Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Martin Scorsese|
|Produced by||Barbara De Fina|
|Screenplay by||Nicholas Pileggi
by Nicholas Pileggi
|Starring||Robert De Niro
|Edited by||Thelma Schoonmaker|
De Fina / Cappa
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$116.1 million|
Casino is a 1995 American crime drama film directed by Martin Scorsese, starring Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci, and Sharon Stone. It is based on the non-fiction book Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas by Nicholas Pileggi, who also co-wrote the screenplay for the film with Scorsese. The two previously collaborated on the hit film Goodfellas (1990).
The film marks the eighth and final collaboration between director Scorsese and actor Robert De Niro, following Mean Streets (1973), Taxi Driver (1976), New York, New York (1977), Raging Bull (1980), The King of Comedy (1983), Goodfellas (1990), and Cape Fear (1991).
In Casino, De Niro stars as Sam "Ace" Rothstein, a Jewish American top gambling handicapper who is called by the Italian Mob to oversee the day-to-day operations at the fictional Tangiers casino in Las Vegas. His character is based on Frank Rosenthal, who ran the Stardust, Fremont, and Hacienda casinos in Las Vegas for the Chicago Outfit from the 1970s until the early 1980s. Pesci plays Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro, based on real-life Mob enforcer Anthony Spilotro, a made man. Nicky is sent to Vegas to make sure that money from the Tangiers is skimmed off the top and the mobsters in Vegas are kept in line. Sharon Stone plays Ginger McKenna, Ace's scheming, self-absorbed wife, based on Geri McGee.
Casino was met with a mostly positive critical response and was a box office success, though not as successful as Goodfellas, a mafia film by Scorsese which also featured De Niro and Pesci. Stone's performance was unanimously praised, earning her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.
In 1973, Sam "Ace" Rothstein (Robert De Niro) is a sports handicapper and Mafia associate who is sent to Las Vegas to run the Teamsters Union-funded Tangiers Casino on behalf of the Chicago Outfit. He hires old friend Billy Sherbert (Don Rickles) as his manager. In between, Ace and his friend, mob enforcer and caporegime Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro (Joe Pesci), narrate how the mob bosses control the Teamsters Union, which gives out money for casinos that they own, such as The Tangiers, and how they also drive off rival crews and get rid of cheaters. Ace becomes the Tangiers' de facto boss by taking advantage of lax gaming laws allowing him to work at the casino while his gaming license is still pending. He doubles the casino's profits, which are skimmed by the Mob before the records are reported to income tax agencies. The bosses are impressed with Ace's work and send Nicky to protect Ace and the whole business, along with Nicky's brother Dominick, Nicky's friend and subordinate Frank Marino (Frank Vincent), and the rest of Nicky's soldiers in his crew. Nicky, however, becomes more of a liability than an asset; his criminal activities- which he makes nearly no effort to conceal- and his violent and vicious temper quickly gets him banned by the gaming board from every casino, and his name is placed in the Black Book. In retaliation, Nicky gathers his own crew, opens a jewelry store and restaurant, begins running unsanctioned shakedowns and burglaries, and soon after is considered the mob boss of Vegas.
Ace, meanwhile, meets and falls in love with a hustler named Ginger McKenna (Sharon Stone). Ace, desperately wanting to settle down in Las Vegas, proposes marriage and a family, but Ginger refuses. She changes her mind after Ace assures her that, even if it doesn't work out, he will make sure that she is taken care of for the rest of her life. They soon conceive a daughter (Amy) and marry. Their relationship begins to deteriorate when Ace and Nicky catch Ginger giving money to her former boyfriend Lester Diamond (James Woods), the man she actually loves and her pimp from her days as a prostitute and now a small-time con man. Ace also makes an enemy in Clark County Commissioner Pat Webb (L.Q. Jones) by firing Webb's brother-in-law Don Ward (John Bloom), the slots manager at the Tangiers for incompetence and refusing to reinstate him. Webb retaliates by pulling Ace's casino license application from the backlog and forcing him to have a license hearing in 1980, while secretly arranging for the gaming board and State Senator Harrison Roberts (Dick Smothers) to reject the license (In spite of Senator Roberts being a frequent and comped guest at the Tangiers.) Ace responds by appearing on television and openly accusing the city government of corruption. The bosses are unappreciative of Ace's publicity and ask him to return home, but he refuses, stubbornly blaming Nicky's reckless lawbreaking for his own problems, which leads to a heated argument with Nicky in the desert.
