Cascadia (independence movement)

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Flag of Cascadia
Boundaries of the bioregion in respect to current political territorial entities (Washington, Oregon and British Columbia).
Boundaries of the bioregion in respect to current political territorial entities (Washington, Oregon and British Columbia).
CapitalUndecided (likely Vancouver, Seattle, or Portland)
Largest citySeattle
National languagePacific Northwest English, Spanish, Cantonese, Chinook Wawa, multiple First Nations languages, French dialects
• Total
1,384,588 km2 (534,592 sq mi)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
• Total
US$825 billion estimate[1][2][3]
• Per capita
$53,600 estimate
GDP (nominal)2013 estimate
• Per capita
$40,217 (2006)[4] (8th)
very high
Driving sideright
^ a. *Statistics are compiled from US and Canadian census records by combining information from the states of Washington, Oregon and the province of British Columbia. If the entire Cascadian bioregion was taken into account, GDP and population would be much higher. Many values use exchange rates, which may vary

Cascadia is a bioregion and bioregional movement located within the western region of North America. Potential boundaries differ, with some drawn along existing political state and provincial lines, and others drawn along larger ecological, cultural, political, and economic boundaries. The boundaries generally used by Cascadian organizations such as CascadiaNow! are those defined by the Cascadia Bioregion.

The proposed country or region largely would consist of the Canadian province of British Columbia and the US States of Washington and Oregon. Including all parts of the bioregion, Cascadia would stretch from coastal Alaska in the north into Northern California in the south, and inland to include parts of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Yukon. More conservative advocates propose borders that include the land west of the crest of Cascade Range, and the western side of British Columbia.

As measured only by the combination of present Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia statistics, Cascadia would be home to slightly more than 16 million people (16,029,520), and would have an economy generating more than US$675 billion worth of goods and services annually.[5][6][7] This number would increase if portions of Northern California, Idaho, and Southern Alaska were also included. By land area Cascadia would be the 20th largest country in the world, with a land area of 534,572 sq mi (1,384,588 km2), placing it behind Mongolia and ahead of Peru.[8] Its population would be similar in size to that of Ecuador, Zambia, Cambodia, or the Netherlands.

Description of the movement[edit]

The Cascadia movement contains groups and organizations with a wide range of goals and strategies. Some groups, such as the Cascadian Independence Party, wish to create a Cascadian Nation-State[9] while others, Cascadia Now! and Vote Cascadia, seek to build a bioregionalist network as alternative to the Nation-State structure.[10][11]

There are several reasons why the Cascadia movement aims to foster connections and a sense of place within the Pacific Northwest region and strive toward independence. The main reasons stated by the movement include environmentalism, bioregionalism, privacy, civil liberties and freedom,[12] increased regional integration, and local food networks and economies.[13]

The designer of the Doug flag, Alexander Baretich, claims that Cascadia is not necessarily about secession but is rather about the survival of peak oil, global warming, and other pending environmental and socioeconomic problems.[14]

Colonial background[edit]

19th century[edit]

Oregon Country and Columbia District[edit]

Thomas Jefferson said he viewed Fort Astoria "as the germ of a great, free, and independent empire on that side of our continent".[15]

The Oregon Country and the Columbia District are precursors to Cascadia.

An 1813 letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Jacob Astor congratulated Astor on the establishment of Fort Astoria (the coastal fur trade post of Astor's Pacific Fur Company) and described Fort Astoria as "the germ of a great, free, and independent empire on that side of our continent, and that liberty and self-government spreading from that as well as from this side, will insure their complete establishment over the whole." He went on to criticize the British, who were also establishing fur trade networks in the region: "It would be an afflicting thing, indeed, should the English be able to break up the settlement. Their bigotry to the bastard liberty of their own country, and habitual hostility to every degree of freedom in any other, will induce the attempt."[15][16] The same year of Jefferson's letter, Fort Astoria was sold to the British North West Company, based in Montreal.

