Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Martin Scorsese|
|Produced by||Barbara De Fina|
|Screenplay by||Nicholas Pileggi
by Nicholas Pileggi
|Starring||Robert De Niro
|Edited by||Thelma Schoonmaker|
De Fina / Cappa
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Budget||$40 - 50 million|
|Box office||$116.1 million|
Casino is a 1995 American crime drama film directed by Martin Scorsese. It is based on the non-fiction book of the same name by Nicholas Pileggi, who also co-wrote the screenplay for the film with Scorsese. The two previously collaborated on the hit film Goodfellas (1990).
The film marks the eighth collaboration between director Scorsese and Robert De Niro, following Mean Streets (1973), Taxi Driver (1976), New York, New York (1977), Raging Bull (1980), The King of Comedy (1983), Goodfellas (1990), and Cape Fear (1991).
In Casino, De Niro stars as Sam "Ace" Rothstein, a Jewish American top gambling handicapper who is called by the Italian Mob to oversee the day-to-day operations at the fictional Tangiers casino in Las Vegas. His character is based on Frank Rosenthal, who ran the Stardust, Fremont, and Hacienda casinos in Las Vegas for the Chicago Outfit, from the 1970s until the early 1980s.
Joe Pesci plays Nicky Santoro, based on real-life Mob enforcer Anthony Spilotro. A made man, Nicky is sent to Vegas to make sure money from the Tangiers is skimmed off the top and the mobsters in Vegas are kept in line. Sharon Stone plays Ginger McKenna, Ace's wife, based on Geri McGee, a performance that earned her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.
In 1973, Sam "Ace" Rothstein (Robert De Niro), a sports handicapper and Mafia associate, is sent to Las Vegas to run the Teamsters Union-funded Tangiers Casino on behalf of the Chicago Outfit, hiring an old friend Billy Sherbert (Don Rickles) as his manager. In between, Ace and his friend, mob enforcer and caporegime Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro (Joe Pesci) narrate how the mob bosses control the Teamsters Union that gives out money for casinos they own such as The Tangiers and also drive off rival crews and get rid of cheaters. By taking advantage of lax gaming laws allowing him to work at the casino while his gaming license is still pending, Ace becomes the Tangiers' de facto boss and doubles the casino's profits, which are skimmed by the Mob before the records are reported to income tax agencies. Impressed with Ace's work, the bosses send Nicky, along with Nicky's brother Dominick, Nicky's friend Frankie Marino (Frank Vincent), and their crew to protect Ace and the whole business. Nicky, however, begins to become more of a liability than an asset; his violent and vicious temper quickly gets him banned by the gaming board from every casino, and his name is placed in the Black Book. In retaliation, Nicky gathers his own crew, opens a jewelry store and restaurant, and begins running unsanctioned shakedowns and burglaries.
Ace, meanwhile, meets and falls in love with a hustler, Ginger McKenna (Sharon Stone). Ace soon proposes marriage and a family, but Ginger refuses. She changes her mind after Ace assures her that even if it doesn't work out, he will make sure she is taken care of for the rest of her life. They soon conceive a daughter, Amy, and marry. Their relationship begins to deteriorate when Ace and Nicky catch Ginger giving money to her former boyfriend Lester Diamond (James Woods), her pimp from her days as a prostitute, now a small-time con man. Ace also makes an enemy in Clark County Commissioner Pat Webb (L.Q. Jones), by firing Webb's brother-in-law Don Ward (John Bloom) for incompetence and refusing to reinstate him. Webb retaliates by pulling Ace's casino license application from the backlog and forcing him to have a license hearing in 1980, while secretly arranging for the gaming board and State Senator Harrison Roberts (Dick Smothers) to reject the license. Ace responds by appearing on television and openly accusing the city government of corruption. The bosses, unappreciative of Ace's publicity, ask him to return home, but he refuses, stubbornly blaming Nicky's reckless lawbreaking for his own problems, which leads to a heated argument with Nicky in the desert.
The bosses soon notice that the amounts of the skim are getting lighter due to local mobsters taking some of it for themselves, so they appoint Kansas City underboss Artie Piscano to oversee the skim, but he keeps incriminating ledgers and is caught on an FBI bug discussing the skim. Ginger tries to file for a divorce, but Ace refuses, stating that she has severe drug and alcohol problems, and she will likely spend all of her money within a year and come back to him anyway. Ace loses patience with Ginger after she and Lester are in Los Angeles with plans to run away to Europe with Amy. Ace talks Ginger into bringing Amy back, but when he overhears her talking on the telephone with someone about having him killed, he forcefully evicts her from the house. She returns, on Ace's condition that she carry a beeper so he can contact her at any time. Ginger turns to Nicky for help in getting her share of her and Ace's money from the bank, and they begin an affair, which violates Mob rules and could get Ace, Nicky, and Ginger killed. Ace reaches his limit with Ginger when she ties Amy to her bed in order to have a night out with Nicky. Ace confronts Ginger in the restaurant for abusing Amy, learns of Ginger's affair with Nicky, and disowns her. Ginger turns to Nicky, but he refuses to have Ace killed and blames Ginger for her rash actions, claiming that Ace will likely not give her any money now. Ginger flies into a rage and attacks Nicky, but he throws her out. The next morning, the hysterical Ginger, determined to retrieve her share of Ace's jewels, goes to the Rothstein house and creates a disturbance by rear ending Ace's car with her own, and the police are dispatched to the scene. Ginger, escorted by an officer, uses the distraction to steal the key to the couple's bank deposit box. All of these events are occurring under FBI surveillance, having been alerted by Piscano's discussions heard by the bug. Ginger steals most of the cash from the safe deposit box and drives off, intending to run away to another city. Before she can escape, however, she is pulled over and arrested for aiding and abetting by the FBI undercover officers watching her. They arrest Ginger in hopes of using her as a witness against the Mob's activity.