The bosses soon notice that the amounts of the skim are getting lighter due to local mobsters taking some of it for themselves, so they appoint Kansas City underboss Artie Piscano to oversee the skim, but he keeps incriminating ledgers and is caught on an FBI bug discussing the skim. Ginger tries to file for a divorce, but Ace refuses, stating that he will not let her take Amy away from him due to her severe drug and alcohol problems, and she will likely spend all of her money within a year and come back to him anyway. Ace then finds out that Ginger and Lester are in Los Angeles together with plans to run away to Europe with Amy. Ace manages to talk Ginger into bringing Amy back. After a tension-filled dinner, he overhears her talking on the telephone with someone about having him killed. He forcefully evicts her from the house. She returns on Ace's condition that she carry a beeper so that he can contact her at any time.
Ginger turns to Nicky for help in getting her share of her and Ace's money from the bank, and they begin an affair, which Ace later finds out about. These actions violate Mob rules and could potentially get Ace, Nicky, and Ginger killed. Ace reaches his limit with Ginger when she ties Amy to her bed in order to have a night out with Nicky. Ace confronts Ginger in the restaurant for abusing Amy, and disowns her. Ginger turns to Nicky to have Ace killed, but he refuses, saying that because of her rash actions, Ace will not give her any money. Ginger flies into a rage and attacks Nicky, but he throws her out. Meanwhile, Sam has Billy arrive with a shotgun in case Ginger returns. The next morning, the hysterical Ginger, determined to retrieve her share of Ace's jewels, goes to the Rothstein house and creates a disturbance by rear ending Ace's car with her own, causing police to be dispatched to the scene. Ginger, escorted by an officer, uses the distraction to steal the key to the couple's bank deposit box (She is unable to retrieve any other valuables from the house due to Sam having Billy place the valuables in the casino vault the night before.) All of these events are occurring under FBI surveillance, having been alerted by Piscano's discussions heard by the bug. Ginger steals most of the cash from the safe deposit box and drives off, intending to run away to another city. Before she can escape, however, she is pulled over and arrested for aiding and abetting by the FBI undercover officers watching her. They arrest Ginger in hopes of using her as a witness against the Mob's activity.
Ginger says nothing to the police, but it doesn't matter; the FBI has collected enough evidence to arrest several casino executives involved with the skim. Philip Green (Kevin Pollak), the casino's front man and nominal main executive, decides to cooperate with the FBI. The FBI raid Piscano's home and find his ledgers, which detail every transaction of the skim. Piscano becomes so upset he suffers a heart attack and dies, right in front of his wife. The casino empire crumbles, and the bosses, including leader Remo Gaggi (Pasquale Cajano) are all arrested. Nicky, catching wind of the early arrests, flees Las Vegas and manages to evade capture. The FBI comes to see Ace with the pictures they took of Ginger with Nicky. Devastated, he refuses to look at the pictures as well as the agents, and he turns away.
During an after-trial meeting, the bosses decide to eliminate anyone involved or with knowledge of the skim, in order to keep them from testifying. They kill money courier John Nance in Costa Rica, a few casino executives and despite knowing he won't talk, they kill Teamsters Union president Andy Stone (Alan King), deciding not to take a chance with him. Ginger, all of whose money and jewels had been looted by bikers, hustlers, drug addicts, and felons, suffers a fatal drug overdose and dies in a motel in Los Angeles (from a hot dose, which is a mixture of heroin and battery acid, as Ace learns via a second autopsy). By the time of her death, she had only $3,600 in "mint condition" coins remaining. Ace, on the other hand, is almost killed in 1983, in a botched car bombing which was never authorized by the bosses, but Ace suspects it was Nicky. Before Ace can confront him, however, Nicky and Dominick are savagely beaten with baseball bats and buried alive in an Indiana cornfield by Frankie and the rest of their crew. Ace narrates that the bosses had "had enough of Nicky" and had ordered Nicky's crew to get rid of him in exchange for clemency for covering up Nicky's affair with Ginger (the bosses also suspected Nicky's involvement in Sam's car bombing.)