John Quincy Adams agreed with Jefferson's views about Fort Astoria, and labeled the entire Northwest as "the empire of Astoria",[17] although he also saw the whole continent as "destined by Divine Providence to be peopled by one nation."[18] As late as the 1820s James Monroe and Thomas Hart Benton thought the region west of the Rockies would be an independent nation.[18]

Elements among the region's colonist population starting in the 1840s sought to form their own country, despite their small number. Oregon pioneer John McLoughlin was employed as the "Chief Factor" (regional administrator) by the Hudson's Bay Company for the Columbia District, administered from Fort Vancouver. McLoughlin was a significant force in the early history of the Oregon Country, and argued for its independence.[19] In 1842 McLoughlin (through his lawyer) advocated an independent nation that would be free of the United States during debates at the Oregon Lyceum.[19] This view won support at first and a resolution was adopted. When the first settlers of the Willamette Valley held a series of politically foundational meetings in 1843, called the "Wolf Meetings," a majority voted to establish an independent republic.[20] Action was postponed by George Abernethy of the Methodist Mission to wait on forming an independent country.[19]

In May 1843, the settlers in the Oregon Country created their first "western style" government as a Provisional Government. Several months later the Organic Laws of Oregon were drawn up to create a legislature, an executive committee, a judicial system, and a system of subscriptions to defray expenses. Members of the ultra-American party insisted that the final lines of the Organic Act would be "until such time as the USA extend their jurisdiction over us" to try to end the Oregon Territorial independence movement. George Abernethy was elected its first and only Provisional Governor, with an opposing faction led by Osborne Russell favoring independence. Russell proposed that the Oregon Territory not join the United States, but instead become a Pacific Republic that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Continental Divide.

British claims north of the Columbia River were ceded to the United States by the contentious Oregon Treaty of 1846. In 1860, there were three different statements from separate influential individuals on the creation of a "Pacific Republic".[21]

American Civil War[edit]

When the Southern states of the U.S. seceded to form the Confederate States of America, some Oregon Territory settlers reacted to the instability of the union as another opportunity to seek independence.

The leader of California's federal forces at the outset of the Civil War was himself a supporter of the Confederate cause, but that movement proved weaker than its opposition. For his role in convincing Californians to remain in the Union, Thomas Starr King was honored as one of the two "heroes of California" in the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection[22] until 2009, when his statue was replaced by one of Ronald Reagan.[23]

While independence movements during this time failed to take root, Adell M. Parker, president of the University of Washington Alumni Association, said in his speech at the groundbreaking of the Seattle campus:

20th century[edit]

State of Jefferson[edit]

Proposed flag of the State of Jefferson.

After attempts in the mid 19th century at forming a State of Jefferson prior to becoming Oregon and then again in the 1930s, citizens attempted the best known of such movements in the region. During 1940 and 1941, organizers attracted media attention by arming themselves and blockading Highway 99 to the south of Yreka, California, where they collected tolls from motorists and passed out proclamations of independence. When a California Highway Patrolman turned up on the scene, he was told to "get down the road back to California." The movement was created to draw attention to the area by proposing that Southern Oregon and Northern California secede from their respective state governments to form a separate state within the United States.[25] A perceived lack of attention and resources from their state governments led to the adoption of a flag design bearing a gold pan and two X's, a "double cross."[26] The movement quickly ended, however, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

Stanton Delaplane's coverage of the State of Jefferson won the 1942 Pulitzer Prize for Reporting.

In 1956, groups from Cave Junction, Oregon and Dunsmuir, California threatened to tear Southern Oregon and Northern California from their respective state rulers to form the State of Jefferson.[26]


Ernest Callenbach's environmental Utopian novel Ecotopia (1975) follows an American reporter, William Weston, on his tour through a secretive republic (the former Washington, Oregon, and northern California) 20 years after their secession from the U.S. At first wary and uncomfortable, Weston is shown a society that has been centrally planned, scaled down, and readapted to fit within the constraints of environmental sustainability.

