Front and western side
|Location||Walnut and N. Fayette Sts., Carthage, Illinois|
|Area||0.8 acres (0.32 ha)|
|NRHP Reference #||73000703|
|Added to NRHP||March 30, 1973|
Carthage Jail is a historic building in Carthage, Illinois, listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). It was built in 1839 and is best known as the location of the 1844 murder of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum, by a mob of approximately 150 men. It was added to the NRHP in 1973 and is operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as a historic site with an adjacent visitor center.
The jail was built in 1839, constructed of red limestone quarried nearby. The building is rectangular and measures 29 feet (8.8 m) by 35 feet (11 m). It is a gable-front building has two stories and an attic. Like other county jails built during the same period, Carthage Jail was built to incarcerate petty thieves and debtors and as a temporary holding place for violent criminals. The first floor contained a debtor's room in the northwest corner, and a dungeon, or "criminal cell", was located on the north side of the second floor. The living area for the jailer's family included a kitchen and dining room on the first floor and a bedroom on the second floor. A small "summer kitchen" was added later.
In July 1844, Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith came to the jail to face charges relating to his ordering the destruction of facilities producing the Nauvoo Expositor, a newspaper whose only edition had been critical of the Smiths' religious teachings. He was joined by his brother Hyrum Smith and fellow Latter Day Saints John Taylor and Willard Richards. On June 27, a mob stormed the upper room of the prison and killed the Smiths. Taylor was badly wounded and Richards was scathed, but not seriously injured.
The building continued to be used as a jail until 1866 and was afterwards used as a private residence. It was acquired by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1903 and a partial restoration was completed in 1935. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 30, 1973. The church fully restored the jail in 1989, returning the building to its 1844 appearance. The restoration also included an expansion of the visitor center and renovations to the entire block.
- National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Enders, Donald L. (1992). "Carthage Jail". In Ludlow, Daniel H. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan Publishing. pp. 255–256. ISBN 0-02-879602-0. OCLC 24502140.
- National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form: Carthage Jail (PDF), National Park Service, March 1973, retrieved December 8, 2016
- Bentley, Joseph I. (1992). "Martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith". In Ludlow, Daniel H. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan Publishing. pp. 860–862. ISBN 0-02-879602-0. OCLC 24502140.
- "Carthage Jail and Visitors Center". Historic Nauvoo. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
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- Carthage Jail, historic sites info from LDS.org