The Mob is knocked out of power as well as the Teamster's Union and the old casinos are purchased by big corporations and demolished to make way for gaudier gambling attractions financed by junk bonds. Ace laments that this new "family friendly" Las Vegas doesn't cater to the players as their predecessors did and that now "it looks like Disneyland", stating: "Back then dealers knew your name, what you drank, what you played; today it's like checking into an airport. And if you order room service, you're lucky if you get it by Thursday". In the final scene, an older Ace is shown living in San Diego, once again as a sports handicapper for the Mob, or in his words, "...right back where I started". Ace closes the film with the words, "I could still pick winners, and I could still make money for all kinds of people back home. And why mess up a good thing? And that's that."
- Robert De Niro as Sam "Ace" Rothstein (based on Frank Rosenthal)
- Joe Pesci as Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro (based on Anthony Spilotro)
- Sharon Stone as Ginger McKenna (based on Geri McGee)
- James Woods as Lester Diamond (based on Lenny Marmor)
- Frank Vincent as Frankie Marino (based on Frank Cullotta)
- Don Rickles as Billy Sherbert (based on Murray Ehrenberg)
- L. Q. Jones as Clark County Commissioner Pat Webb (based on Shannon Bybee)
- Kevin Pollak as Philip Green (based on Alan Glick)
- Alan King as Andy Stone (based on Allen Dorfman)
- Pasquale Cajano as Remo Gaggi (based on Joseph Aiuppa)
- John Bloom as Donald "Don" Ward
- Dick Smothers as Nevada State Senator Harrison Roberts (character based on former Nevada gaming commissioner and current US Senator Harry Reid)
- Philip Suriano as Dominick Santoro (based on Michael Spilotro)
- Bill Allison as John Nance (based on George Jay Vandermark)
- Vinny Vella as Artie Piscano (based on Nick Civella)
- Joseph Rigano as Vincent Borelli
- Nobu Matsuhisa as K. K. Ichikawa
- Richard Riehle as Charlie "Clean Face" Clark
The research for Casino began when screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi read a 1980 report from the Las Vegas Sun about a domestic argument between Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, a casino figure, and his wife Geri McGee, a former topless dancer. This gave him an idea to focus on a new book about the true story of mob infringement in Las Vegas during the 1970s, when filming of Goodfellas was coming to an end (the screenplay which he co-wrote with Scorsese). The fictional Tangiers resort reflected the story of the Stardust Resort and Casino, which had been bought by Argent Corporation in 1974 using loans from the Teamsters Central States Pension Fund. Argent was owned by Allen Glick, but the casino was believed to be controlled by various organized crime families from the Midwest. Over the next six years, Argent Corporation siphoned off between $7 and $15 million using rigged scales. When exposed by the FBI, this skimming operation was the largest ever exposed. A number of organized crime figures were convicted as a result of the skimming.
Pileggi contacted Scorsese about taking the lead of the project, which became known as Casino. Scorsese expressed interest, calling this an "idea of success, no limits". Pileggi was keen to release the book and then concentrate on a film adaptation, but Scorsese encouraged him to "reverse the order".