Regional identity[edit]

The Oregon Country as claimed by the United States. The Columbia District extended much farther north.
Map of an independent Cascadia

The idea of Cascadia as an economic cross-border region has been embraced by a wide diversity of civic leaders and organizations. The "Main Street Cascadia" transportation corridor concept was formed by former mayor of Seattle Paul Schell during 1991 and 1992.[27] Schell later defended his cross-border efforts during the 1999 American Planning Association convention, saying "that Cascadia represents better than states, countries and cities the cultural and geographical realities of the corridor from Eugene to Vancouver, B.C."[28] Schell also formed the Cascadia Mayors Council, bringing together mayors from cities along the corridor from Whistler, British Columbia, to Medford, Oregon. The council last[clarification needed] met in May 2004.[29] Other cross-border groups were set up in the 1990s, such as the Cascadia Economic Council and the Cascadia Corridor Commission.[30] These groups were established to focus on transportation issues, and have not advocated secession or independence.

The region is served by several cooperative organizations and interstate or international agencies, especially since 2008 with the signing of the Pacific Coast Collaborative which places new emphasis on bio-regionally coordinated policies on the environmental, forestry and fishery management, emergency preparedness and critical infrastructure, regional high-speed rail and road transportation as well as tourism[31]

Under some definitions, Cascadia is energy sufficient, due to the high propensity for renewable energy resources (mostly hydroelectric and geothermal) and supplies many other western states such as California and Idaho with some electricity.

The area from Vancouver, B.C. down to Portland[32] has been termed an emerging megaregion by the National Committee for America 2050, a coalition of regional planners, scholars, and policy-makers. This group defines a megaregion as an area where "boundaries [between metropolitan regions] begin to blur, creating a new scale of geography".[33] These areas have interlocking economic systems, shared natural resources and ecosystems, and common transportation systems link these population centers together. This area contains 17% of Cascadian land mass, but more than 80% of the Cascadian population. Programs such as the enhanced driver's license program can be used to more easily cross the border between Washington and British Columbia.[34]

Public support for secession[edit]

A research study by the Western Standard in 2005 found that support for exploring secession from Canada was at 35.7% in British Columbia, and 42% in Alberta.[35] While difficult to gauge support specifically in Washington and Oregon, because no research has been done for those states, a nationwide poll by Zogby International in 2017 found that 39% of Americans support a state's or region's right to peacefully secede from the United States, the highest rate since the American Civil War.[36] However, none of these studies are specifically about forming an independent Cascadia. The movement saw much discussion in the 1990s,[27] and while the increase in security and American nationalism after the September 11 attacks set back the movement's momentum for some time, the concept has continued to become more ingrained into society and the public consciousness.[27] In January 2011, Time magazine included Cascadia number eight on a list of "Top 10 Aspiring Nations", noting it "has little chance of ever becoming a reality".[37]

Secessionist activism[edit]

Cascadian secessionist movements generally state that their political motivations deal mostly with political, economic, cultural, and ecological ties, as well as the beliefs that the eastern federal governments are out of touch, slow to respond, and hinder state and provincial attempts at further bioregional integration.[38] These connections go back to the Oregon Territory, and further back to the Oregon Country, the land most commonly associated with Cascadia, and the last time the region was treated as a single political unit, though administered by two countries.[38] Some have asserted that political protest in the wake of the 2004 presidential election appears to be the primary reason for renewed separatist movements throughout states with substantial Democratic majorities, such as Washington and Oregon.[39]

On 9 September 2001, the Cascadian National Party website was launched on Angelfire, with the goal of launching a political party dedicated to the independence of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, but faltered quickly.[39]

Active since 2006, the largest group promoting the idea of Cascadia is CascadiaNow! with more than 14,000 readers on the Cascadia Subreddit[40] 17,976 on Facebook,[41] 3,853 on Twitter,[42] and dozens of members actively working within chapters throughout the Northwest.[43] As a non-profit social movement organization, CascadiaNow! does not actively support secession or any form of political organizing, but instead focuses on Cascadia as a positive, inclusive social and cultural movement. Its goal is to raise awareness about Cascadia, help make a positive impact in the Pacific Northwest, and to build a vibrant and inclusive bioregional community. The organization has been featured in The New York Times, Seattle Times, Crosscut Magazine, The Oregonian, The Portland Monthly, and Time Magazine.