It turns out that, because of threats made by the Mob, Ginger says nothing and is allowed to go free, but it doesn't matter; the FBI has collected enough evidence to arrest several casino executives involved with the skim. Philip Green (Kevin Pollak), the casino's main executive, decides to cooperate with the FBI. The FBI raid Piscano's home and find his ledgers, which detail every transaction of the skim. Piscano becomes so upset he suffers a heart attack and dies, right in front of his wife. The casino empire crumbles, and the bosses, including leader Remo Gaggi (Pasquale Cajano) are all arrested. Nicky, catching wind of the early arrests, flees Las Vegas and manages to evade capture. The FBI comes to see Ace with the pictures they took of Ginger. Refusing to look at the pictures as well as the agents, he turns away.
During an after-trial meeting, the bosses decide to eliminate anyone involved or with knowledge of the skim, in order to keep them from testifying. They kill money courier John Nance, a few casino executives and despite knowing he won't talk, they kill Teamsters Union president Andy Stone (Alan King), deciding not to take a chance with him. Ginger, whose money and jewels had been looted by bikers, hustlers, drug addicts, and felons, suffers a fatal drug overdose and dies in Los Angeles (a hot dose, as Ace learns via a second autopsy). By the time of her death, she had only $3,600 in "mint conditioned" coins remaining. Ace, on the other hand, is almost killed in 1983, in a botched car bombing which was never authorized by the bosses, but Ace suspects Nicky was involved. Before Ace can confront him, however, Nicky and Dominick are savagely beaten with baseball bats and buried alive in an Indiana cornfield by Frankie and the rest of their crew. Ace narrates that the bosses had "had enough of Nicky" and had ordered Nicky's crew to get rid of him in exchange for clemency for covering up Nicky's affair with Ginger.
The Mob is knocked out of power as well as the Teamsters Union and the old casinos are purchased by big corporations and demolished to make way for gaudier gambling attractions financed by junk bonds. Ace laments that this new "family friendly" Las Vegas doesn't cater to the players as their predecessors did and that now it looks like Disneyland, stating: "Back then dealers knew your name, what you drank, what you played; today it's like checking into an airport. And if you order room service, you're lucky if you get it by Thursday". In the final scene, an older Ace is shown living in San Diego, once again as a sports handicapper for the Mob, or in his words, "...right back where I started". Ace closes the film with the words, "I could still pick winners, and I could still make money for all kinds of people back home. And why mess up a good thing? And that's that."
- Robert De Niro as Sam "Ace" Rothstein (based on Frank Rosenthal)
- Joe Pesci as Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro (based on Anthony Spilotro)
- Sharon Stone as Ginger McKenna (based on Geri McGee)
- James Woods as Lester Diamond (based on Lenny Marmor)
- Frank Vincent as Frankie Marino (based on Frank Cullotta)
- Don Rickles as Billy Sherbert
- L. Q. Jones as Clark County Commissioner Pat Webb (based on Shannon Bybee)
- Kevin Pollak as Philip Green (based on Alan Glick)
- Alan King as Andy Stone (based on Allen Dorfman)
- Pasquale Cajano as Remo Gaggi
- John Bloom as Donald "Don" Ward
- Dick Smothers as Nevada State Senator Harrison Roberts (character said to be based on Harry Reid)
- Philip Suriano as Dominic Santoro
- Bill Allison as John Nance
- Vinny Vella as Artie Piscano (based on Nick Civella)
- Joseph Rigano as Vincent Borelli
- Nobu Matsuhisa as K. K. Ichikawa
- Richard Riehle as Charlie "Clean Face" Clark
The research for Casino began when screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi read a 1980 report from the Las Vegas Sun, about a domestic argument between Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, a casino figure, and his wife, Geri McGee, a former topless dancer. This gave him an idea to focus on a new book about the true story of mob infringement in Las Vegas during the 1970s, when filming of Goodfellas (the screenplay which he co-wrote with Scorsese) was coming to an end. The fictional Tangiers resort reflected the story of the Stardust Resort and Casino, which had been bought by Argent Corporation in 1974 using loans from the Teamsters Central States Pension Fund. Argent was owned by Allen Glick, but the casino was believed to be controlled by various organized crime families from the Midwest. Over the next six years, Argent Corporation siphoned off between $7 and $15 million using rigged scales. When exposed by the FBI, this skimming operation was the largest ever exposed. A number of organized crime figures were convicted as a result of the skimming.