Scorsese and Pileggi collaborated on the script for five months, towards the end of 1994. Real-life characters were reshaped, such as Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, Geri, Anthony Spilotro, and his brother. Some characters were combined, and parts of the story were set in Las Vegas instead of Chicago. A problem emerged when they were forced to refer to Chicago as "back home" and use the words "adapted from a true story" instead of "based on a true story". They also decided to simplify the script, so that the character of Sam "Ace" Rothstein only worked at the Tangiers Casino, in order to show a glimpse of the trials involved in operating a Mafia-run casino hotel without overwhelming the audience. According to Scorsese, the initial opening sequence was to feature the main character, Sam Rothstein, fighting with his estranged wife Ginger on the lawn of their house. The scene was too detailed, so they changed the sequence to show the explosion of Sam's car and his flying into the air before hovering over the flames in slow motion—like a soul about to go straight down to hell.
Filming took place at night in the Riviera casino in Las Vegas, with the nearby defunct Landmark Hotel as the entrance, to replicate the fictional Tangiers. According to the producer Barbara De Fina, there was no point in building a set if the cost were the same to use a real-life one. The opening scene, with Sam's car exploding, was shot three times; the third take was used for the film. When first submitted to the MPAA, the film received an NC-17 rating due to its depictions of violence. Several edits were made in order to reduce the rating to R.
While the film was heavily criticized for its excessive violence, it garnered a mostly positive critical response. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an 80% "fresh" rating, based on 61 reviews. On Metacritic, the rating is 73 (generally favorable reviews) out of 100 based on 17 reviews.
Sharon Stone received critical acclaim for her performance; she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and won a Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. Martin Scorsese was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director.
American Film Institute lists
|Casino: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|Soundtrack album by various artists|
|Released||November 20, 1995|
- Disc 1
- "Contempt – Theme De Camille" by Georges Delerue
- "Angelina/Zooma, Zooma Medley" by Louis Prima
- "Hoochie Coochie Man" by Muddy Waters
- "I'll Take You There" by The Staple Singers
- "Nights in White Satin" by The Moody Blues
- "How High The Moon" by Les Paul & Mary Ford
- "Hurt" by Timi Yuro
- "Ain't Got No Home" by Clarence 'Frogman' Henry
- "Without You" by Nilsson
- "Love Is the Drug" by Roxy Music
- "I'm Sorry" by Brenda Lee
- "Go Your Own Way" by Fleetwood Mac
- "The Thrill Is Gone" by B.B. King
- "Love Is Strange" by Mickey & Sylvia
- "The 'In' Crowd" by Ramsey Lewis
- "Stardust" by Hoagy Carmichael
- Disc 2
- "Walk on the Wild Side" by Jimmy Smith
- "Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa (Sad Song)" by Otis Redding
- "I Ain't Superstitious" by Jeff Beck Group
- "The Glory of Love" by The Velvetones
- "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" by Devo
- "What a Diff'rence a Day Made" by Dinah Washington
- "Working in the Coal Mine" by Lee Dorsey
- "The House of the Rising Sun" by The Animals
- "Toad" by Cream
- "Who Can I Turn To (When Nobody Needs Me)" by Tony Bennett
- "Slippin' and Slidin'" by Little Richard
- "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You" by Dean Martin
- "Compared to What" (Live) by Les McCann & Eddie Harris
- "Basin Street Blues/When It's Sleepy Time Down South" by Louis Prima
- "St. Matthew Passion (Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder)" by Johann Sebastian Bach (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Georg Solti)
- Army Archerd (1995-11-13). "Scorsese puts faith in preview auds". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Scott Foundas Chief Film Critic @foundasonfilm (2013-05-07). "Andrew Garfield to Star in Martin Scorsese’s ‘Silence’ (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Casino (1995)". Box Office Mojo. 1996-01-19. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Pileggi, Nicholas (1995). Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas (First ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80832-3.
- Nicholas Pileggi. Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas. p. 261.
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 336.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. p. 198.
- Levitan, Corey (2008-03-02). "Top 10 scandals: gritty city". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. pp. 200–204.
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 337.
- Bona, Damien Inside Oscar 2
- Dretzka, Gary (November 9, 1995). "Casino Wins Appeal For R Film Rating". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Casino (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "Casino reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- Thompson, David; Chrstie, Ian (1996). Scorsese on Scorsese. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22002-1.
- Evans, David (2006). De Niro: A Biography.
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