Cascadian independence has seen a resurgence in popularity following the election of Donald Trump as president of the United States on 8 November 2016, with a secession referendum proposed in Oregon.[44] The individuals who put forward the proposal have since withdrawn their petition.[45] Several new Cascadia organizations have also formed in that time period. Immediately after Trump’s election, a series of Yes Cascadia meetings were formed to explore the idea of a Cascadia Secession Movement gathering hundreds of people in person, later changing their name to Vote Cascadia.[46][47] Another new group active is All Things Cascadia: Department of Bioregional Affairs, which operates a 'Cascadian Diplomatic Corps' and offers classes and training about Cascadia and bioregionalism.

Members of the Cascadian independence movement have declared May 18 as "Cascadia Day", in recognition of the lateral eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, with the week surrounding that date being "Cascadia Culture Week".[48]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The book Ecotopia, by Ernest Callenbach, was first published in 1975. The concept of a northwestern secession movement is central to the book's plot. "Ecotopia" is depicted as a fictionalized breakaway republic that seceded from the United States after the threat of nuclear war (despite not having nuclear weapons of its own). The story follows the protagonist, a journalist who is the first person to enter the region in decades after its closure to outside visitors.
  • The name "Ecotopia" also appears in The Nine Nations of North America, written by Joel Garreau and published in 1981. In his book, Garreau proposes a regionalist understanding of North America that supersedes existing political boundaries. His description of the region encompassing the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia balances an environmental viewpoint with the military-industrial history of the Salish Sea region. Garreau's geographic conception of "Ecotopia" overlaps significantly with the theoretical boundaries of Cascadia when viewed from a modern perspective.
  • The Doug flag showing a Douglas fir tree appears to be the most commonly adopted flag of the Cascadian movement.[49] Designed in the academic year of 1994-1995 by Portland, Oregon native and Cascadian bioregional awareness activist Alexander Baretich[50] its blue represents sky and the Pacific Ocean, the white represents clouds and snow, and the green represents the forest.[51] As of 2010, the "Doug" has also been adopted by the Portland Timbers Timbers Army, sometimes of giant size, although the flag is also raised by Seattle and Vancouver supporters, as well.[52] The three teams compete in the supporter-sponsored Cascadia Cup. In 2010, Hopworks Urban Brewery in Portland introduced Secession Black IPA with the Doug flag as part of its label.[53] Hopworks has since dropped the "Black India Pale Ale" idiom in favor of the more etymologically correct moniker Secession Cascadian Dark Ale.[54]
  • The documentary Occupied Cascadia is focused on bioregionalism and environmentalism, and explores concepts of decolonization, and the growth of the Cascadia independence movement.[55]
  • The main characters of author Isaac Marion's Warm Bodies series refer to their home as Cascadia, though it is implied in the books that the region was never its own independent country.
  • The 2005 North American Science Fiction Convention (or NASFiC), Cascadia Con, presented itself as a Cascadian convention, using material from the Republic of Cascadia website, and other sources.[56]
  • In 2010 Lloyd Vivola, an artist, bioregion supporter and environmental activist, wrote and recorded a song called "O Cascadia - A Folk Anthem for the Pacific Northwest".[57]
  • In 2013, the Cascadia Association Football Federation (CAFF) was founded and admitted to the N.F.-Board at their annual general meeting in Munich.[58] Later that year they joined ConIFA.
  • In 2013, Cascadia Passports were developed by Brandon Letsinger,[59] founder and creator of CascadiaNow! which are now available via the Cascadia Department of Bioregion
  • In 2016, the book Towards Cascadia was published in paperback. It explores the societal identity of the Pacific Northwest, the concepts of bioregionalism and freedom, pressing civic issues, and the possibility of Cascadian independence achieved both peacefully and constitutionally.[60]
  • In 2017, the Cascadia Association Football Federation qualified for ConIFA's 2018 World Football Cup. In 2018 they sent a soccer team to the 2018 ConIFA World Football Cup in London captained by former Seattle Sounders FC defender James Riley.[61][62] This would mark the first time a team from North America played in a ConIFA competition.
  • In 2018 an orchestral version of Lloyd Vivola's song "O Cascadia" was adopted by the Cascadia National Team. On June 2, 2018 it along with the Barawan anthem was played prior to the kickoff of their match vs Barawa at Carshalton Athletic FC's War Memorial Sports Ground in London's Sutton. They earned sixth place.
  • In 2018, the Canadian band Said the Whale released a song called "Cascadia".[63]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)".
  2. ^ "U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)".
  3. ^ "Economic Accounts - BC Stats".
  4. ^ "International Monetary Fund data query - Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - United States". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  5. ^ "Washington GDP size and rank". EconPost. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Oregon economic development, GDP size and rank". EconPost. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  7. ^ "The British Columbia Economic Accounts".