Pileggi decided to contact Scorsese about taking the helm of the project, which would become known as Casino. Scorsese expressed interest in the project, calling this an "idea of success, no limits". Although Pileggi was keen to release the book and then concentrate on a film adaptation, Scorsese encouraged him to "reverse the order".
Scorsese and Pileggi collaborated on the script for five months, towards the end of 1994. Real-life characters such as Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, Geri, Anthony Spilotro, and his brother were reshaped. Some characters were combined, and parts of the story were set in Las Vegas instead of Chicago. A problem emerged when they were forced to refer to Chicago as "back home" and use the words "adapted from a true story" instead of "based on a true story". They also decided to simplify the script, so that the character of Sam "Ace" Rothstein only worked at the Tangiers Casino, in order to show a glimpse of the trials involved in operating a Mafia-run casino hotel without overwhelming the audience. According to Scorsese, the initial opening sequence was to feature the main character, Sam Rothstein, fighting with his estranged wife, Ginger, on the lawn of their house. Since the scene was too detailed, they changed the sequence to show the explosion of Sam's car and his flying into the air before hovering over the flames in slow motion—like a soul about to go straight down to hell.
Filming took place at night in the Riviera casino in Las Vegas, to replicate the fictional Tangiers with the nearby defunct Landmark Hotel as the entrance. According to the producer Barbara De Fina, there was no point in building a set if the cost was the same to use a real-life one. The opening scene, with Sam's car exploding, was shot three times with the third used for the film. When first submitted to the MPAA, the film received an NC-17 rating due to its depictions of violence. Several edits were made in order to reduce the rating to R.
While the film was heavily criticized for its excessive violence, it garnered a mostly positive critical response. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an 80% "fresh" rating, based on 61 reviews. On Metacritic, the rating is 73 (generally favorable reviews) out of 100 based on 17 reviews.
Sharon Stone received critical acclaim for her performance; she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and won a Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. Martin Scorsese was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director.
American Film Institute lists
|Casino: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|Soundtrack album by various artists|
|Released||November 20, 1995|
- Disc 1
- "Contempt – Theme De Camille" by Georges Delerue
- "Angelina/Zooma, Zooma Medley" by Louis Prima
- "Hoochie Coochie Man" by Muddy Waters
- "I'll Take You There" by The Staple Singers
- "Nights in White Satin" by The Moody Blues
- "How High The Moon" by Les Paul & Mary Ford
- "Hurt" by Timi Yuro
- "Ain't Got No Home" by Clarence 'Frogman' Henry
- "Without You" by Nilsson
- "Love Is the Drug" by Roxy Music
- "I'm Sorry" by Brenda Lee
- "Go Your Own Way" by Fleetwood Mac
- "The Thrill Is Gone" by B.B. King
- "Love Is Strange" by Mickey & Sylvia
- "The 'In' Crowd" by Ramsey Lewis
- "Stardust" by Hoagy Carmichael
- Disc 2
- "Walk on the Wild Side" by Jimmy Smith
- "Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa (Sad Song)" by Otis Redding
- "I Ain't Superstitious" by Jeff Beck Group
- "The Glory of Love" by The Velvetones
- "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" by Devo
- "What a Diff'rence a Day Made" by Dinah Washington
- "Working in the Coal Mine" by Lee Dorsey
- "The House of the Rising Sun" by The Animals
- "Toad" by Cream
- "Who Can I Turn To (When Nobody Needs Me)" by Tony Bennett
- "Slippin' and Slidin'" by Little Richard
- "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You" by Dean Martin
- "Compared to What" (Live) by Les McCann & Eddie Harris
- "Basin Street Blues/When It's Sleepy Time Down South" by Louis Prima
- "St. Matthew Passion (Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder)" by Johann Sebastian Bach (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Georg Solti)
- Army Archerd (1995-11-13). "Scorsese puts faith in preview auds". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Scott Foundas Chief Film Critic @foundasonfilm (2013-05-07). "Andrew Garfield to Star in Martin Scorsese’s ‘Silence’ (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Casino (1995)". Box Office Mojo. 1996-01-19. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 336.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. p. 198.
- Levitan, Corey (2008-03-02). "Top 10 scandals: gritty city". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. pp. 200–204.
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 337.
- Bona, Damien Inside Oscar 2
- Dretzka, Gary (November 9, 1995). "Casino Wins Appeal For R Film Rating". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Casino (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "Casino reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- Thompson, David; Chrstie, Ian (1996). Scorsese on Scorsese. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22002-1.
- Evans, David (2006). De Niro: A Biography.
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