Casio V.P.A.M. calculators

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Casio V.P.A.M. calculators are scientific calculators made by Casio which use the V.P.A.M., Natural Display or Natural V.P.A.M. input methods.

Visually Perfect Algebraic Method (V.P.A.M.) is an infix system for entering mathematical expressions, used by Casio in most of its current scientific calculators. In the infix notation the precedence of mathematical operators is taken into account. According to Casio, in V.P.A.M. calculations can be input exactly as they are normally written. Functions, operators and symbols are shown on the calculator display and calculations are performed according to operator precedence.

History[edit]

The V.P.A.M. name was first introduced in 1994 with the release of the fx-991S scientific calculator in Japan. In 1998, the Casio fx-991W model used a two-tier (multi-line) display and the system was termed as S-V.P.A.M. (Super V.P.A.M.), featuring 5x6-dot LCD matrix cells top line and 7-segment LCD bottom line that had been used in Casio fx-4500P prog calculators.[1] S-V.P.A.M. was also used in the other W series and also the MS series of calculators that followed. V.P.A.M. is similar to the Direct Algebraic Logic (D.A.L.) used by Sharp in some of their scientific calculators.

The fx-82ES introduced by Casio in 2004 was the first calculator to incorporate the Natural Textbook Display (or Natural Display) system. It allowed the display of expressions of fractions, exponents, logarithms, powers and square roots etc. as they are written in a standard textbook. Natural Display uses natural representation of mathematical expressions and formulas through a 96 × 31 dot matrix LCD display. Casio uses the term Natural V.P.A.M. for the fx-ES Plus series calculators which are the upgraded version of the fx-ES series.

In early 2015 Casio introduced a new line of calculators called the CLASSWIZ series for different markets, featuring a high resolution (192 × 63) dot matrix Natural Textbook Display and spreadsheet functions. The fx-991EX is a part of the CLASSWIZ series released for the international market and succeeds the fx-991ES PLUS.

List of calculators[edit]

Note: Italic figures in parentheses indicate the year of introduction, e.g.: (c. 1994)

V.P.A.M. (Visually perfect algebraic method)[edit]

Models:

  • fx-991S / 570S / 911S (c. 1994)
  • fx-115S / 100S / 122S (c. 1995)
  • fx-993S / 992S (c. 1996)

S-V.P.A.M. (Two-line, Multi-replay)[edit]

W-series[edit]

Changes to S-series calculators include:

  • 2-line LCD display featuring 5x6-dot matrix cells top line and 7-segment LCD bottom line that had been used in Casio fx-4500P programmable calculators (used 5x7-dot matrix cells).[2]
  • fx-991W / 570W / 115W / 100W / 115WA (c. 1998-99)
  • fx-82TL / 83W / 85W / 85WA / 300W / 350TL / 83WA / 270W (c. 1998-99)

MS-series[edit]

Changes to W-series calculators include:

  • Relocation of multiple functions into menus, previously featured in Casio fx-5500LA,[3] but function is selected by numeric keypad
  • Multiple statement recall

Non-programmable models:

  • fx-991MS / 570MS / 115MS / 100MS / 95MS / 85MS / 350MS / 82MS (early 2000s)
  • fx-912MS (Japan version of fx-115MS)
  • fx-300MS (U.S. model)
  • OH-300MS (Overhead projection model), fx-100AU (Australia specific)
  • fx-500MS (Vietnam)
  • fx-290 (Japan)

Programmable models:

  • fx-3650/3950P (International)
  • fx-3650P II (International)
  • fx-50F PLUS (International)
  • fx-50FH (Hong Kong)
  • fx-50FH II (Hong Kong)
  • fx-72F (Japan)

Natural Textbook Display[edit]

Casio fx-115ES scientific calculator with Natural Display. (also called "Natural V.P.A.M." in the updated version)

Changes to MS-series include:

  • Multi-line 96x31 dot matrix displays, but character cells are connected by dots like graphing calculators
  • The ability to display and edit mathematical formulae in more visual formats
  • Revised design of function menu interface, previously featured in Casio fx-4800P[4]
  • No engineering symbol (SI prefixes) input or display facility, which was available in certain S, W, MS series models (fx-100, 115, 570 and 991S / W / MS).

Model-specific features include:

Models:

  • fx-991ES / 570ES / 115ES (c. 2004)
  • fx-500ES / 350ES / 300ES / 85ES / 83ES / 82ES (c. 2004)
  • OH-300ES (Overhead projection model)
  • FC-100/200V (financial functions)

Natural V.P.A.M.[edit]

Models:

  • fx-82AU PLUS II (Australia)
  • fx-82ES PLUS A (China, simplified Chinese messages)
  • fx-220 PLUS (International)
  • fx-82 / 95 / 350 / 570 / 991ES PLUS (c. 2008-09)
  • fx-115 / 300ES PLUS (U.S.)
  • fx-991ES PLUS C (Canada version of fx-115ES PLUS)
  • fx-82 / 85 / 87 / 991DE PLUS (Germany)
  • fx-85GT/fx-83GT Plus (EU specific)
  • fx-513 / 913 / 993ES (2008) (Japan)
  • fx-375 / 915ES (Japan)
  • fx-995ES (2012) (Japan)
  • fx-500 / 570VN PLUS (Vietnam)
  • fx-95 / 96SG PLUS (Singapore)
  • OH-300ES PLUS (Overhead projection model)
  • fx-FD10 Pro (International civil engineering model)


The CPU found in those models is based on the nX-U8/100 architecture.[5]

ClassWiz (High-resolution Natural Textbook Display)[edit]

Casio fx-991EX CLASSWIZ (High-resolution Natural Textbook Display)

Changes to the ES PLUS series include:

  • Standard 192×63 display
  • Icon-based mode menu previously used on Casio fx-9700GE graphing calculators
  • Mode-specific functions are accessible via a unified function key as in fx-4800P

Model-specific features include:

  • Scientific constants and conversion functions are grouped into categories
  • Multilingual messages (excluding EX models and DE X models)
  • QR code export (excluding CN X models and fx-530AZ STUDY CAL)
  • Multiline display supports up to 6 rows (excluding JP series and fx-530AZ STUDY CAL)
  • Vector mode now supports maximum 4-variable vectors and 4 user-defined vector storage
  • Matrix mode now supports maximum 4×4 matrices and 4 user-defined matrix storage
  • New spreadsheet mode (excluding CN X models)
  • Simultaneous linear equation solver supports up to 4 variables
  • Polynomial equation solver supports up to 4th degree equations and inequalities
  • Engineering symbols display and entry previously found in MS / W / S / D-series calculators

Models:

  • fx-82 / 85 / 350 / 570 / 991EX (2015 1Q) (International)[6]
  • fx-JP500 / 700 / 900 and fx-530AZ STUDY CAL (late 2014) (Japan)
  • fx-87 / 991DE X (Germany)
  • fx-82 / 350 / 570 / 991CE X (Central Europe)
  • fx-92 Spéciale Collège (France)
  • fx-92B Spéciale Collège (Belgium)
  • fx-82 / 350 / 570 / 991SP X Iberia (Portugal, Spain)
  • fx-82 / 350 / 570 / 991LA X (Latin America)
  • fx-82 / 95 / 570 / 991AR X Iberia, fx-95AR X, fx-570AR X, fx-991AR X (2015) (Middle East, Arabic Africa)[7]
  • fx-82 / 95 / 350 / 991CN X 中文版 (Chinese Edition) (2014) (China)[8]

References[edit]

See also[edit]