  8. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  9. ^ "Cascadia Independence Party on Strikingly". Cascadia Independence Party. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  10. ^ "About CascadiaNow!". CascadiaNow!. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. ^ "Theory of Change". Yes Cascadia. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  12. ^ "Issues". 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  13. ^ "An Independence Movement". 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Interview with Alexander Baretich on the topic of Cascadia". The Portland Radicle.
  15. ^ a b Jefferson, Thomas (1900). John P. Foley (ed.). The Jeffersonian cyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 61. ISBN 0-8462-0887-3. OCLC 2339771. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  16. ^ Jefferson, Thomas (1839). "A Pacific Republic". Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  17. ^ Ronda, James P. (1993). Astoria and Empire. University of Nebraska Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-8032-8942-0. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  18. ^ a b Horsman, Reginald (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Harvard University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-674-94805-1. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  19. ^ a b c Hines, Joseph Wilkinson. "CHAPTER VIII. The Provisional Government". Touching incidents in the life and labors of a pioneer on the Pacific coast since 1853. Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 February 2007.
  20. ^ "Oregon History Project". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  21. ^ p. 310 Ellison, William Henry. A Self-Governing Dominion, California, 1849–1860. University of California Press, 1978
  22. ^ "A hero has come home – SFGate". San Francisco Chronicle. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Ronald Wilson Reagan".
  24. ^ "Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  25. ^ A Jefferson State of Mind. VIA Magazine Online. Retrieved 9 June 2007
  26. ^ a b "Jefferson Public Radio 'State of Jefferson'". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  27. ^ a b c Will, Gudrun (2006). "Cascadia Calling". Vancouver Review. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  28. ^ Planners ponder the future of 'Cascadia', Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  29. ^ Cascadia Corridor, Discovery Institute
  30. ^ Blatter, Joachim (2000). "Emerging Cross-Border Regions as a Step Toward Sustainable Development?". International Journal of Economic Development. 2 (3): 402–439. ISSN 1523-9748. OCLC 40894567. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  31. ^ "Pacific Coast leaders build regional collaboration". 30 June 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  32. ^ The Emerging Megaregions, map from National Committee for America 2050
  33. ^ Schned, Dan. "Megaregions". America 2050. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  34. ^ "WA State Licensing: Projects and priorities – Enhanced Driver License Program". Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  35. ^ "Western provinces consider separation: poll – CTV News". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  36. ^ "New Poll On Americans' Support For Secession, Webinar On Tribal Analytics, And Trump Report Card – John Zogby Strategies". Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Top 10 Aspiring Nations". Time. 10 January 2011.
  38. ^ a b Vancouver, The (7 May 2008). "Cascadians: Shared Cultural Traits, Values". Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  39. ^ a b Washington, The (9 November 2004). "Blue states buzz over secession". The Washington Times. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  40. ^ "Cascadia subreddit". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  41. ^ "CascadiaNow! Facebook page". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  42. ^ "CascadiaNow! Twitter". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  43. ^ "CascadiaNow! the Cascadian Independence Project". Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  44. ^ Lehman, Chris. "Should Oregon Secede? Initiative Seeks To Ask Oregon Voters That Question". Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  45. ^ Group withdraws Oregon secession petition
  46. ^ "Yes, Cascadia: Towards A New System". Queerspace Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  47. ^ Br; November 22, on Letsinger93 60scon; 2016. "Flagship Seattle Meeting a Wonderful Success". Vote Cascadia. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  48. ^ "Cascadia Day". Department of Bioregion. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  49. ^ "Cascadia: the Elusive Utopia", Douglas Todd, captions within color photo section
  50. ^ Patail, Martin. "Cascadia Rising". Portland Monthly. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  51. ^ "Cascadia Flag". cascadianmycelium. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  52. ^ "Kings of Cascadia | Pitch Invasion – A Blog Exploring Soccer Around The World". Pitch Invasion. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  53. ^ "Hopworks Secession Black IPA arrives", article at
  54. ^ "HopWorks–Secession Cascadian Dark Ale NEW Packaging", 22 December 2010.
  55. ^ "Cascadia Matters".
  56. ^ FaxCascadia, Newsletter of CascadiaCon, the 2005 NASFiC, 2005.
  57. ^ "O Cascadia - A Folk Anthem for the Pacific Northwest".
  58. ^ "Non-FIFA Cascadia National Team officially approved by NF-Board".
  59. ^ "r/Cascadia - Cascadia Bioregional Passports: Feedback Appreciated". reddit. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  60. ^ M, Ryan (26 July 2016). "Towards Cascadia Now Available in Paperback". Towards Cascadia. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  61. ^ "James Riley: From MLS to the CONIFA World Football Cup with Cascadia".
  62. ^ "Former MLS star James Riley ready for CONIFA World Football Cup challenge".
  63. ^ "Cascadia on YouTube".

