorism is dismissed". USA Today.
  104. ^ Shortell, David (January 30, 2020). "Carter Page sues Democratic National Committee and law firm for defamation". CNN. CNN. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  105. ^ Wood, Lauraann (June 21, 2021). "7th Circ. Won't Revive Ex-Trump Staffer's Defamation Suit". Law360. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  106. ^ Multiple sources:
  107. ^ "Page v. Oath Inc. Decided: February 11, 2021. Defendant's Motion to Dismiss for Failure to State a Claim. GRANTED. (See App. 97)" (PDF). February 11, 2021. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  108. ^ Chase, Randall (February 14, 2021). "Judge tosses Page defamation suit against Verizon company". Associated Press.
  109. ^ Lewis, Don (March 12, 2021). "Carter Page lawyer quits firm representing Page in lawsuit against the FBI". Sunlight Reports. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  110. ^ Chase, Randall (January 13, 2021). "Judge boots Trump attorney from Carter Page defamation suit". Associated Press. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  111. ^ Leonard, Mike (January 19, 2022). "Carter Page Loses Bid to Revive Defamation Case Over Russia Ties". Bloomberg Law. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  112. ^ Pappas, Leslie A (May 16, 2022). "Justices Won't Hear Carter Page Defamation Suit". Law360. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  113. ^ Atkinson, Khorri (November 30, 2020). "Ex-Trump Aide Files $75M Suit Over Russia Probe Surveillance". Law360. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  114. ^ "Page v. Comey et al. Case 1:20-cv-03460-KBJ" (PDF). Courthouse News Service. November 27, 2020. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  115. ^ Gerstein, Josh (September 1, 2022). "Judge tosses suit from former Trump adviser over Russia surveillance". Politico. Retrieved September 6, 2022.

External links[edit]