Further reading[edit]

  • Todd, Douglas. "Cascadians: Shared Cultural Traits, Values." The Vancouver Sun. 7 May 2008.
  • Abraham, Kera. "A Free Cascadia." Eugene Weekly. 9 September 2006.
  • Fleming, Thomas. "America's Crackup." National Review, 28 June 1997, Vol. 49, Issue 14
  • Gauk, Matthew (9 November 2006). "Welcome to the Evergreen Revolution". The Martlet. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  • Henkel, William B. "Cascadia: A state of (various) mind(s)." Chicago Review, 1993, Vol. 39, Issue 3/4
  • Jannsson, David. Divided we Stand, United We Fall (2006) – CounterPunch, 20 December 2006
  • Ketcham, Christopher. "Most Likely to Secede – Interviews with a few prominent figures who actively promote self governance." Good Magazine, January 2008.
  • Moothart, Ryan C. Towards Cascadia. Minneapolis, MN: Mill City Press. ISBN 978-1-63505-158-2.
  • Nussbaum, Paul. "Coming together to Ponder Pulling Apart." Philadelphia Inquirer, November 2006.
  • Overby, Peter. "We're outta here." Common Cause Magazine, Win92, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • Crane, David, Paul Fraser, and James D. Phillips. "Western Regionalism: Views on Cascadia." Canada-United States Law Journal, 2004, Vol. 30, p321-347, 22p
  • Powell, Mark W. "The Americas: British Columbia's future may not lie with 'Old Canada'." Wall Street Journal. 9 Jun 1995. pg. A11
  • Todd, Douglas (2008). Cascadia, The Elusive Utopia: Exploring the Spirit of the Pacific Northwest. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: Ronsdale Press. ISBN 978-1-55380-060-6.
  • Will, Gudrun. "Cascadia Rising." Vancouver Review, 2006.
  • Woodward, Steve. "Welcome to Cascadia" The Oregonian, 14 November 2004.
  • "Welcome to Cascadia." The Economist, 5/21/94, Vol. 331, Issue 7864

External links[edit]